Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Gas Related Abstracts

6 Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and health implication associated with the practice, the role of Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.

Keywords: Health, Environment, Gas, Emission, natural combustion, flaring, Niger Delta

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5 Device to Alert and Fire Prevention through Temperature Monitoring and Gas Detection

Authors: Dêivisson Alves Anjos, Blenda Fonseca Aires Teles, Queitiane Castro Costa

Abstract:

Fire is one of the biggest dangers for factories, warehouses, mills, among other places, causing unimaginable damage, because besides the material damage also directly affects the lives of workers who are likely to suffer death or very serious consequences. This protection of the lives of these people should be taken seriously, always seeking safety. Thus investment in security and monitoring equipment must be high, so you can prevent or reduce the impacts of a possible fire. Our device, made in PIC micro controller monitors the temperature and the presence of gas in the environment, it sends the data via Bluetooth device to a developed in LabVIEW interface saves these data continuously and alert if the temperature exceeds the allowed or some gas is detected. Currently the device is in operation and can perform several tests, as well as use in different areas for which you need anti-fire protection.

Keywords: Gas, temperature, bluetooth, Fire, labview, pic

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4 Preparation Control Information and Analyzing of Metering Gas System Based of Orifice Plate

Authors: A. Benatiallah, A. Harrouz, O. Harrouz

Abstract:

This paper presents the search for errors in the measurement instruments in a dynamic system of metering liquid or gas and sees the tolerance defined by the international standards and recommendations. We will implement a program on MATLAB/Simulink which is calculated based on the ISO-5167. This program will take the system parameters on considerations such as: the willingness plates, the size of the orifice, the given design conditions, reference conditions, find pressure drop for a given flow, or flow for a loss of given load. The results are considered very good and satisfactory because the errors identified of measuring instruments system are within the margin of error limit by the regulations.

Keywords: Control, Gas, Analyzing, meters system

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3 Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector

Authors: Hiesik Kim, Jaheon Gu, Gyoutae Park, Sangguk Ahn, Jungil Park, Wooyong Chung, Mijung Koo, Seonbok Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.

Keywords: Gas, Ammonia, portable, detector

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2 Oxyhydrogen Gas (HHO) as Replacement to Gasoline Fuel

Authors: Rishabh Pandey, Umang Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

In today’s era of technological advancement, we come across incalculable innovations, almost every day. No doubt that the society has developed a lot in learning and technology, but we should also take into account the problems and inflictions that are occurring. Focusing on the petroleum sector a trending global concern is toward lowering fuel consumption and emissions. It is well known that gasoline is non-renewable source of energy and its burning produces harmful emissions which are adversely affecting the environment, such issues are motivating us to seek alternative solutions that would not require much modification in engine design and help us come out with an outcome. Keeping in mind the importance of environment and human race, we present a factious idea of use of oxyhydrogen gas or HHO gas in place of gasoline in the vehicles and petroleum industry. This technology is prospering, highly efficient, could be used economically and safe, and it will be responsible for changing the future of oil and gas sector in accordance with protection to the environment. In the coming future, we will check the compatibility of HHO generator with fuel engine for production of oxyhydrogen gas with use of water and effect of introducing HHO gas to the combustion on both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. We will also work on the comparison of HHO gas and commercially available gasoline fuel in support of their chemical structures; ignition rate; octane rating; knocking properties; storage; transportation and cost effectiveness and it is trusted that use of HHO gas will be ecofriendly as no harmful emissions are produced, rather the only emission is water. Additionally, this paper will include the use of HHO cell in fuel engines and challenges faced in installing it in the current period and provide effective solutions for the same.

Keywords: Water, Gas, generator, Fuel

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1 Possibilities of Postmortem CT to Detection of Gas Accumulations in the Vessels of Dead Newborns with Congenital Sepsis

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Viacheslav M. Lyapin, Vladimir G. Bychenko, Alexandr I. Shchegolev, Gennady T. Sukhikh

Abstract:

It is well known that the gas formed as a result of postmortem decomposition of tissues can be detected already 24-48 hours after death. In addition, the conditions of keeping and storage of the corpse (temperature and humidity of the environment) significantly determine the rate of occurrence and development of posthumous changes. The presence of sepsis is accompanied by faster postmortem decomposition and decay of the organs and tissues of the body. The presence of gas in the vessels and cavities can be revealed fully at postmortem CT. Radiologists must certainly report on the detection of intraorganic or intravascular gas, wich was detected at postmortem CT, to forensic experts or pathologists before the autopsy. This gas can not be detected during autopsy, but it can be very important for establishing a diagnosis. To explore the possibility of postmortem CT for the evaluation of gas accumulations in the newborns' vessels, who died from congenital sepsis. Researched of 44 newborns bodies (25 male and 19 female sex, at the age from 6 hours to 27 days) after 6 - 12 hours of death. The bodies were stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of +4°C in the supine position. Grouped 12 bodies of newborns that died from congenital sepsis. The control group consisted of 32 bodies of newborns that died without signs of sepsis. Postmortem CT examination was performed at the GEMINI TF TOF16 device, before the autopsy. The localizations of gas accumulations in the vessels were determined on the CT tomograms. The sepsis diagnosis was on the basis of clinical and laboratory data and autopsy results. Gases in the vessels were detected in 33.3% of cases in the group with sepsis, and in the control group - in 34.4%. A group with sepsis most often the gas localized in the heart and liver vessels - 50% each, of observations number with the detected gas in the vessels. In the heart cavities, aorta and mesenteric vessels - 25% each. In control most often gas was detected in the liver (63.6%) and abdominal cavity (54.5%) vessels. In 45.5% the gas localized in the cavities, and in 36.4% in the vessels of the heart. In the cerebral vessels and in the aorta gas was detected in 27.3% and 9.1%, respectively. Postmortem CT has high diagnostic capabilities to detect free gas in vessels. Postmortem changes in newborns that died from sepsis do not affect intravascular gas production within 6-12 hours. Radiation methods should be used as a supplement to the autopsy, including as a kind of ‘guide’, with the indication to the forensic medical expert of certain changes identified during CT studies, for better definition of pathological processes during the autopsy. Postmortem CT can be recommend as a first stage of autopsy.

Keywords: Gas, Newborn, congenital sepsis, postmortem CT

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