Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

gasoline Related Abstracts

5 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abstract:

In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, Zeolite, Ethanol, acetone, gasoline

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4 Association between a Forward Lag of Historical Total Accumulated Gasoline Lead Emissions and Contemporary Autism Prevalence Trends in California, USA

Authors: Mark A. S. Laidlaw, Howard W. Mielke

Abstract:

In California between the late 1920’s and 1986 the lead concentrations in urban soils and dust climbed rapidly following the deposition of greater than 387,000 tonnes of lead emitted from gasoline. Previous research indicates that when children are lead exposed around 90% of the lead is retained in their bones and teeth due to the substitution of lead for calcium. Lead in children’s bones has been shown to accumulate over time and is highest in inner-city urban areas, lower in suburban areas and lowest in rural areas. It is also known that women’s bones demineralize during pregnancy due to the foetus's high demand for calcium. Lead accumulates in women’s bones during childhood and the accumulated lead is subsequently released during pregnancy – a lagged response. This results in calcium plus lead to enter the blood stream and cross the placenta to expose the foetus with lead. In 1970 in the United States, the average age of a first‐time mother was about 21. In 2008, the average age was 25.1. In this study, it is demonstrated that in California there is a forward lagged relationship between the accumulated emissions of lead from vehicle fuel additives and later autism prevalence trends between the 1990’s and current time period. Regression analysis between a 24 year forward lag of accumulated lead emissions and autism prevalence trends in California are associated strongly (R2=0.95, p=0.00000000127). It is hypothesized that autism in genetically susceptible children may stem from vehicle fuel lead emission exposures of their mothers during childhood and that the release of stored lead during subsequent pregnancy resulted in lead exposure of foetuses during a critical developmental period. It is furthermore hypothesized that the 24 years forward lag between lead exposures has occurred because that is time period is the average length for women to enter childbearing age. To test the hypothesis that lead in mothers bones is associated with autism, it is hypothesized that retrospective case-control studies would show an association between the lead in mother’s bones and autism. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that the forward lagged relationship between accumulated historical vehicle fuel lead emissions (or air lead concentrations) and autism prevalence trends will be similar in cities at the national and international scale. If further epidemiological studies indicate a strong relationship between accumulated vehicle fuel lead emissions (or accumulated air lead concentrations) and lead in mother’s bones and autism rates, then urban areas may require extensive soil intervention to prevent the development of autism in children.

Keywords: autism, Prevalence, lead, gasoline, petrol, bones

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3 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos

Abstract:

The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: Performance, Emissions, Ethanol, Engine, gasoline

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2 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro

Abstract:

In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: Emission, Ethanol, blends, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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1 Liquid Fuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Oil

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Neera Wongtyanuwat, Channarong Asavatesanupap

Abstract:

Pyrolysis of waste oil is an effective process to produce high quality liquid fuels. In this work, pyrolysis experiments of waste oil over Y zeolite were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under a flow of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and at different reaction temperatures (350-450 oC). The products were gas, liquid fuel, and residue. Only liquid fuel was further characterized for its composition and properties by using gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analyzer, and bomb calorimeter. Experimental results indicated that the pyrolysis reaction temperature significantly affected both yield and composition distribution of pyrolysis oil. An increase in reaction temperature resulted in increased fuel yield, especially gasoline fraction. To obtain high amount of fuel, the optimal reaction temperature should be higher than 350 oC. A presence of Y zeolite in the system enhanced the cracking activity. In addition, the pyrolysis oil yield is proportional to the catalyst quantity.

Keywords: pyrolysis, diesel, gasoline, waste oil, Y zeolite

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