Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Gas Turbine Related Abstracts

33 Thermal Performance of Reheat, Regenerative, Inter-Cooled Gas Turbine Cycle

Authors: Milind S. Patil, Purushottam S. Desale, Eknath R. Deore

Abstract:

Thermal analysis of reheat, regenerative, inter-cooled gas turbine cycle is presented. Specific work output, thermal efficiency and SFC is simulated with respect to operating conditions. Analytical formulas were developed taking into account the effect of operational parameters like ambient temperature, compression ratio, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency, regenerator effectiveness, pressure loss in inter cooling, reheating and regenerator. Calculations were made for wide range of parameters using engineering equation solver and the results were presented here. For pressure ratio of 12, regenerator effectiveness 0.95, and maximum turbine inlet temperature 1200 K, thermal efficiency decreases by 27% with increase in ambient temperature (278 K to 328 K). With decrease in regenerator effectiveness thermal efficiency decreases linearly. With increase in ambient temperature (278 K to 328 K) for the same maximum temperature and regenerator effectiveness SFC decreases up to a pressure ratio of 10 and then increases. Sharp rise in SFC is noted for higher ambient temperature. With increase in isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine, thermal efficiency increases by about 40% for low ambient temperature (278 K to 298 K) however, for higher ambient temperature (308 K to 328 K) thermal efficiency increases by about 70%.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Regeneration, Gas Turbine, reheating, inter-cooled

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
32 Efficient Use of Energy through Incorporation of a Gas Turbine in Methanol Plant

Authors: M. Azadi, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

A techno-economic evaluation for efficient use of energy in a large scale industrial plant of methanol is carried out. This assessment is based on integration of a gas turbine with an existing plant of methanol in which the outlet gas products of exothermic reactor is expanded to power generation. Also, it is decided that methanol production rate is constant through addition of power generation system to the existing methanol plant. Having incorporated a gas turbine with the existing plant, the economic results showed total investment of MUSD 16.9, energy saving of 3.6 MUSD/yr with payback period of approximately 4.7 years.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Power Generation, methanol, Gas Turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
31 Assessment of Power Formation in Gas Turbine Power Plants Using Different Inlet Air Cooling Systems

Authors: Nikhil V. Nayak

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of air cooling intake on the gas turbine performance is presented. A comparison among different cooling systems, i.e., evaporative and cooling coil, is performed. A computer simulation model for the employed systems is developed in order to evaluate the performance of the studied gas turbine unit, at Marka Power Station, Amman, Bangalore. The performance characteristics are examined for a set of actual operational parameters including ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, pressure ratio, etc. The obtained results showed that the evaporative cooling system is capable of boosting the power and enhancing the efficiency of the studied gas turbine unit in a way much cheaper than cooling coil system due to its high power consumption required to run the vapor-compression refrigeration unit. Nevertheless, it provides full control on the temperature inlet conditions regardless of the relative humidity ratio.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, evaporative cooling, power augmentation, temperature control, cooling coil

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
30 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Different Rib Shapes in a Gas Turbine Blade

Authors: Naik Nithesh, Andre Rozek

Abstract:

The heat transfer and friction loss performances of a single rib-roughened rectangular cooling channel having four novel rib shapes were evaluated through numerical investigation using Ansys CFX. The investigation was conducted on a rectangular channel of aspect ratio (AR) = 4:1 with rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio (e/Dh) of 0.1 and rib pitch to height ratio (e/P) of 10 at Re = 30,000. The computations were performed by solving the RANS equation using k-ε turbulence model. Fluid flow simulation results of stationery case for different configuration are presented in terms of thermal performance parameter, Nusselt number and friction factor. These parameters indicate that a particular configuration of novel shaped ribs provides better heat transfer characteristics over the conventional 45° ribs. The numerical investigation undertaken in this study indicates an increase in overall efficiency of gas turbine due to increased thermal performance parameter, heat transfer co-efficient and less pumping pressure.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, nusselt number, rib shapes, thermal performance parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
29 Optimum Performance of the Gas Turbine Power Plant Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Statistical Analysis

Authors: M. M. Rahman, Thamir K. Ibrahim, Marwah Noori Mohammed

Abstract:

This study deals with modeling and performance enhancements of a gas-turbine combined cycle power plant. A clean and safe energy is the greatest challenges to meet the requirements of the green environment. These requirements have given way the long-time governing authority of steam turbine (ST) in the world power generation, and the gas turbine (GT) will replace it. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the characteristics of the GT system and optimize its operating strategy by developing a simulation system. The integrated model and simulation code for exploiting the performance of gas turbine power plant are developed utilizing MATLAB code. The performance code for heavy-duty GT and CCGT power plants are validated with the real power plant of Baiji GT and MARAFIQ CCGT plants the results have been satisfactory. A new technology of correlation was considered for all types of simulation data; whose coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated as 0.9825. Some of the latest launched correlations were checked on the Baiji GT plant and apply error analysis. The GT performance was judged by particular parameters opted from the simulation model and also utilized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS) an advanced new optimization technology. The best thermal efficiency and power output attained were about 56% and 345MW respectively. Thus, the operation conditions and ambient temperature are strongly influenced on the overall performance of the GT. The optimum efficiency and power are found at higher turbine inlet temperatures. It can be comprehended that the developed models are powerful tools for estimating the overall performance of the GT plants.

Keywords: Optimization, Performance, Gas Turbine, ANFIS, operating conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
28 Monte Carlo Risk Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Pericles Pilidis, Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pagone Emanuele

Abstract:

Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5 cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbo machinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50 % cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air pre-heater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. This paper discusses techno-economic analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) – AZEP 85 % (85 % CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine– AZEP 85 % (85 % CO2 capture). This paper discusses Montecarlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: Global Warming, Power Plants, Gas Turbine, green house gases

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
27 Economic Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis Pagone Emmanuele, Agbadede Roupa, Allison Isaiah

Abstract:

Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero-emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, the current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbomachinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50% cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low-temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air preheater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high-temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout)–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture). This paper discusses monte carlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: Global Warming, Gas Turbine, green house gas, fossil fuel power plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
26 Multi-Objective Optimization in Carbon Abatement Technology Cycles (CAT) and Related Areas: Survey, Developments and Prospects

Authors: Pericles Pilidis, Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pagone Emanuele

Abstract:

An infinitesimal increase in performance can have immense reduction in operating and capital expenses in a power generation system. Therefore, constant studies are being carried out to improve both conventional and novel power cycles. Globally, power producers are constantly researching on ways to minimize emission and to collectively downsize the total cost rate of power plants. A substantial spurt of developmental technologies of low carbon cycles have been suggested and studied, however they all have their limitations and financial implication. In the area of carbon abatement in power plants, three major objectives conflict: The cost rate of the plant, Power output and Environmental impact. Since, an increase in one of this parameter directly affects the other. This poses a multi-objective problem. It is paramount to be able to discern the point where improving one objective affects the other. Hence, the need for a Pareto-based optimization algorithm. Pareto-based optimization algorithm helps to find those points where improving one objective influences another objective negatively and stops there. The application of Pareto-based optimization algorithm helps the user/operator/designer make an informed decision. This paper sheds more light on areas that multi-objective optimization has been applied in carbon abatement technologies in the last five years, developments and prospects.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, Gas Turbine, low carbon technology, pareto optimal

Procedia PDF Downloads 654
25 Desalination Technologies and Desalination Integrated with Renewable Energies – A Case Study

Authors: Hamidreza Namazi, Ahmadali Shirazytabar

Abstract:

As water resources are rapidly getting diminished, more and more interest is paid to the desalination of saline waters. Desalination has become a reliable and cost effective solution in provision of fresh water particularly in the arid areas of the world such as Middle East countries. However, the dramatic increase of utilizing desalination will cause a series of problems which are significantly related to energy consumption and environment impacts. The use of renewable energy sources to provide energy required by desalination processes is a feasible and simultaneously environmental friendly solution. In this study an attempt has been made to present a review on desalination technologies, desalination integrated with renewable energies, in brief, and practical progresses made during recent years particularly in the field of desalination by wind energy which is the most common form of renewable energies. Moreover, an economic analysis of a wind powered RO desalination system comprising of 10×2.5 MW wind turbines is done, and the results will be compared to those of a cogeneration system comprising of one 25 MW gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and MED-TVC desalination.

Keywords: Desalination, Cogeneration, Wind turbine, Gas Turbine, MED, HRSG

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
24 Performance Improvement of a Single-Flash Geothermal Power Plant Design in Iran: Combining with Gas Turbines and CHP Systems

Authors: Morteza Sharifhasan, Davoud Hosseini, Mohammad. R. Salimpour

Abstract:

The geothermal energy is considered as a worldwide important renewable energy in recent years due to rising environmental pollution concerns. Low- and medium-grade geothermal heat (< 200 ºC) is commonly employed for space heating and in domestic hot water supply. However, there is also much interest in converting the abundant low- and medium-grade geothermal heat into electrical power. The Iranian Ministry of Power - through the Iran Renewable Energy Organization (SUNA) – is going to build the first Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) in Iran in the Sabalan area in the Northwest of Iran. This project is a 5.5 MWe single flash steam condensing power plant. The efficiency of GPPs is low due to the relatively low pressure and temperature of the saturated steam. In addition to GPPs, Gas Turbines (GTs) are also known by their relatively low efficiency. The Iran ministry of Power is trying to increase the efficiency of these GTs by adding bottoming steam cycles to the GT to form what is known as combined gas/steam cycle. One of the most effective methods for increasing the efficiency is combined heat and power (CHP). This paper investigates the feasibility of superheating the saturated steam that enters the steam turbine of the Sabalan GPP (SGPP-1) to improve the energy efficiency and power output of the GPP. This purpose is achieved by combining the GPP with two 3.5 MWe GTs. In this method, the hot gases leaving GTs are utilized through a superheater similar to that used in the heat recovery steam generator of combined gas/steam cycle. Moreover, brine separated in the separator, hot gases leaving GTs and superheater are used for the supply of domestic hot water (in this paper, the cycle combined of GTs and CHP systems is named the modified SGPP-1) . In this research, based on the Heat Balance presented in the basic design documents of the SGPP-1, mathematical/numerical model of the power plant are developed together with the mentioned GTs and CHP systems. Based on the required hot water, the amount of hot gasses needed to pass through CHP section directly can be adjusted. For example, during summer when hot water is less required, the hot gases leaving both GTs pass through the superheater and CHP systems respectively. On the contrary, in order to supply the required hot water during the winter, the hot gases of one of the GTs enter the CHP section directly, without passing through the super heater section. The results show that there is an increase in thermal efficiency up to 40% through using the modified SGPP-1. Since the gross efficiency of SGPP-1 is 9.6%, the achieved increase in thermal efficiency is significant. The power output of SGPP-1 is increased up to 40% in summer (from 5.5MW to 7.7 MW) while the GTs power output remains almost unchanged. Meanwhile, the combined-cycle power output increases from the power output of the two separate plants of 12.5 MW [5.5+ (2×3.5)] to the combined-cycle power output of 14.7 [7.7+(2×3.5)]. This output is more than 17% above the output of the two separate plants. The modified SGPP-1 is capable of producing 215 T/Hr hot water ( 90 ºC ) for domestic use in the winter months.

Keywords: Efficiency, Gas Turbine, geothermal power plant, power output, combined cycle, chp

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
23 Optimization and Analysis of Heat Recovery System on Gas Complex Turbo Generators

Authors: Ensieh Hajeb, Mohamad Baqer Heidari, Hefzollah Mohammadiyan

Abstract:

In this paper layout plans and determine the best place to install a heat recovery boilers , gas turbines , and simulation models built to evaluate the performance of the design and operating conditions, heat recovery boiler design using model built on the basis of operating conditions , the effect of various parameters on the performance of the designed heat recovery boiler , heat recovery boiler installation was designed to evaluate the technical and economic impact on performance would be Turbo generator. Given the importance of this issue, that is the main goal of economic efficiency and reduces costs; this project has been implemented similar plans in which the target is implementation specific patterns. The project will also help us in the process of gas refineries and the actual efficiency of the process after adding a system to analyze the turbine and predict potential problems and how to fix them and appropriate measures according to the results of simulation analysis and results of the process gain. The results of modeling and the effect of different parameters on this line, the software has been ThermoFlow.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, power flow, turbo generator, boiler

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
22 Fuzzy and Fuzzy-PI Controller for Rotor Speed of Gas Turbine

Authors: Mandar Ghodekar, Sharad Jadhav, Sangram Jadhav

Abstract:

Speed control of rotor during startup and under varying load conditions is one of the most difficult tasks of gas turbine operation. In this paper, power plant gas turbine (GE9001E) is considered for this purpose and fuzzy and fuzzy-PI rotor speed controllers are designed. The goal of the presented controllers is to keep the turbine rotor speed within predefined limits during startup condition as well as during operating condition. The fuzzy controller and fuzzy-PI controller are designed using Takagi-Sugeno method and Mamdani method, respectively. In applying the fuzzy-PI control to a gas-turbine plant, the tuning parameters (Kp and Ki) are modified online by fuzzy logic approach. Error and rate of change of error are inputs and change in fuel flow is output for both the controllers. Hence, rotor speed of gas turbine is controlled by modifying the fuel ƒflow. The identified linear ARX model of gas turbine is considered while designing the controllers. For simulations, demand power is taken as disturbance input. It is assumed that inlet guide vane (IGV) position is fixed. In addition, the constraint on the fuel flow is taken into account. The performance of the presented controllers is compared with each other as well as with H∞ robust and MPC controllers for the same operating conditions in simulations.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, Power Plant, fuzzy controller, fuzzy PI controller

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21 The Influence of Step and Fillet Shape on Nozzle Endwall Heat Transfer

Authors: Hyung Hee Cho, Jeong Ju Kim, Hee Yoon Chung, Dong Ho Rhee

Abstract:

There is a gap at combustor-turbine interface where leakage flow comes out to prevent hot gas ingestion into the gas turbine nozzle platform. The leakage flow protects the nozzle endwall surface from the hot gas coming from combustor exit. For controlling flow’s stream, the gap’s geometry is transformed by changing fillet radius size. During the operation, step configuration is occurred that was unintended between combustor-turbine platform interface caused by thermal expansion or mismatched assembly. In this study, CFD simulations were performed to investigate the effect of the fillet and step on heat transfer and film cooling effectiveness on the nozzle platform. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes equation was solved with turbulence model, SST k-omega. With the fillet configuration, predicted film cooling effectiveness results indicated that fillet radius size influences to enhance film cooling effectiveness. Predicted film cooling effectiveness results at forward facing step configuration indicated that step height influences to enhance film cooling effectiveness. We suggested that designer change a combustor-turbine interface configuration which was varied by fillet radius size near endwall gap when there was a step at combustor-turbine interface. Gap shape was modified by increasing fillet radius size near nozzle endwall. Also, fillet radius and step height were interacted with the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer on endwall surface.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, fillet, film cooling effectiveness, endwall

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
20 Online Compressor Washing for Gas Turbine Power Output

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Isaiah Thank-God Ebi, Dodeye Ina Igbong

Abstract:

The privatization of utilities has brought about very strong competition in industries such as petrochemical and gas distribution among others, considering the continuous increase in cost of fuel. This has brought about the intense reason for gas turbine owners and operators to reduce and control performance degradation of the engine in other to minimize cost. The most common and very crucial problem of the gas turbine is the fouling of compressor, which is mostly caused by a reduction in flow capacity, compressor efficiency, and pressure ratio, this, in turn, lead to the engine compressor re-matching and output power and thermal efficiency reduction. The content of this paper encompasses a detailed presentation of the major causes, effects and control mechanism of fouling. The major emphasis is on compressor water washing to enable power augmentation. A modelled gas turbine similar to that of GE LM6000 is modelled for the current study, based on TURBOMATCH which is a Cranfield University software specifically made for gas turbine performance simulation and fouling detection. The compounded and intricate challenges of compressor online water washing of large output gas turbine are carried out. The treatment is applied to axial compressor used in the petrochemical and hydrocarbon industry.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, Fouling, degradation, compressor washing

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
19 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Jun Su Park, Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Gas Turbine, blade tip, unsteady wakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
18 Inverterless Grid Compatible Micro Turbine Generator

Authors: S. Ozeri, D. Shmilovitz

Abstract:

Micro‐Turbine Generators (MTG) are small size power plants that consist of a high speed, gas turbine driving an electrical generator. MTGs may be fueled by either natural gas or kerosene and may also use sustainable and recycled green fuels such as biomass, landfill or digester gas. The typical ratings of MTGs start from 20 kW up to 200 kW. The primary use of MTGs is for backup for sensitive load sites such as hospitals, and they are also considered a feasible power source for Distributed Generation (DG) providing on-site generation in proximity to remote loads. The MTGs have the compressor, the turbine, and the electrical generator mounted on a single shaft. For this reason, the electrical energy is generated at high frequency and is incompatible with the power grid. Therefore, MTGs must contain, in addition, a power conditioning unit to generate an AC voltage at the grid frequency. Presently, this power conditioning unit consists of a rectifier followed by a DC/AC inverter, both rated at the full MTG’s power. The losses of the power conditioning unit account to some 3-5%. Moreover, the full-power processing stage is a bulky and costly piece of equipment that also lowers the overall system reliability. In this study, we propose a new type of power conditioning stage in which only a small fraction of the power is processed. A low power converter is used only to program the rotor current (i.e. the excitation current which is substantially lower). Thus, the MTG's output voltage is shaped to the desired amplitude and frequency by proper programming of the excitation current. The control is realized by causing the rotor current to track the electrical frequency (which is related to the shaft frequency) with a difference that is exactly equal to the line frequency. Since the phasor of the rotation speed and the phasor of the rotor magnetic field are multiplied, the spectrum of the MTG generator voltage contains the sum and the difference components. The desired difference component is at the line frequency (50/60 Hz), whereas the unwanted sum component is at about twice the electrical frequency of the stator. The unwanted high frequency component can be filtered out by a low-pass filter leaving only the low-frequency output. This approach allows elimination of the large power conditioning unit incorporated in conventional MTGs. Instead, a much smaller and cheaper fractional power stage can be used. The proposed technology is also applicable to other high rotation generator sets such as aircraft power units.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Gas Turbine, Inverter, power multiplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
17 Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery from Gas Turbine with Respect to Cooling Condition

Authors: Young Min Kim, Jeong Lak Sohn, Eui Soo Yoon

Abstract:

This study describes the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) power cycle for recovering waste heat from a gas turbine. An S-CO2 cycle that recovers heat from small industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines can outperform a steam-bottoming cycle despite its simplicity and compactness. In using S-CO2 power cycles for waste heat recovery, a split cycle was studied to maximize the net output power by incorporating the utilization efficiency of the waste heat (lowering the temperature of the exhaust gas through the heater) along with the thermal efficiency of the cycle (minimizing the temperature difference for the heat transfer, exergy loss). The cooling condition of the S-CO2 WHR system has a great impact on the performance and the optimum low pressure of the system. Furthermore, the optimum high pressure of the S-CO2 WHR systems for the maximum power from the given heat sources is dependent on the temperature of the waste heat source.

Keywords: Optimization, Gas Turbine, Waste Heat Recovery, exergy loss, supercritical CO2 power cycle, split cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
16 Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.

Keywords: Analysis, Gas Turbine, syngas, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
15 Thermo-Exergy Optimization of Gas Turbine Cycle with Two Different Regenerator Designs

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Saria Abed, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A thermo-exergy optimization of a gas turbine cycle with two different regenerator designs is established. A comparison was made between the performance of the two regenerators and their roles in improving the cycle efficiencies. The effect of operational parameters (the pressure ratio of the compressor, the ambient temperature, excess of air, geometric parameters of the regenerators, etc.) on thermal efficiencies, the exergy efficiencies, and irreversibilities were studied using thermal balances and quantitative exegetic equilibrium for each component and for the whole system. The results are given graphically by using the EES software, and an appropriate discussion and conclusion was made.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Optimization, Gas Turbine, Thermal Efficiency, Irreversibility, regenerator, exergy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
14 Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Khir Tahar, Farhat Hajer

Abstract:

This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.

Keywords: Efficiency, Emissions, Gas Turbine, NOx, carbon monoxide, UHC

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
13 Design of Low-Emission Catalytically Stabilized Combustion Chamber Concept

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Andreas Marn, Franz Heitmeir

Abstract:

The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is cognizant for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Moreover small turbo engines have higher fuel specific emissions compared to large engines due to their limited combustion chamber size. In order to fulfill these requirements, novel combustion concepts are essential. This motivates to carry out the research on the current state of art, catalytic stabilized combustion chamber using hydrogen in small jet engines which are designed and investigated both numerically and experimentally during this project. Catalytic combustion concepts can also be adopted for low caloric fuels and are therefore not constrained to only hydrogen. However, hydrogen has high heating value and has the major advantage of producing only the nitrogen oxides as pollutants during the combustion, thus eliminating the interest on other emissions such as Carbon monoxides etc. In the present work, the combustion chamber is designed based on the ‘Rich catalytic Lean burn’ concept. The experiments are conducted for the characteristic operating range of an existing engine. This engine has been tested successfully at Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics (ITTM), Technical University Graz. One of the facts that the efficient combustion is a result of proper mixing of fuel-air mixture, considerable significance is given to the selection of appropriate mixer. This led to the design of three diverse configurations of mixers and is investigated experimentally and numerically. Subsequently the best mixer would be equipped in the main combustion chamber and used throughout the experimentation. Furthermore, temperatures and pressures would be recorded at various locations inside the combustion chamber and the exhaust emissions will also be analyzed. The instrumented combustion chamber would be inspected at the engine relevant inlet conditions for nine different sets of catalysts at the Hot Flow Test Facility (HFTF) of the institute.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Gas Turbine, mixer, catalytic combustion, NOx emissions

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12 Phase Optimized Ternary Alloy Material for Gas Turbines

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C, but in synchronization with other functional components, they must readily deliver efficient performance, whilst incurring minimal overhaul and repair costs during its service life up to 5 million flying miles. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures the major component failure mechanism is creep. During its service over time under high temperatures and loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. 25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio ensures TaAl3 phase formation, where as 51% Al/(Al+Ti) ratio ensures formation of α-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl mixed phases fand the three phase combination ensures minimal Al excess (~1.4% Al excess), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb which has significant excess Al (~5% Al excess) that could affect the service life of turbine blades. This presentation will involve the summary of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Summary of thermo-mechanical test results such as high temperature tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness will be presented. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. Phase compositions will be quantified, and a summary of its correlation with creep strain rate will be presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Alloys, high temperature materials, Gas Turbine, Creep, specific strength, phase optimization

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11 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Hyung Hee Cho, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Gas Turbine, rib, matrix cooling

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10 Analysis of Thermal Damage Characteristics of High Pressure Turbine Blade According to Off-Design Operating Conditions

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Hyung Hee Cho, Seon Ho Kim, Young Moon Lee, Dong Kwan Kim

Abstract:

Gas turbines are heat engines that convert chemical energy into electrical energy through mechanical energy. Since their high energy density per unit volume and low pollutant emissions, gas turbines are classified as clean energy. In order to obtain better performance, the turbine inlet temperature of the current gas turbine is operated at about 1600℃, and thermal damage is a very serious problem. Especially, these thermal damages are more prominent in off-design conditions than in design conditions. In this study, the thermal damage characteristics of high temperature components of a gas turbine made of a single crystal material are studied numerically for the off-design operating conditions. The target gas turbine is configured as a reheat cycle and is operated in peak load operation mode, not normal operation. In particular, the target gas turbine features a lot of low-load operation. In this study, a commercial code, ANSYS 18.2, was used for analyzing the thermal-flow coupling problems. As a result, the flow separation phenomenon on the pressure side due to the flow reduction was remarkable at the off-design condition, and the high heat transfer coefficient at the upper end of the suction surface due to the tip leakage flow was appeared.

Keywords: Thermal analysis, Gas Turbine, single crystal blade, off-design

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9 Voyage Analysis of a Marine Gas Turbine Engine Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship

Authors: Mathias U. Bonet, Pericles Pilidis, Georgios Doulgeris

Abstract:

A gas turbine-powered cruise Liner is scheduled to transport pilgrim passengers from Lagos-Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Since the gas turbine is an air breathing machine, changes in the density and/or mass flow at the compressor inlet due to an encounter with variations in weather conditions induce negative effects on the performance of the power plant during the voyage. In practice, all deviations from the reference atmospheric conditions of 15 oC and 1.103 bar tend to affect the power output and other thermodynamic parameters of the gas turbine cycle. Therefore, this paper seeks to evaluate how a simple cycle marine gas turbine power plant would react under a variety of scenarios that may be encountered during a voyage as the ship sails across the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea before arriving at its designated port of discharge. It is also an assessment that focuses on the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions which deteriorate the efficient operation of the propulsion system due to an increase in resistance that results from some projected levels of the ship hull fouling. The investigated passenger ship is designed to run at a service speed of 22 knots and cover a distance of 5787 nautical miles. The performance evaluation consists of three separate voyages that cover a variety of weather conditions in winter, spring and summer seasons. Real-time daily temperatures and the sea states for the selected transit route were obtained and used to simulate the voyage under the aforementioned operating conditions. Changes in engine firing temperature, power output as well as the total fuel consumed per voyage including other performance variables were separately predicted under both calm and adverse weather conditions. The collated data were obtained online from the UK Meteorological Office as well as the UK Hydrographic Office websites, while adopting the Beaufort scale for determining the magnitude of sea waves resulting from rough weather situations. The simulation of the gas turbine performance and voyage analysis was effected through the use of an integrated Cranfield-University-developed computer code known as ‘Turbomatch’ and ‘Poseidon’. It is a project that is aimed at developing a method for predicting the off design behavior of the marine gas turbine when installed and operated as the main prime mover for both propulsion and powering of all other auxiliary services onboard a passenger cruise liner. Furthermore, it is a techno-economic and environmental assessment that seeks to enable the forecast of the marine gas turbine part and full load performance as it relates to the fuel requirement for a complete voyage.

Keywords: Propulsion, Performance, Weather, Gas Turbine, hull fouling, cruise ship

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8 Numerical Analysis of Internal Cooled Turbine Blade Using Conjugate Heat Transfer

Authors: Bhavesh N. Bhatt, Zozimus D. Labana

Abstract:

This work is mainly focused on the analysis of heat transfer of blade by using internal cooling method. By using conjugate heat transfer technology we can effectively compute the cooling and heat transfer analysis of blade. Here blade temperature is limited by materials melting temperature. By using CFD code, we will analyze the blade cooling with the help of CHT method. There are two types of CHT methods. In the first method, we apply coupled CHT method in which all three domains modeled at once, and in the second method, we will first model external domain and then, internal domain of cooling channel. Ten circular cooling channels are used as a cooling method with different mass flow rate and temperature value. This numerical simulation is applied on NASA C3X turbine blade, and results are computed. Here results are showing good agreement with experimental results. Temperature and pressure are high at the leading edge of the blade on stagnation point due to its first faces the flow. On pressure side, shock wave is formed which also make a sudden change in HTC and other parameters. After applying internal cooling, we are succeeded in reducing the metal temperature of blade by some extends.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, Conjugate Heat Transfer, NASA C3X Blade, circular film cooling channel

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7 Generative Design Method for Cooled Additively Manufactured Gas Turbine Parts

Authors: Thomas Wimmer, Bernhard Weigand

Abstract:

The improvement of gas turbine efficiency is one of the main drivers of research and development in the gas turbine market. This has led to elevated gas turbine inlet temperatures beyond the melting point of the utilized materials. The turbine parts need to be actively cooled in order to withstand these harsh environments. However, the usage of compressor air as coolant decreases the overall gas turbine efficiency. Thus, coolant consumption needs to be minimized in order to gain the maximum advantage from higher turbine inlet temperatures. Therefore, sophisticated cooling designs for gas turbine parts aim to minimize coolant mass flow. New design space is accessible as additive manufacturing is maturing to industrial usage for the creation of hot gas flow path parts. By making use of this technology more efficient cooling schemes can be manufacture. In order to find such cooling schemes a generative design method is being developed. It generates cooling schemes randomly which adhere to a set of rules. These assure the sanity of the design. A huge amount of different cooling schemes are generated and implemented in a simulation environment where it is validated. Criteria for the fitness of the cooling schemes are coolant mass flow, maximum temperature and temperature gradients. This way the whole design space is sampled and a Pareto optimum front can be identified. This approach is applied to a flat plate, which resembles a simplified section of a hot gas flow path part. Realistic boundary conditions are applied and thermal barrier coating is accounted for in the simulation environment. The resulting cooling schemes are presented and compared to representative conventional cooling schemes. Further development of this method can give access to cooling schemes with an even better performance having higher complexity, which makes use of the available design space.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Optimization, Additive manufacturing, Gas Turbine, Cooling, heat transfer design

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6 Energy and Exergy Performance Optimization on a Real Gas Turbine Power Plant

Authors: Ammar Ben Brahim, Khir Tahar, Farhat Hajer, Cherni Rafik, Dakhli Radhouen

Abstract:

This paper presents the energy and exergy optimization of a real gas turbine power plant performance of 100 MW of power, installed in the South East of Tunisia. A simulation code is established using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The parameters considered are those of the actual operating conditions of the gas turbine thermal power station under study. The results show that thermal and exergetic efficiency decreases with the increase of the ambient temperature. Air excess has an important effect on the thermal efficiency. The emission of NOx rises in the summer and decreases in the winter. The obtained rates of NOx are compared with measurements results.

Keywords: Exergy, Efficiency, temperature, Gas Turbine

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5 Thermodynamic Analysis of Wet Compression Integrated with Air-Film Blade Cooling in Gas Turbine Power Plants

Authors: Hassan Athari, Alireza Ruhi Sales, Amin Pourafshar, Seyyed Mehdi Pestei, Marc. A. Rosen

Abstract:

In order to achieve high efficiency and high specific work with lower emissions, the use of advanced gas turbine cycles for power generation is useful and advantageous. Here, evaporative inlet air cooling is analyzed thermodynamically in the form of air film blade cooling of gas turbines. As the ambient temperature increases during summer months, the performance of gas turbines particularly the output power and energy efficiency are significantly decreased. The utilization of evaporative inlet cooling in gas turbine cycles increases gas turbine performance, which can assist to solve the problem in meeting the increasing demands for electrical power and offsetting shortages during peak load times. In the present research, because of the importance of turbine blade cooling, the turbine is investigated with cold compressed air used for cooling the turbine blades. The investigation of the basic and modified cycles shows that, by adding an evaporative cooler to a simple gas turbine cycle, for a turbine inlet temperature of 1400 °C, an ambient temperature of 45 °C and a relative humidity of 15%, the specific work can reach 331 (kJ/kg air), while the maximum specific work of a simple cycle for the same conditions is 273.7 (kJ/kg air). The exergy results reveal that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the combustion chamber, where the large temperature differences and highly exothermic chemical reactions are the main sources of the irreversibility.

Keywords: Energy, Exergy, Gas Turbine, wet compression, air-film cooling blade

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4 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison

Authors: P. K. Das, S. K. Dash, S. Arpit

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Exergy analysis, Gas Turbine, naphtha

Procedia PDF Downloads 44