Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Fusarium Related Abstracts

4 Morphological and Biological Identification of Fusarium Species Associated with Ear Rot Disease of Maize in Indonesia and Malaysia

Authors: Darnetty Baharuddin Salleh

Abstract:

Fusarium ear rot disease is one of the most important diseases of maize and not only causes significant losses but also produced harmful mycotoxins to animals and humans. A total of 141 strains of Fusarium species were isolated from maize plants showing typical ear rot symptoms in Indonesia, and Malaysia by using the semi-selective medium (peptone pentachloronitrobenzene agar, PPA). These strains were identified morphologically. For strains in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (Gfsc), the identification was continued by using biological identification. Three species of Fusarium were morphologically identified as Fusarium in Gibberella species complex (105 strains, 74.5%), F. verticillioides (78 strains), F. proliferatum (24 strains) and F. subglutinans (3 strains) and five species from other section (36 strains, 25.5%), F. graminearum (14 strains), F. oxysporum (8 strains), F. solani ( 1 strain), and F. semitectum (13 strains). Out of 105 Fusarium species in Gfsc, 63 strains were identified as MAT-1, 25 strains as MAT-2 and 17 strains could not be identified and in crosses with nine standard testers, three mating populations of Fusarium were identified as MP-A, G. moniliformis (68 strains, 64.76%), MP-D, G. intermedia (21 strains, 20%) and MP-E, G. subglutinans (3 strains, 2.9%), and 13 strains (12.38%) could not be identified. All trains biologically identified as MP-A, MP-D, and MP-E, were identified morphologically as F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans, respectively. Thus, the results of this study indicated that identification based on biological identification were consistent with those of morphological identification. This is the first report on the presence of MP-A, MP-D, and MP-E on ear rot-infected maize in Indonesia; MP-A and MP-E in Malaysia.

Keywords: Fusarium, MAT-1, MAT-2, MP-A, MP-D, MP-E

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3 Quantification of Enzymatic Activities of Proteins, Peroxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, in Growing Phaseolus vulgaris L, with Application Bacterial Consortium to Control Fusarium and Rhizoctonia

Authors: Laredo Alcalá Elan Iñaky, Arredondo Valdes Roberto, Gonzalez Gallegos Esmeralda, Hernández Castillo Francisco Daniel, Castro Del Angel Epifanio

Abstract:

The common bean or Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume for direct consumption in the world. Fusarium dry rot in the major fungus disease affects Phaseolus vulgaris L, after planting. In another hand, Rhizoctonia can be found on all underground parts of the plant and various times during the growing season. In recent years, the world has conducted studies about the use of natural products as substitutes for herbicides and pesticides, because of possible ecological and economic benefits. Plants respond to fungal invasion by activating defense responses associated with accumulation of several enzymes and inhibitors, which prevent pathogen infection. This study focused on the role of proteins, peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), in imparting resistance to soft rot pathogens by applied different bacterial consortium, formulated and provided by Biofertilizantes de Méxicanos industries, analyzing the enzyme activity at different times of application (6 h, 12 h and 24 h). The resistance of these treatments was correlated with high POD and PAL enzyme activity as well as increased concentrations of proteins. These findings show that PAL, POD and synthesis of proteins play a role in imparting resistance to Phaseolus vulgaris L. soft rot infection by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia.

Keywords: Fusarium, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, rhizoctonia

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2 Multilocus Phylogenetic Approach Reveals Informative DNA Barcodes for Studying Evolution and Taxonomy of Fusarium Fungi

Authors: Alexander A. Stakheev, Larisa V. Samokhvalova, Sergey K. Zavriev

Abstract:

Fusarium fungi are among the most devastating plant pathogens distributed all over the world. Significant reduction of grain yield and quality caused by Fusarium leads to multi-billion dollar annual losses to the world agricultural production. These organisms can also cause infections in immunocompromised persons and produce the wide range of mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone, which are hazardous to human and animal health. Identification of Fusarium fungi based on the morphology of spores and spore-forming structures, colony color and appearance on specific culture media is often very complicated due to the high similarity of these features for closely related species. Modern Fusarium taxonomy increasingly uses data of crossing experiments (biological species concept) and genetic polymorphism analysis (phylogenetic species concept). A number of novel Fusarium sibling species has been established using DNA barcoding techniques. Species recognition is best made with the combined phylogeny of intron-rich protein coding genes and ribosomal DNA sequences. However, the internal transcribed spacer of (ITS), which is considered to be universal DNA barcode for Fungi, is not suitable for genus Fusarium, because of its insufficient variability between closely related species and the presence of non-orthologous copies in the genome. Nowadays, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α) gene is the “gold standard” of Fusarium taxonomy, but the search for novel informative markers is still needed. In this study, we used two novel DNA markers, frataxin (FXN) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to discover phylogenetic relationships between Fusarium species. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of TEF1α, FXN, HSP90, as well as intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA (IGS), beta-tubulin (β-TUB) and phosphate permease (PHO) genes has been conducted for 120 isolates of 19 Fusarium species from different climatic zones of Russia and neighboring countries using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) algorithms. Our analyses revealed that FXN and HSP90 genes could be considered as informative phylogenetic markers, suitable for evolutionary and taxonomic studies of Fusarium genus. It has been shown that PHO gene possesses more variable (22 %) and parsimony informative (19 %) characters than other markers, including TEF1α (12 % and 9 %, correspondingly) when used for elucidating phylogenetic relationships between F. avenaceum and its closest relatives – F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum, F. torulosum. Application of novel DNA barcodes confirmed the fact that F. arthrosporioides do not represent a separate species but only a subspecies of F. avenaceum. Phylogeny based on partial PHO and FXN sequences revealed the presence of separate cluster of four F. avenaceum strains which were closer to F. torulosum than to major F. avenaceum clade. The strain F-846 from Moldova, morphologically identified as F. poae, formed a separate lineage in all the constructed dendrograms, and could potentially be considered as a separate species, but more information is needed to confirm this conclusion. Variable sites in PHO sequences were used for the first-time development of specific qPCR-based diagnostic assays for F. acuminatum and F. torulosum. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 15-29-02527).

Keywords: Identification, Phylogenetics, taxonomy, Fusarium, DNA barcode

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1 Evaluating Antifungal Potential of Respiratory Inhibitors against Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar

Abstract:

Discovery and development of new compounds require intense studies in chemistry, biochemistry. Numerous experiments under laboratory-, greenhouse- and field conditions can be performed to select suitable candidates and to understand their full potential. Novel fungicides are fundamental to combat plant diseases. Fusarium solani is important plant pathogen. New broad spectrum foliar fungicides against complex II were designed in this study. Complex II, namely succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), or succinate quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a multi-subunit enzyme at the crossroads of TCA and ETC at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The need for new and innovative fungicides is driven by resistance management, regulatory hurdles and increasing customer expectations amongst others. Fungicidal activity was assessed for the effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of the fungi using fungicide amended media assay. In mycelial growth assay compounds C10 and C6 were highly active against all the isolates. The compounds C1 and C10 were found most potent in spore germination test. It fully proved that the SDHIs designed in this paper displayed as good inhibitory effects against Fusarium solani.

Keywords: Fusarium, Antifungal, SDH, Wilt

Procedia PDF Downloads 121