Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Gamification Related Abstracts

26 Data Structure Learning Platform to Aid in Higher Education IT Courses (DSLEP)

Authors: Estevan B. Costa, Armando M. Toda, Marcell A. A. Mesquita, Jacques D. Brancher


The advances in technology in the last five years allowed an improvement in the educational area, as the increasing in the development of educational software. One of the techniques that emerged in this lapse is called Gamification, which is the utilization of video game mechanics outside its bounds. Recent studies involving this technique provided positive results in the application of these concepts in many areas as marketing, health and education. In the last area there are studies that cover from elementary to higher education, with many variations to adequate to the educators methodologies. Among higher education, focusing on IT courses, data structures are an important subject taught in many of these courses, as they are base for many systems. Based on the exposed this paper exposes the development of an interactive web learning environment, called DSLEP (Data Structure Learning Platform), to aid students in higher education IT courses. The system includes basic concepts seen on this subject such as stacks, queues, lists, arrays, trees and was implemented to ease the insertion of new structures. It was also implemented with gamification concepts, such as points, levels, and leader boards, to engage students in the search for knowledge and stimulate self-learning.

Keywords: e-Learning, Interactive Learning Environment, Gamification, data structures

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25 Gamified Training Aid for Composite Layup: Using Low Cost Smartphone Based Virtual Reality

Authors: S. Kularatna, C. Ward


Although there exist many barriers in bridging the gap between technology and skills in the advanced composites industry, a potential workforce shortage, with the necessary skills to undertake the layup tasks, has been identified as one of the major concerns in the near term. Aligned to this is an existing and immediate need for re-skilling and/or up-skilling of the current workforce, as well as standardization of training delivery. Some countries such as the UK have stated aims of doubling its composite workforce by 2015; although how such an increase in new workers (most likely from a variety of experiences and capabilities) can be quickly and efficiently trained in composites remains unclear. A near chronic lack of access to resources and competent training (including evaluation processes) appears to have been a major issue to date, whether in the UK or in the off-shoring of parts overseas, leading to extended training schedules, excessive costs, or defective parts, owing to steep on-the-job learning curves and limited knowledge base capture/exploitation. These risks are further heightened by the possible escalation of composite use into other sectors, and increased product demand for those current sectors employing the material. Certainly a mantra of ‘Bigger, Faster, and Cheaper’ has been adopted and needs to be met. The research presented in this paper aims to address several of these issues, by introducing knowledge capture as a relatively large ICT data pool, yet exploited in a relatively low-cost head mounted Virtual Reality (VR) training tool. A VR training aid for a composite layup, based in a clean room environment (typical to the manufacturing requirements), was created using the Unity 3D gaming engine and delivered to users via a head mounted, a smartphone-based, VR system with standard handheld game controllers as the input medium. The training aid guides the user through a series of composite manufacturing steps in a virtual environment, from entering the room, procedural requirements, process of documentation and layup tasks, through to completing a panel. The manufacturing task is limited to flat panels and pre-preg material at this stage, but additional processes and materials are possible as further work, depending on knowledge capture. As a tool, the system exploits certain elements used in video game design in order to create an interactive learning environment. The tool was trialed against groups with different levels of experience in composite panel layup and gaming experience to evaluate it. Evaluation techniques used were post-trial questionnaires (Simulator sickness, presence and usefulness questionnaires) on experienced laminators and skills and knowledge transfer test on amateur laminators.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Composites, Gamification, layup

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24 Gamification as a Tool for Influencing Customers' Behaviour

Authors: Beata Zatwarnicka-Madura


The objective of the article was to identify the impacts of gamification on customers' behaviour. The most important applications of games in marketing and mechanisms of gamification are presented in the article. A detailed analysis of the influence of gamification on customers using two brands, Foursquare and Nike, was also presented. Research studies using auditory survey methods were carried out among 176 young respondents, who are potential targets of gamification. The studies confirmed a huge participation of young people in customer loyalty programs with relatively low participation in other gamification-based marketing activities. The research findings clearly indicate that gamification mechanisms are the most attractive.

Keywords: Games, Social aspects, Gamification, Customer Loyalty

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23 Gamification: A Guideline to Design an Effective E-Learning

Authors: Rattama Rattanawongsa


As technologies continue to develop and evolve, online learning has become one of the most popular ways of gaining access to learning. Worldwide, many students are engaging in both online and blended courses in growing numbers through e-learning. However, online learning is a form of teaching that has many benefits for learners but still has some limitations. The high attrition rates of students tend to be due to lack of motivation to succeed. Gamification is the use of game design techniques, game thinking and game mechanics in non-game context, such as learning. The gamifying method can motivate students to learn with fun and inspire them to continue learning. This paper aims to describe how the gamification work in the context of learning. The first part of this paper present the concept of gamification. The second part is described the psychological perspectives of gamification, especially motivation and flow theory for gamifying design. The result from this study will be described into the guidelines for effective learning design using a gamification concept.

Keywords: e-Learning, Motivation, Gamification, flow theory

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22 Gamification of a Business Intelligence Tool

Authors: Stephen Miller


The act of applying game mechanics and dynamics (which have been traditionally used in video games) into business applications is being widely trialed in an effort to make conventional business software a bit more participative, fun and engaging. This new trend, named ‘gamification’ has its believers and of course, its critics who still need convincing that the concept is an effective and beneficial business tool worthy of investment. The literature reveals that user engagement of business intelligence (BI) tools is much lower than expected and investors are failing to get a good return on their investment (ROI). So, a software prototype will be designed and developed to add gamification to a BI tool to determine its effect upon the user engagement levels of test participants. The experimental study will be evaluated using the comprehensive User Engagement Scale (UES) to see if there are improvements in areas such as; aesthetics, perceived usability, endurability, novelty, felt involvement and focused attention. The results of this unique study should demonstrate whether or not ‘gamifying’ a BI tool has the potential to increase an individual’s motivation to use BI software more often.

Keywords: Business Intelligence, Human Computer Interaction, Gamification, user engagement

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21 Virtual and Augmented Reality Based Heritage Gamification: Basilica of Smyrna in Turkey

Authors: Tugba Saricaoglu


This study argues about the potential representation and interpretation of Basilica of Smyrna through gamification. Representation can be defined as a key which plays a role as a converter in order to provide interpretation of something according to the person who perceives. Representation of cultural heritage is a hypothetical and factual approach in terms of its sustainable conservation. Today, both site interpreters and public of cultural heritage have varying perspectives due to their different demographic, social, and even cultural backgrounds. Additionally, gamification application offers diversion of methods suchlike video games to improve user perspective of non-game platforms, contexts, and issues. Hence, cultural heritage and video game decided to be analyzed. Moreover, there are basically different ways of representation of cultural heritage such as digital, physical, and virtual methods in terms of conservation. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies are two of the contemporary digital methods of heritage conservation. In this study, 3D documented ruins of the Basilica will be presented in the virtual and augmented reality based technology as a theoretical gamification sample. Also, this paper will focus on two sub-topics: First, evaluation of the video-game platforms applied to cultural heritage sites, and second, potentials of cultural heritage to be represented in video game platforms. The former will cover the analysis of some case(s) with regard to the concepts and representational aspects of cultural heritage. The latter will include the investigation of cultural heritage sites which carry such a potential and their sustainable conversation. Consequently, after mutual collection of information from cultural heritage and video game platforms, a perspective will be provided in terms of interpretation of representation of cultural heritage by sampling that on Basilica of Smyrna by using VR and AR based technologies.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Digital Heritage, Gamification, Basilica of Smyrna

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20 An Analysis of Gamification in the Post-Secondary Classroom

Authors: F. Saccucci


Gamification has now started to take root in the post-secondary classroom. Educators have learned much about gamification to date but there is still a great deal to learn. One definition of gamification is the ability to engage post-secondary students with games that are fun and correlate to class room curriculum. There is no shortage of literature illustrating the advantages of gamification in the class room. This study is an extension of similar thought as well as an extension of a previous study where in class testing proved with the used of paired T-test that gamification did significantly improve the students’ understanding of subject material. Gamification itself in the class room can range from high end computer simulated software to paper based games of which both have advantages and disadvantages. This analysis used a paper based game to highlight certain qualitative advantages of gamification. The paper based game in this analysis was inexpensive, required low preparation time for the faculty member and consumed approximately 20 minutes of class room time. Data for the study was collected through in class student feedback surveys and narrative from the faculty member moderating the game. Students were randomly selected into groups of four. Qualitative advantages identified in this analysis included: 1. Students had a chance to meet, connect and know other students. 2. Students enjoyed the gamification process given there was a sense of fun and competition. 3. The post assessment that followed the simulation game was not part of their grade calculation therefore it was an opportunity to participate in a low risk activity whereby students could subsequently self-assess their understanding of the subject material. 4. In the view of the student, content knowledge did increase after the gamification process. These qualitative advantages identified in this analysis contribute to the argument that there should be an attempt to use gamification in today’s post-secondary class room. The analysis also highlighted that eighty (80) percent of the respondents believe twenty minutes devoted to the gamification process was appropriate, however twenty (20) percentage of respondents believed that rather than scheduling a gamification process and its post quiz in the last week, a review for the final exam may have been more useful. An additional study to this hopes to determine if the scheduling of the gamification had any correlation to a percentage of the students not wanting to be engaged in the process. As well, the additional study hopes to determine at what incremental level of time invested in class room gamification produce no material incremental benefits to the student as well as determine if any correlation exist between respondents preferring not to have it at the end of the semester to students not believing the gamification process added to the increase of their curricular knowledge.

Keywords: Gamification, Post-Secondary, inexpensive, non-quantitative advantages

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19 Personality Based Adaptive E-Learning 3D Game

Authors: Yasith Nayana, Janani Manamperuma, Lalindi Amarasinghe, Sasanka Kodithuwakku


Educational games are popular among current e-learning systems. The approach to education through interactive media is expected to motivate students and encourage participation and engagement. ‘Kalayathra’ is an adaptive, player centered e-learning 3D game. The game identifies the player’s personality and adapt the gaming environment according to the player’s preference. Our platform measures the student’s performance and support learning through player assessment. Player experience is a good measure of the level of fun and education presented to players. To assess the level of playability we introduce an educational playability model. ‘Kalayathra’ is developed according to the GCE O/L syllabus and teaching guide in Sri Lankan education system. The game is capable of guiding players into the environment and aid them in tasks and activities depending on how much the player requires help.

Keywords: e-Learning, Games, Adaptive, Personality, Gamification, player experience

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18 A Case Study in Using Gamification in the Mobile Computing Course

Authors: Rula Al Azawi, Abobaker Shafi


The purpose of this paper is to use gamification technology in the mobile computing course to increase students motivation and engagement. The game applied to be designed by students focusing also to design educational game for children with age six years. This game will teach the students how to learn in a fun way. Our case study is implemented at Gulf College which is affiliated with Staffordshire University-UK. Our game design was applied to teach students Android Studio software by designing an educational game. Our goal with gamification is to improve student attendance, increase student engagement, problem solving and user stratification. Finally, we describe the findings and results of our case study. The data analysis and evaluation are based on students feedback, staff feedback and the final marking grades for the students.

Keywords: Gamification, educational game, android studio software, students motivation and engagement

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17 A Gamification Teaching Method for Software Measurement Process

Authors: Lennon Furtado, Sandro Oliveira


The importance of an effective measurement program lies in the ability to control and predict what can be measured. Thus, the measurement program has the capacity to provide bases in decision-making to support the interests of an organization. Therefore, it is only possible to apply for an effective measurement program with a team of software engineers well trained in the measurement area. However, the literature indicates that are few computer science courses that have in their program the teaching of the software measurement process. And even these, generally present only basic theoretical concepts of said process and little or no measurement in practice, which results in the student's lack of motivation to learn the measurement process. In this context, according to some experts in software process improvements, one of the most used approaches to maintaining the motivation and commitment to software process improvements program is the use of the gamification. Therefore, this paper aims to present a proposal of teaching the measurement process by gamification. Which seeks to improve student motivation and performance in the assimilation of tasks related to software measurement, by incorporating elements of games into the practice of measurement process, making it more attractive for learning. And as a way of validating the proposal will be made a comparison between two distinct groups of 20 students of Software Quality class, a control group, and an experiment group. The control group will be the students that will not make use of the gamification proposal to learn software measurement process, while the experiment group, will be the students that will make use of the gamification proposal to learn software measurement process. Thus, this paper will analyze the objective and subjective results of each group. And as objective result will be analyzed the student grade reached at the end of the course, and as subjective results will be analyzed a post-course questionnaire with the opinion of each student about the teaching method. Finally, this paper aims to prove or refute the following hypothesis: If the gamification proposal to teach software measurement process does appropriate motivate the student, in order to attribute the necessary competence to the practical application of the measurement process.

Keywords: Education, Software Engineering, Gamification, software measurement process

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16 The User Experience Evaluation Study on Gamified Classroom via Prezi

Authors: Wong Seng Yue


Game dynamics and game mechanics are the two main components that used in gamification to engage and encourage students to learn. The advantages of gamified classroom are engaging students, increasing students interest, preserving students focus and remain a positive behaviour. However, the empirical studies on gamification are still at early stage, especially the effectiveness of various gamification components have not been evaluated. Thus, this study is aimed to conduct a user experience (UX) evaluation on gamified classroom through Prezi, which focused on learning experience, gaming experience, adaptivity, and gameplay experience. This study is a further study extended from the previous exploratory study to explore more on UX of gamified classroom via Prezi by interview. A focus group study, which involves 22 students from a foundation course has been conducted for the study. Besides the empirical data from the previous study, this focus group study has significantly found that 90.9% respondents show their positive perceptions on gaming experience via Prezi. They are interested, feel fresh, good, and highly motivated of the contents of Prezi. 95.5% participants have had a positive learning experience from the gamified classroom via Prezi, which can engage them, made them concentrate on learning and easy to remember what they have learned if compared to the traditional classroom slides. The adaptivity of the gamified classroom also high due to its zooming user interface, narrative, rewards and engagement features. This study has uncovered on how far the impact of gamification components in the classroom, especially UX that implemented in gamified classroom.

Keywords: Gamification, Prezi, user experience (UX), gamified classroom

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15 Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran

Authors: Maryam Khalili, Fateme Ghanei


As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.

Keywords: Education, urban Design, Ecotourism, Gamification, Virtual Tour, Social Interaction

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14 Gamification Using Stochastic Processes: Engage Children to Have Healthy Habits

Authors: Andre M. Carvalho, Pedro Sebastiao


This article is based on a dissertation that intends to analyze and make a model, intelligently, algorithms based on stochastic processes of a gamification application applied to marketing. Gamification is used in our daily lives to engage us to perform certain actions in order to achieve goals and gain rewards. This strategy is an increasingly adopted way to encourage and retain customers through game elements. The application of gamification aims to encourage children between 6 and 10 years of age to have healthy habits and the purpose of serving as a model for use in marketing. This application was developed in unity; we implemented intelligent algorithms based on stochastic processes, web services to respond to all requests of the application, a back-office website to manage the application and the database. The behavioral analysis of the use of game elements and stochastic processes in children’s motivation was done. The application of algorithms based on stochastic processes in-game elements is very important to promote cooperation and to ensure fair and friendly competition between users which consequently stimulates the user’s interest and their involvement in the application and organization.

Keywords: Games, Stochastic Processes, Gamification, Randomness, engage

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13 Effectiveness of Gamified Virtual Physiotherapy Patients with Shoulder Problems

Authors: A. Barratt, M. H. Granat, S. Buttress, B. Roy


Introduction: Physiotherapy is an essential part of the treatment of patients with shoulder problems. The focus of treatment is usually centred on addressing specific physiotherapy goals, ultimately resulting in the improvement in pain and function. This study investigates if computerised physiotherapy using gamification principles are as effective as standard physiotherapy. Methods: Physiotherapy exergames were created using a combination of commercially available hardware, the Microsoft Kinect, and bespoke software. The exergames used were validated by mapping physiotherapy goals of physiotherapy which included; strength, range of movement, control, speed, and activation of the kinetic chain. A multicenter, randomised prospective controlled trial investigated the use of exergames on patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome who had undergone Arthroscopic Subacromial Decompression surgery. The intervention group was provided with the automated sensor-based technology, allowing them to perform exergames and track their rehabilitation progress. The control group was treated with standard physiotherapy protocols. Outcomes from different domains were used to compare the groups. An important metric was the assessment of shoulder range of movement pre- and post-operatively. The range of movement data included abduction, forward flexion and external rotation which were measured by the software, pre-operatively, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-operatively. Results: Both groups show significant improvement from pre-operative to 12 weeks in elevation in forward flexion and abduction planes. Results for abduction showed an improvement for the interventional group (p < 0.015) as well as the test group (p < 0.003). Forward flexion improvement was interventional group (p < 0.0201) with the control group (p < 0.004). There was however no significant difference between the groups at 12 weeks for abduction (p < 0.118067) , forward flexion (p < 0.189755) or external rotation (p < 0.346967). Conclusion: Exergames may be used as an alternative to standard physiotherapy regimes; however, further analysis is required focusing on patient engagement.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Gamification, shoulder, exergames

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12 Empirical Evaluation of Game Components Based on Learning Theory: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Seoi Lee, Dongjoo Chin, Heewon Kim


Gamification refers to a technique that applies game elements to non-gaming elements, such as education and exercise, to make people more engaged in these behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify effective elements in gamification for changing human behaviors. In order to accomplish this purpose, a survey based on learning theory was developed, especially for assessing antecedents and consequences of behaviors, and 8 popular and 8 unpopular games were selected for comparison. A total of 407 adult males and females were recruited via crowdsourcing Internet marketplace and completed the survey, which consisted of 19 questions for antecedent and 14 questions for consequences. Results showed no significant differences in consequence questions between popular and unpopular games. For antecedent questions, popular games are superior to unpopular games in character customization, play type selection, a sense of belonging, patch update cycle, and influence or dominance. This study is significant in that it reveals the elements of gamification based on learning theory. Future studies need to empirically validate whether these factors affect behavioral change.

Keywords: Learning theory, Gamification, behaviorism, Behavior change, antecedent, consequence

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11 The Impact of Gamification on Self-Assessment for English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wala A. Bagunaid, Maram Meccawy, Arwa Allinjawi, Zilal Meccawy


Continuous self-assessment becomes crucial in self-paced online learning environments. Students often depend on themselves to assess their progress; which is considered an essential requirement for any successful learning process. Today’s education institutions face major problems around student motivation and engagement. Thus, personalized e-learning systems aim to help and guide the students. Gamification provides an opportunity to help students for self-assessment and social comparison with other students through attempting to harness the motivational power of games and apply it to the learning environment. Furthermore, Open Social Student Modeling (OSSM) as considered as the latest user modeling technologies is believed to improve students’ self-assessment and to allow them to social comparison with other students. This research integrates OSSM approach and gamification concepts in order to provide self-assessment for English language learners at King Abdulaziz University (KAU). This is achieved through an interactive visual representation of their learning progress.

Keywords: Visualization, Motivation, Gamification, Social Comparison, e-learning system

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10 Augmented Reality Enhanced Order Picking: The Potential for Gamification

Authors: Stavros T. Ponis, George D. Plakas-Koumadorakis, Sotiris P. Gayialis


Augmented Reality (AR) can be defined as a technology, which takes the capabilities of computer-generated display, sound, text and effects to enhance the user's real-world experience by overlaying virtual objects into the real world. By doing that, AR is capable of providing a vast array of work support tools, which can significantly increase employee productivity, enhance existing job training programs by making them more realistic and in some cases introduce completely new forms of work and task executions. One of the most promising AR industrial applications, as literature shows, is the use of Head Worn, monocular or binocular Displays (HWD) to support logistics and production operations, such as order picking, part assembly and maintenance. This paper presents the initial results of an ongoing research project for the introduction of a dedicated AR-HWD solution to the picking process of a Distribution Center (DC) in Greece operated by a large Telecommunication Service Provider (TSP). In that context, the proposed research aims to determine whether gamification elements should be integrated in the functional requirements of the AR solution, such as providing points for reaching objectives and creating leaderboards and awards (e.g. badges) for general achievements. Up to now, there is a an ambiguity on the impact of gamification in logistics operations since gamification literature mostly focuses on non-industrial organizational contexts such as education and customer/citizen facing applications, such as tourism and health. To the contrary, the gamification efforts described in this study focus in one of the most labor- intensive and workflow dependent logistics processes, i.e. Customer Order Picking (COP). Although introducing AR in COP, undoubtedly, creates significant opportunities for workload reduction and increased process performance the added value of gamification is far from certain. This paper aims to provide insights on the suitability and usefulness of AR-enhanced gamification in the hard and very demanding environment of a logistics center. In doing so, it will utilize a review of the current state-of-the art regarding gamification of production and logistics processes coupled with the results of questionnaire guided interviews with industry experts, i.e. logisticians, warehouse workers (pickers) and AR software developers. The findings of the proposed research aim to contribute towards a better understanding of AR-enhanced gamification, the organizational change it entails and the consequences it potentially has for all implicated entities in the often highly standardized and structured work required in the logistics setting. The interpretation of these findings will support the decision of logisticians regarding the introduction of gamification in their logistics processes by providing them useful insights and guidelines originating from a real life case study of a large DC operating more than 300 retail outlets in Greece.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Gamification, Warehouse Management, technology acceptance, vision picking, new forms of work

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9 Developing a Customizable Serious Game and Its Applicability in the Classroom

Authors: Anita Kéri


Recent developments in the field of education have led to a renewed interest in teaching methodologies and practices. Gamification is fast becoming a key instrument in the education of new generations and besides other methods, serious games have become the center of attention. Ready-built serious games are available for most higher education institutions to buy and implement. However, monetary restraints and the unalterable nature of the games might deter most higher education institutions from the application of these serious games. Therefore, there is a continuously growing need for a customizable serious game that has been developed based on a concrete need analysis and experts’ opinion. There has been little evidence so far of serious games that have been created based on relevant and current need analysis from higher education institution teachers, professional practitioners and students themselves. Therefore, the aim of this current paper is to analyze the needs of higher education institution educators with special emphasis on their needs, the applicability of serious games in their classrooms, and exploring options for the development of a customizable serious game framework. The paper undertakes to analyze workshop discussions on implementing serious games in education and propose a customizable serious game framework applicable in the education of the new generation. Research results show that the most important feature of a serious game is its customizability. The fact that practitioners are able to manage different scenarios and upload their own content to a game seems to be a key to the increasingly widespread application of serious games in the classroom.

Keywords: Education, Serious Games, Gamification, Game-Based Learning

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8 The Effectiveness of Gamified Learning on Student Learning in Computer Science Education: A Systematic Review (2010-2018)

Authors: Shurui Bai, Biyun Huang, Khe Foon Hew


Gamification is defined as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. The primary purpose of using gamification in an educational context is to engage students in school activities such that their likelihood of completion is increased. But how actually effective is gamification in improving student learning? In order to answer this question, this paper provides a systematic review of prior research studies on gamification in K-12 and university contexts limited to computer science discipline. Unlike other published gamification review works, we specifically analyzed comparison-based studies in quasi-experiment, historical control, and randomization rather than studies with mere anecdotal or phenomenological results. The main purpose for this is to discuss possible causal effects of gamified practices on student performance, behavior change, and perceptual skills following an integrative model. Implications for practice are discussed, along with several suggestions for future research studies.

Keywords: Computer Science, Gamification, learning performance, systematic review

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7 The Price of Knowledge in the Times of Commodification of Higher Education: A Case Study on the Changing Face of Education

Authors: Joanna Peksa, Faith Dillon-Lee


Current developments in the Western economies have turned some universities into corporate institutions driven by practices of production and commodity. Academia is increasingly becoming integrated into national economies as a result of students paying fees and is consequently using business practices in student retention and engagement. With these changes, pedagogy status as a priority within the institution has been changing in light of these new demands. New strategies have blurred the boundaries that separate a student from a client. This led to a change of the dynamic, disrupting the traditional idea of the knowledge market, and emphasizing the corporate aspect of universities. In some cases, where students are seen primarily as a customer, the purpose of academia is no longer to educate but sell a commodity and retain fee-paying students. This paper considers opposing viewpoints on the commodification of higher education, reflecting on the reality of maintaining a pedagogic grounding in an increasingly commercialized sector. By analysing a case study of the Student Success Festival, an event that involved academic and marketing teams, the differences are considered between the respective visions of the pedagogic arm of the university and the corporate. This study argues that the initial concept of the event, based on the principles of gamification, independent learning, and cognitive criticality, was more clearly linked to a grounded pedagogic approach. However, when liaising with the marketing team in a crucial step in the creative process, it became apparent that these principles were not considered a priority in terms of their remit. While the study acknowledges in the power of pedagogy, the findings show that a pact of concord is necessary between different stakeholders in order for students to benefit fully from their learning experience. Nevertheless, while issues of power prevail and whenever power is unevenly distributed, reaching a consensus becomes increasingly challenging and further research should closely monitor the developments in pedagogy in the UK higher education.

Keywords: pedagogy, Commodification, Gamification, Public Service, Marketization, economic pressure

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6 Using Business Interactive Games to Improve Management Skills

Authors: Nuno Biga


Continuous processes’ improvement is a permanent challenge for managers of any organization. Lean management means that efficiency gains can be obtained through a systematic framework able to explore synergies between processes, eliminate waste of time, and other resources. Leaderships in organizations determine the efficiency of the teams through their influence on collaborators, their motivation, and consolidation of ownership (group) feeling. The “organization health” depends on the leadership style, which is directly influenced by the intrinsic characteristics of each personality and leadership ability (leadership competencies). Therefore, it’s important that managers can correct in advance any deviation from expected leadership exercises. Top management teams must assume themselves as regulatory agents of leadership within the organization, ensuring monitoring of actions and the alignment of managers in accordance with the humanist standards anchored in a visible Code of Ethics and Conduct. This article is built around an innovative model of “Business Interactive Games” (BI GAMES) that simulates a real-life management environment. It shows that the strategic management of operations depends on a complex set of endogenous and exogenous variables to the intervening agents that require specific skills and a set of critical processes to monitor. BI GAMES are designed for each management reality and have already been applied successfully in several contexts over the last five years comprising the educational and enterprise ones. Results from these experiences are used to demonstrate how serious games in working living labs contributed to improve the organizational environment by focusing on the evaluation of players’ (agents’) skills, empower its capabilities, and the critical factors that create value in each context. The implementation of the BI GAMES simulator highlights that leadership skills are decisive for the performance of teams, regardless of the sector of activity and the specificities of each organization whose operation is intended to simulate. The players in the BI GAMES can be managers or employees of different roles in the organization or students in the learning context. They interact with each other and are asked to decide/make choices in the presence of several options for the follow-up operation, for example, when the costs and benefits are not fully known but depend on the actions of external parties (e.g., subcontracted enterprises and actions of regulatory bodies). Each team must evaluate resources used/needed in each operation, identify bottlenecks in the system of operations, assess the performance of the system through a set of key performance indicators, and set a coherent strategy to improve efficiency. Through the gamification and the serious games approach, organizational managers will be able to confront the scientific approach in strategic decision-making versus their real-life approach based on experiences undertaken. Considering that each BI GAME’s team has a leader (chosen by draw), the performance of this player has a direct impact on the results obtained. Leadership skills are thus put to the test during the simulation of the functioning of each organization, allowing conclusions to be drawn at the end of the simulation, including its discussion amongst participants.

Keywords: Gamification, business interactive games, management empowerment skills, simulation living labs

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5 Game-Based Learning in a Higher Education Course: A Case Study with Minecraft Education Edition

Authors: Salvador Antelmo Casanova Valencia


This study documents the use of the Minecraft Education Edition application to explore immersive game-based learning environments. We analyze the contributions of fourth-year university students who are pursuing a degree in Administrative Computing at the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. In this study, descriptive data and statistical inference are detailed using a quasi-experimental design using the Wilcoxon test. The instruments will provide data validation. Game-based learning in immersive environments necessarily implies greater student participation and commitment, resulting in the study, motivation, and significant improvements, promoting cooperation and autonomous learning.

Keywords: Higher Education, Gamification, Game-Based Learning, Minecraft

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4 Urban Gamification: Analyzing the Effects of UFLab’s Tangible Gamified Tools in Four Hungarian Urban Public Participation Processes

Authors: Olivia Kurucz


Gamification is one of the outstanding new methodological possibilities of urban public participation processes to make the most informed decision possible for the future steps of urban development. This paper examines four Hungarian experimental projects in which gamified tools were applied during the public participation progresses by the Urban Future Laboratory (UFLab) research workshop of Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE). The recently implemented future planning projects (in the cities of Pécel, Kistarcsa, Budapest, and Salgótarján) were initiated by various motives, but the multi-stakeholder dialogues were facilitated through physical gamified tools in all cases. Based on the urban gamification hypothesis, the use of gamified tools supported certain steps of participatory processes in several aspects: it helped to increase the attractiveness of public events, to create a more informal atmosphere, to ensure equal conditions for actors, to recall a design mindset, to bridge contrasting social or cultural differences, to fix opinions and to assist dialogue between city actors, designers, and residents. This statement is confirmed by assessing the applied tools, analyzing the case studies, and comparing them to perceive their effects and interrelations.

Keywords: Gamification, Public Participation, Hungary, experimental projects, future planning, gamified tools, UFLab, urban gamification

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3 Gamification as a Mechanism for Developing Global Citizens and 21st Century Skills

Authors: Stephanie Hollings


Games have been a steeple of education throughout the years as curriculum as changed and developed. These games have been used to teach the required skills and competencies, that schools have deemed of importance to students at that given time. The advent of the 21st century brought upon students the imperative of learning and developing a new set of competences and skills, hence forward known as 21st century skills. The list of such skills in this essay will not be an exhaustive one but will instead be focused on how gamification and to a lesser extent game-based learning and educational games has been used in the literature to help develop these skills in students, in particular this essay will focus on citizenship education, predominantly global citizenship, one of the most difficult competencies to teach but inclusive of most other 21st century skills and competencies. Through reviewing the literature it highlights that in terms of citizenship education, gamification provides many new avenues that allow students to build onto their many citizenship identities by gaining a deeper and more insightful understanding of citizenship while actively participating in it through the unique conception of gamification. The literature also focuses on the inclusivity of gamification and games in attracting students oft not engaged with the material in normal school settings. Both of these aspects, showcase that indeed gamification can be an important tool in developing global citizens. However, many questions still arise on not just the nature of the games, game-makers and skills being introduced but on the very nature of using gamification as a mechanism for creating global citizens.

Keywords: Gamification, Citizenship Education, Global Citizenship

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2 Level up Entrepreneurial Behaviors: A Case Study on the Use of Gamification to Encourage Entrepreneurial Acting and Thinking

Authors: Lena Murawski


Currently, researchers and experts from the business world recognize entrepreneurial behaviors as a decisive factor for economic success, allowing firms to adapt to changing internal and external needs. The purpose of this study is to explore how gamification can enhance entrepreneurial behaviors, reporting on a gamification project in a new venture operating in the IT sector in Germany. This article is based on data gathered from observations of pre‐ and post‐implementation in the case company. Results have indicated that the use of gamification encourages entrepreneurial behaviors, especially relating to seeking ways on how to integrate new employees, improve teamwork and communication, and to adapt existing processes to increase productivity. The interdisciplinary dialogue furthers our understanding of factors that foster entrepreneurial behaviors. The matter is of practical relevance, guiding practitioners on how to exploit the potentials of gamification to exhibit an entrepreneurial orientation in organizations.

Keywords: Gamification, Case study, entrepreneurial behaviors, new venture

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1 A Systematic Review of Literature: Gameful Experience in Higher Education and Training

Authors: Angelika Lau


One aspect totally underrepresented regarding the effectiveness of gamification in education is gameful experience. To examine the extent to which gameful experience has been considered empirically, a systematic review was conducted. By doing so, comprehensive state-of-the-art research of gameful experience in higher education and organizational training is provided. This way, the actual gameful efficiency of gamification applications is disclosed and summarized. The review indicates that gamification provides positive effects, however, emphasizing the need for further research in this regard.

Keywords: Gamification, gameful experience, game experience, game-like experience

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