Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Furnace Related Abstracts

5 Finite Difference Modelling of Temperature Distribution around Fire Generated Heat Source in an Enclosure

Authors: A. A. Dare, E. U. Iniegbedion

Abstract:

Industrial furnaces generally involve enclosures of fire typically initiated by the combustion of gases. The fire leads to temperature distribution inside the enclosure. A proper understanding of the temperature and velocity distribution within the enclosure is often required for optimal design and use of the furnace. This study was therefore directed at numerical modeling of temperature distribution inside an enclosure as typical in a furnace. A mathematical model was developed from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The stream function-vorticity formulation of the governing equations was solved by an alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite difference technique. The finite difference formulation obtained were then developed into a computer code. This was used to determine the temperature, velocities, stream function and vorticity. The effect of the wall heat conduction was also considered, by assuming a one-dimensional heat flow through the wall. The computer code (MATLAB program) developed was used for the determination of the aforementioned variables. The results obtained showed that the transient temperature distribution assumed a uniform profile which becomes more chaotic with increasing time. The vertical velocity showed increasing turbulent behavior with time, while the horizontal velocity assumed decreasing laminar behavior with time. All of these behaviours were equally reported in the literature. The developed model has provided understanding of heat transfer process in an industrial furnace.

Keywords: Modelling, Furnace, heat source, enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
4 Reburning Characteristics of Biomass Syngas in a Pilot Scale Heavy Oil Furnace

Authors: Sang Heon Han, Daejun Chang, Won Yang

Abstract:

NOx reduction characteristics of syngas fuel were numerically investigated for the 2MW pilot scale heavy oil furnace of KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology). The secondary fuel and syngas was fed into the furnace with two purposes- partial replacement of main fuel and reburning of NOx. Some portion of syngas was fed into the flame zone to partially replace the heavy oil, while the other portion was fed into the furnace downstream to reduce NOx generation. The numerical prediction was verified by comparing it with the experimental results. Syngas of KITECH’s experiment, assumed to be produced from biomass, had very low calorific value and contained 3% hydrocarbon. This study investigated the precise behavior of NOx generation and NOx reduction as well as thermo-fluidic characteristics inside the furnace, which was unavailable with experiment. In addition to 3% hydrocarbon syngas, 5%, and 7% hydrocarbon syngas were numerically tested as reburning fuels to analyze the effect of hydrocarbon proportion to NOx reduction. The prediction showed that the 3% hydrocarbon syngas is as much effective as 7% hydrocarbon syngas in reducing NOx.

Keywords: heavy oil, Furnace, reburning, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3 On the Exergy Analysis of the Aluminum Smelter

Authors: Mohamed I. Hassan, Ayoola T. Brimmo

Abstract:

The push to mitigate the aluminum smelting industry’s enormous energy consumption and high emission releases is now even more persistent with the recent climate change happenings. Common approaches to achieve this have been focused on improving energy efficiency in the pot line and cast house sections of the smelter. However, the conventional energy efficiency analyses are based on the first law of thermodynamics, which do not shed proper light on the smelter’s degradation of energy. This just gives a general idea of the furnace’s performance with no reference to locations where improvement is a possibility based on the second law of thermodynamics. In this study, we apply exergy analyses on the pot line and cast house sections of the smelter to identify the locality and causes of energy degradation. The exergy analyses, which are based on a real life smelter conditions, highlight the possible locations for technology improvement in a typical smelter. With this established, methods of minimizing the smelter’s exergy losses are assessed.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Exergy analysis, Furnace, electrolytic cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
2 Development of High Quality Refractory Bricks from Fireclays for Industrial Applications

Authors: David E. Esezobor, Friday I. Apeh, Harrison O. Onovo, Ademola A. Agbeleye

Abstract:

Available indigenous refractory bricks in Nigeria can only be used in the lining of furnaces for melting of cast iron operating at less than 1,400°C or in preheating furnaces due to their low refractoriness less than 1,500°C. The bricks crack and shatter on heating at 1350 to 1450°C. In this paper, a simple and adaptable technology of manufacturing high-quality refractory bricks from selected Nigerian clays for furnace linings was developed. Fireclays from Onibode, Owode-Ketu in Ogun State and Kwoi in Kaduna State were crushed, ground, and sieved into various grain sizes using standard techniques. The pulverized clays were blended with alumina in various mix ratios and indurated in the furnace at 900 – 16000C. Their chemical, microstructure and mineralogical properties were characterized using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectrometry respectively. The mineralogical and spectrochemical analyses suggested that the clays are of siliceous alumino-silicate and acidic in nature. The appropriate blending of fireclays with alumina provided the tremendous improvement in the refractoriness of the bricks and other acceptable service properties comparable with imported refractory bricks. The change in microstructure from pseudo-hexagonal grains to equiaxed grains of well – ordered sequence of structural layers could be responsible for the improved properties.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Industry, Furnace, alumina, refractoriness

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
1 An Experimental Study of Iron Smelting Techniques Used in the South East Rajasthan, with Special Reference to Nathara-Ki-Pal, Udaipur

Authors: Udaya Kumar

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss recent research conducted in experimental studies related to the process of the iron smelting. The paper will discuss issues related to the selection of iron ore, structure of furnace, making of tuyeres, fashioning of blowers and firing temperatures through experiments conducted recently and scientific analyses of experimental work. Experiments were conducted in order to investigate iron smelting techniques used at the Early Historic site of Nathara-Ki-Pal. (73°47’E; 24°16N is located about 70 km south-east of Udaipur city). Geographically, Nathara-Ki-Pal has located the foot hills of Aravalli’s. Iron ore and iron slag can be seen on the surface of the site. The remains of 4 broken furnaces were recovered during excavations (2007 and 2008) and the site was excavated by Prof. Pandey from the Department of Archaeology of the Institute of Rajasthan studies, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University. This shows that the site of Nathara-Ki-Pal was a center of iron smelting. Results of experiments performed both in the field reconstruction of a bloomery furnace and in the laboratory are discussed.

Keywords: Furnace, experimental studies, smelting techniques, making of tuyeres

Procedia PDF Downloads 69