Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

gait Related Abstracts

10 Human Gait Recognition Using Moment with Fuzzy

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, Navneet Manjhi, M. K.Gupta, Bimi Jain


A reliable gait features are required to extract the gait sequences from an images. In this paper suggested a simple method for gait identification which is based on moments. Moment values are extracted on different number of frames of gray scale and silhouette images of CASIA database. These moment values are considered as feature values. Fuzzy logic and nearest neighbour classifier are used for classification. Both achieved higher recognition.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, gait, nearest neighbour, recognition rate, moments

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9 Biometric Recognition Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Shabir Ahmad Sofi, Shubham Aggarwal, Sanyam Singhal, Roohie Naaz


Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual. These features are used to provide an authentication for computer based security systems. Applications of such a system include computer systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based on 'who she/he is' rather than 'what she/he has' (card, token, key) or 'what she/he knows' (password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and multimodal and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

Keywords: Biometric, Fingerprint, Ear, Dna, Face, gait, retina scan, iris, voice recognition, unimodal biometric, multimodal biometric

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8 The Role of Dynamic Ankle Foot Orthosis on Temporo-Spatial Parameters of Gait and Balance in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis: Six-Months Follow Up

Authors: Suat Erel, Gozde Gur


Background: Recently a supramalleolar type of dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) has been increasingly used to support all of the dynamic arches of the foot and redistribute the pressure under the plantar surface of the foot to reduce the muscle tone. DAFO helps to maintain balance and postural control by providing stability and proprioceptive feedback in children with disease like Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophies, Down syndrome, and congenital hypotonia. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) on temporo-spatial parameters of gait and balance in three children with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). Material Method: 13, 14, and 8 years old three children with HSP were included in the study. To provide correction on weight bearing and to improve gait, DAFO was made. Lower extremity spasticity (including gastocnemius, hamstrings and hip adductor muscles) using modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (0-5), The temporo-spatial gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, base of support, step length) and Timed Up & Go test (TUG) were evaluated. All of the assessments about gait were compared with (with DAFO and shoes) and without DAFO (with shoes only) situations. Also after six months follow up period, assessments were repeated by the same physical therapist. Results: MAS scores for lower extremity were between “2-3” for the first child, “0-2” for the second child and “1-2” for the third child. TUG scores (sec) decreased from 20.2 to 18 for case one, from 9.4 to 9 for case two and from 12,4 to 12 for case three in the condition with shoes only and also from 15,2 to 14 for case one, from 7,2 to 7,1 for case two and from 10 to 7,3 for case three in the condition with DAFO and shoes. Gait speed (m/sec) while wearing shoes only was similar but while wearing DAFO and shoes increased from 0,4 to 0,5 for case one, from 1,5 to 1,6 for case two and from 1,0 to 1,2 for case three. Base of support scores (cm) wearing shoes only decreased from 18,5 to 14 for case one, from 13 to 12 for case three and were similar as 11 for case two. While wearing DAFO and shoes, base of support decreased from 10 to 9 for case one, from 11,5 to 10 for case three and was similar as 8 for case two. Conclusion: The use of a DAFO in a patient with HSP normalized the temporo-spatial gait parameters and improved balance. Walking speed is a gold standard for evaluating gait quality. With the use of DAFO, walking speed increased in this three children with HSP. With DAFO, better TUG scores shows that functional ambulation improved. Reduction in base of support and more symmetrical step lengths with DAFO indicated better balance. These encouraging results warrant further study on wider series.

Keywords: gait, dynamic ankle foot orthosis, hereditary spastic paraparesis, balance in patient

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7 The Effect of Fixing Kinesiology Tape onto the Plantar Surface during Loading Phase of Gait

Authors: Albert K. Chong, Jasim Ahmed Ali Al-Baghdadi, Peter B. Milburn


Precise capture of plantar 3D surface of the foot at the loading gait phases on rigid substrate was found to be valuable for the assessment of the physiology, health and problems of the feet. Photogrammetry, a precision 3D spatial data capture technique is suitable for this type of dynamic application. In this research, the technique is utilised to study of the effect on the plantar deformation for having a strip of kinesiology tape on the plantar surface while going through the loading phase of gait. For this pilot study, one healthy adult male subject was recruited under the USQ University human research ethics guidelines for this preliminary study. The 3D plantar deformation data of both with and without applying the tape were analysed. The results and analyses are presented together with the detail of the findings.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, gait, human plantar, plantar loading, kinesiology tape

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6 Kinematic Gait Analysis Is a Non-Invasive, More Objective and Earlier Measurement of Impairment in the Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: P. J. Sweeney, T. Ahtoniemi, J. Puoliväli, T. Laitinen, A. Nurmi, D. Wells, K. Lehtimäki


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by an X linked mutation in the dystrophin gene; lack of dystrophin causes a progressive muscle necrosis which leads to a progressive decrease in mobility in those suffering from the disease. The MDX mouse, a mutant mouse model which displays a frank dystrophinopathy, is currently widely employed in pre clinical efficacy models for treatments and therapies aimed at DMD. In general the end-points examined within this model have been based on invasive histopathology of muscles and serum biochemical measures like measurement of serum creatine kinase (sCK). It is established that a “critical period” between 4 and 6 weeks exists in the MDX mouse when there is extensive muscle damage that is largely sub clinical but evident with sCK measurements and histopathological staining. However, a full characterization of the MDX model remains largely incomplete especially with respect to the ability to aggravate of the muscle damage beyond the critical period. The purpose of this study was to attempt to aggravate the muscle damage in the MDX mouse and to create a wider, more readily translatable and discernible, therapeutic window for the testing of potential therapies for DMD. The study consisted of subjecting 15 male mutant MDX mice and 15 male wild-type mice to an intense chronic exercise regime that consisted of bi-weekly (two times per week) treadmill sessions over a 12 month period. Each session was 30 minutes in duration and the treadmill speed was gradually built up to 14m/min for the entire session. Baseline plasma creatine kinase (pCK), treadmill training performance and locomotor activity were measured after the “critical period” at around 10 weeks of age and again at 14 weeks of age, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months of age. In addition, kinematic gait analysis was employed using a novel analysis algorithm in order to compare changes in gait and fine motor skills in diseased exercised MDX mice compared to exercised wild type mice and non exercised MDX mice. In addition, a morphological and metabolic profile (including lipid profile), from the muscles most severely affected, the gastrocnemius muscle and the tibialis anterior muscle, was also measured at the same time intervals. Results indicate that by aggravating or exacerbating the underlying muscle damage in the MDX mouse by exercise a more pronounced and severe phenotype in comes to light and this can be picked up earlier by kinematic gait analysis. A reduction in mobility as measured by open field is not apparent at younger ages nor during the critical period, but changes in gait are apparent in the mutant MDX mice. These gait changes coincide with pronounced morphological and metabolic changes by non-invasive anatomical MRI and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) we have reported elsewhere. Evidence of a progressive asymmetric pathology in imaging parameters as well as in the kinematic gait analysis was found. Taken together, the data show that chronic exercise regime exacerbates the muscle damage beyond the critical period and the ability to measure through non-invasive means are important factors to consider when performing preclinical efficacy studies in the MDX mouse.

Keywords: muscular dystrophy, Kinematic Analysis, gait, neuromuscular disease

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5 Features Reduction Using Bat Algorithm for Identification and Recognition of Parkinson Disease

Authors: A. Shukla, P. Shrivastava, K. Verma, S. Rungta


Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurological disorder that directly affects human gait. It leads to slowness of movement, causes muscle rigidity and tremors. Gait serve as a primary outcome measure for studies aiming at early recognition of disease. Using gait techniques, this paper implements efficient binary bat algorithm for an early detection of Parkinson's disease by selecting optimal features required for classification of affected patients from others. The data of 166 people, both fit and affected is collected and optimal feature selection is done using PSO and Bat algorithm. The reduced dataset is then classified using neural network. The experiments indicate that binary bat algorithm outperforms traditional PSO and genetic algorithm and gives a fairly good recognition rate even with the reduced dataset.

Keywords: Parkinson, Feature selection, gait, bat algorithm

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4 Kinematic Analysis of Human Gait for Typical Postures of Walking, Running and Cart Pulling

Authors: Nupur Karmaker, Hasin Aupama Azhari, Abdul Al Mortuza, Abhijit Chanda, Golam Abu Zakaria


Purpose: The purpose of gait analysis is to determine the biomechanics of the joint, phases of gait cycle, graphical and analytical analysis of degree of rotation, analysis of the electrical activity of muscles and force exerted on the hip joint at different locomotion during walking, running and cart pulling. Methods and Materials: Visual gait analysis and electromyography method has been used to detect the degree of rotation of joints and electrical activity of muscles. In cinematography method an object is observed from different sides and takes its video. Cart pulling length has been divided into frames with respect to time by using video splitter software. Phases of gait cycle, degree of rotation of joints, EMG profile and force analysis during walking and running has been taken from different papers. Gait cycle and degree of rotation of joints during cart pulling has been prepared by using video camera, stop watch, video splitter software and Microsoft Excel. Results and Discussion: During the cart pulling the force exerted on hip is the resultant of various forces. The force on hip is the vector sum of the force Fg= mg, due the body of weight of the person and Fa= ma, due to the velocity. Maximum stance phase shows during cart pulling and minimum shows during running. During cart pulling shows maximum degree of rotation of hip joint, knee: running, and ankle: cart pulling. During walking, it has been observed minimum degree of rotation of hip, ankle: during running. During cart pulling, dynamic force depends on the walking velocity, body weight and load weight. Conclusions: 80% people suffer gait related disease with increasing their age. Proper care should take during cart pulling. It will be better to establish the gait laboratory to determine the gait related diseases. If the way of cart pulling is changed i.e the design of cart pulling machine, load bearing system is changed then it would possible to reduce the risk of limb loss, flat foot syndrome and varicose vein in lower limb.

Keywords: Phase, gait, kinematic, gait lab, force analysis

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3 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Gamze Kurt, Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Ozgen Aras


Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: low back pain, Pain, Functionality, gait

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2 Investigating the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Baris Çetin, Hilal Keklicek, Yeliz Salci, Ayla Fil, Umut Altinkaynak, Kadriye Armutlu


Objectives and Goals: Spasticity is a common symptom characterized with a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) in patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hypertonic muscles affect the normal plantigrade contact by disturbing accommodation of foot to the ground while walking. It is important to know the differences between healthy and neurologic foot features for management of spasticity related deformities and/or determination of rehabilitation purposes and contents. This study was planned with the aim of investigating the dynamic plantar pressure distribution in individuals with MS and determining the differences between healthy individuals (HI). Methods: Fifty-five individuals with MS (108 foot with spasticity according to Modified Ashworth Scale) and 20 HI (40 foot) were the participants of the study. The dynamic pedobarograph was utilized for evaluation of dynamic loading parameters. Participants were informed to walk at their self-selected speed for seven times to eliminate learning effect. The parameters were divided into 2 categories including; maximum loading pressure (N/cm2) and time of maximum pressure (ms) were collected from heal medial, heal lateral, mid foot, heads of first, second, third, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. Results: There were differences between the groups in maximum loading pressure of heal medial (p < .001), heal lateral (p < .001), midfoot (p=.041) and 5th metatarsal areas (p=.036). Also, there were differences between the groups the time of maximum pressure of all metatarsal areas, midfoot, heal medial and heal lateral (p < .001) in favor of HI. Conclusions: The study provided basic data about foot pressure distribution in individuals with MS. Results of the study primarily showed that spasticity of lower extremity muscle disrupted the posteromedial foot loading. Secondarily, according to the study result, spasticity lead to inappropriate timing during load transfer from hind foot to forefoot.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, gait, plantar pressure distribution, norm values

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1 Investigation of New Gait Representations for Improving Gait Recognition

Authors: Chirawat Wattanapanich, Hong Wei


This study presents new gait representations for improving gait recognition accuracy on cross gait appearances, such as normal walking, wearing a coat and carrying a bag. Based on the Gait Energy Image (GEI), two ideas are implemented to generate new gait representations. One is to append lower knee regions to the original GEI, and the other is to apply convolutional operations to the GEI and its variants. A set of new gait representations are created and used for training multi-class Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Tests are conducted on the CASIA dataset B. Various combinations of the gait representations with different convolutional kernel size and different numbers of kernels used in the convolutional processes are examined. Both the entire images as features and reduced dimensional features by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are tested in gait recognition. Interestingly, both new techniques, appending the lower knee regions to the original GEI and convolutional GEI, can significantly contribute to the performance improvement in the gait recognition. The experimental results have shown that the average recognition rate can be improved from 75.65% to 87.50%.

Keywords: gait, convolutional image, lower knee

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