Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

gastric cancer Related Abstracts

6 Scenario of Some Minerals and Impact of Promoter Hypermethylation of DAP-K Gene in Gastric Carcinoma Patients of Kashmir Valley

Authors: Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Iqra Reyaz, Falaque ul Afshan, Ahmad Arif Reshi, Muneeb U. Rehman, Manzoor R. Mir, Sabhiya Majid, Sonallah, Sheikh Bilal, Ishraq Hussain

Abstract:

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, with a wide variation in incidence rates across different geographical areas. The current view of cancer is that a malignancy arises from a transformation of the genetic material of a normal cell, followed by successive mutations and by chain of alterations in genes such as DNA repair genes, oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes. Minerals are necessary for the functioning of several transcriptional factors, proteins that recognize certain DNA sequences and have been found to play a role in gastric cancer. Material Methods:The present work was a case control study and its aim was to ascertain the role of minerals and promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands of DAP-K gene in Gastric cancer patients among the Kashmiri population. Serum was extracted from all the samples and mineral estimation was done by AAS from serum, DNA was also extracted and was modified using bisulphite modification kit. Methylation-specific PCR was used for the analysis of the promoter hypermethylation status of DAP-K gene. The epigenetic analysis revealed that unlike other high risk regions, Kashmiri population has a different promoter hypermethylation profile of DAP-K gene and has different mineral profile. Results: In our study mean serum copper levels were significantly different for the two genders (p<0.05), while as no significant differences were observed for iron and zinc levels. In Methylation-specific PCR the methylation status of the promoter region of DAP-K gene was as 67.50% (27/40) of the gastric cancer tissues showed methylated DAP-K promoter and 32.50% (13/40) of the cases however showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter. Almost all 85% (17/20) of the histopathologically confirmed normal tissues showed unmethylated DAP-K promoter except only in 3 cases where DAP-K promoter was found to be methylated. The association of promoter hypermethylation with gastric cancer was evaluated by χ2 (Chi square) test and was found to be significant (P=0.0006). Occurrence of DAP-K methylation was found to be unequally distributed in males and females with more frequency in males than in females but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.7635, Odds ratio=1.368 and 95% C.I=0.4197 to 4.456). When the frequency of DAP-K promoter methylation was compared with clinical staging of the disease, DAP-K promoter methylation was found to be certainly higher in Stage III/IV (85.71%) compared to Stage I/ II (57.69%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.0673). These results suggest that DAP-K aberrant promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri population contributes to the process of carcinogenesis in Gastric cancer and is reportedly one of the commonest epigenetic changes in the development of Gastric cancer.

Keywords: Minerals, gastric cancer, AAS, hypermethylation, CpG islands, DAP-K gene

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5 Shark Cartilage Modulate IL-23/IL-17 Axis by Increasing IFN-γ and Decreasing IL-4 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Razieh Zareia, Hassan ZMB, Darush Moslemic, Amrollah Mostafa-Zaded

Abstract:

Introduction: Shark is a murine organism and its cartilage has antitumor peptides to prevent angiogenesis, at least, in vitro. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the immune-effectiveness on imbalance between IL-23/IL-17 axis, as an inflammatory pathway and TGF/Foxp3 T regulatory as a inhibitory pathway of commercial shark cartilage that is available as a non-common dietary supplement in IRAN. Materials and Methods: First investigated an imbalanced supernatant of cytokines exist in patients with gastric cancer by ELISA. Associated with cytokines measuring such as IL-23, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-4, and γ-IFN, then flow cytometry was employed to determine whether the peripheral blood mononuclear cells such as CD4+CD25+Foxp3highT regulatory cells in patients with gastric cancer were changed correspondingly. Results: The simultaneously presented up-regulation IL-17A indicated, at least cytokine level without changing in TGF-β amount or CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T regulatory cells, that there are not a direct correlation between IL-23/IL-17 axis and Treg/TGF-β pathway in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage, but IL-23 was not expressed differentially in this group. So, accompany these changes, an imbalance between Th1 immunity (γ-IFN production) and TH2 immunity (IL-4 secretion) evaluated in patients with gastric cancer treated by shark cartilage. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we propose that shark cartilage, by reducing IL-4, decreasing IL-17 a central cytokine in angiogenesis and increasing γ-IFN amplify anti-tumor immune responses in patients with gastric cancer.

Keywords: IL-23/IL17 axis, γ-IFN, IL-4, gastric cancer, TGF-β/CD4+CD25+Foxp3high T regulatory pathway, shark cartilage

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4 Down-Regulated Gene Expression of GKN1 and GKN2 as Diagnostic Markers for Gastric Cancer

Authors: Ahmet Arslan, Rozhgar A. Khailany, Mehri Igci, Emine Bayraktar, Amer A. Hasan, Ersin Borazan

Abstract:

Gastric cancer (GC) has high morbidity and fatality rate in various countries and is still one of the most frequent and deadly diseases. Novel mitogenic and motogenic Gastrokine1 (GKN1) and Gastrokine 2 (GKN2) genes that are highly expressed in the normal stomach epithelium and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity and homeostasis of stomach mucosal epithelial cells. Significant loss of copy number and mRNA transcript of GKN1 and GKN2 gene expression were frequently observed in all types of gastric cancer. In this study, 47 paired samples that were grouped according to the types of gastric cancer and the clinical characteristics of the patients, including gender and average of age were investigated with gene expression analysis and mutation screening by monetering RT-PCR, SSCP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Both GKN1 and GKN2 genes were observed significantly reduced found by (Wilcoxon signed rank test; p<0.05). As a result of gene screening, no mutation (no different genotype) was detected. It is considered that gene mutations are not the cause of inactivation of gastrokines. In conclusion, the mRNA expression level of GKN1 and GKN2 genes statistically was decreased regardless the gender, age or cancer type of patients. Reduced of gastrokine genes seems to occur at the initial steps of cancer development. In order to understand the investigation between gastric cancer and diagnostic biomarker; further analysis is necessary.

Keywords: Nucleotide Sequencing, gastric cancer, diagnostic biomarker, semi-quantitative RT-PCR

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3 Immunoliposomes for Co-Delivery of Doxorubicin and Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Sirna Inhibit of Gastric Cancer Growth

Authors: Jie Gao

Abstract:

The combination of chemotherapy with gene therapy is highly effective in cancer therapy. To achieve combined therapeutic effects in human gastric cancer over expressing EGFR, we developed targeted LPD (liposome-polycation-DNA complex) conjugated with anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) Fab’ for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) siRNA (DOX-RRM2-TLPD). The results showed that EGFR was over expressed in several gastric cancer cell lines and gastric cancer tissues. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) results showed that RRM2 expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer than in non-gastric cancer tissue, and RRM2 siRNA inhibited the proliferation of several gastric cancer cells, indicating that RRM2 is a candidate target for gastric cancer therapy. Confocal studies and flow cytometry showed that DOX-RRM2-TLPD delivered DOX and RRM2 siRNA to EGFR over expressing gastric cancer cells specifically and efficiently both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced therapeutic effects (cytotoxicity and apoptosis) compared with single-drug loaded or non-targeted controls, including DOX-NC-TLPD (targeted LPD co-delivering DOX and negative control siRNA), RRM2-TLPD (targeted LPD delivering RRM2 siRNA) and DOX-RRM2-NTLPD (non-targeted LPD co-delivering DOX and RRM2 siRNA). The in vivo antitumor assay showed that the average weight of the gastric cancer in mice treated with DOX-RRM2-TLPD was significantly lighter than that of mice treated with other controls. DOX-RRM2-TLPD represents an effective approach for combined therapy of gastric cancer over expressing EGFR.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, gene therapy, gastric cancer, immunoliposomes

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2 Knowledge and Attitude towards Helicobacter pylori: Awareness about Health Impacts of H. pylori Gastric Ulcer and Its Carcinogenic Potential among Adults in Sharjah

Authors: Abdullah Malek, Muzn Al Khaldi, Lian Odeh, Atheer Tariq, Mohammad Al Fardan, Hiba Barqawi

Abstract:

H. pylori bacterium is a known underlying agent for gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer and is believed to infect half of the world’s population. Even with the ubiquity of H. pylori bacterium, there is lack of knowledge regarding its modes of transmission, associated diseases, carcinogenic effect and means of prevention; especially in the UAE. A cross sectional study of 500 participants, of which 58% (n= 289) of the respondents were female, and 42% (n=210) were male, was conducted in Sharjah to assess the knowledge, and explore the attitudes and practices among UAE residents towards Helicobacter Pylori and its associated PUD as well as its carcinogenic nature. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target population to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. General knowledge about H. Pylori was poor, only 24.6% stated they have heard of H. pylori. Attitudes towards prevention and practices were relatively poor as well. Subjects who suffered from severe symptoms (ALARM symptoms) had significantly lower habit scores than those with mild and moderate symptoms (p=0.0078**). To the authours’ knowledge, no previous studies were conducted in the United Arab Emirates regarding the epidemiology of the infection to detect the extent of H. Pylori’s impact on the public health. The results of this study can be used to draw conclusions about the average knowledge of the UAE population regarding H. pylori. It can also be a starting point to devise new education programs and campaigns that raise awareness of this health issue which could be easily avoided with early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment.

Keywords: Community Health, Helicobacter pylori, gastric cancer, peptic ulcers, chronic gastritis

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1 A Study of Interleukin-1β Genetic Polymorphisms in Gastric Carcinoma and Colorectal Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

Authors: Noha Farag, Mariam Khaled, Ghada Mohamed Abdel Salam, Khaled Abu-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi

Abstract:

Gastric and colorectal cancers are among the most frequent causes of cancer-associated mortalities in Africa. They have been considered as a global public health concern, as nearly one million new cases are reported per year. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine-produced by activated macrophages and monocytes- and a member of the IL-1 family. The inactive IL-1β precursor is cleaved and activated by caspase-1 enzyme, which itself is activated by the assembly of intracellular structures defined as NLRP3 (Nod Like receptor P3) inflammasomes. Activated IL-1β stimulates the Interleukin-1 receptor type-1 (IL-1R1), which is responsible for the initiation of a signal transduction pathway leading to cell proliferation. It has been proven that the IL-1β gene is a highly polymorphic gene in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its expression. It has been previously reported that SNPs including base transitions between C and T at positions, -511 (C-T; dbSNP: rs16944) and -31 (C-T; dbSNP: rs1143627), from the transcriptional start site, contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric and colorectal cancers by affecting IL-1β levels. Altered production of IL-1β due to such polymorphisms is suspected to stimulate an amplified inflammatory response and promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition leading to malignancy. Allele frequency distribution of the IL-1β-31 and -511 SNPs, in different populations, and their correlation to the incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers, has been intriguing to researchers worldwide. The current study aims to investigate allele distributions of the IL-1β SNPs among gastric and colorectal cancers Egyptian patients. In order to achieve to that, 89 Biopsy and surgical specimens from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis subjects and gastric and colorectal carcinoma patients was collected for DNA extraction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The amplified PCR products of IL-1β-31C > T and IL-1β-511T > C were digested by incubation with the restriction endonuclease enzymes ALu1 and Ava1. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the allele frequency distribution in the three studied groups. Also, the effect of the IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs on nuclear factor binding was analyzed using Fluorescence Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), preceded by nuclear factor extraction from gastric and colorectal tissue samples and LPS stimulated monocytes. The results of this study showed that a significantly higher percentage of Egyptian gastric cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 position and a heterozygous TC genotype at the IL-1β-511 position. Moreover, a significantly higher percentage of the colorectal cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 and -511 positions as compared to the control group. In addition, the EMSA results showed that IL-1β-31C/T and IL-1β-511T/C SNPs do not affect nuclear factor binding. Results of this study suggest that the IL-1β-31 C/T and IL-1β-511 T/C may be correlated to the incidence of gastric cancer in Egyptian patients; however, similar findings couldn’t be proven in the colorectal cancer patients group for the IL-1β-511 T/C SNP. This is the first study to investigate IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs in the Egyptian population.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, interleukin-1β, single nucleotide polymorphisms, Egyptian patients

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