Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Fungicides Related Abstracts

7 Acute Exposure Of Two Classes Of Fungicides And Its Effects On Hematological Indices Of Fish (Clarius batrachus) - A Comparative Study

Authors: Ajay Singh, Pallavi Srivastava

Abstract:

Hematological assay has used for evaluation of blood changes according to its environment. It’s studies employed to evaluate possible eco-toxic risk due to the exposure of chemicals and pesticides in aquatic organisms. Fishes serve as a sensitive bio-indicator, as changes occur in its surrounding environment. The aim of present study has two-folds first we observed that after exposure of two doses of each class of fungicide i.e. 1.11mg/l, 2.23mg/l for Propiconazole and 11.43mg/l, 22.87mg/l for Mancozeb show maximum blood changes. Second we conclude that toxic effects and blood changes induced by Propiconazole is greater than Mancozeb.

Keywords: Fungicides, hematological assay, bio-indicator, eco-toxic risk

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6 Chemical Control Management Strategies for Corm Rot in Gladiolus communis L. under Field Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Shahbaz Ahmad, Sahar Naz

Abstract:

Corm rot is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli and it causes remarkable losses to the growers. Experiment was conducted in order to find some viable recommendations for this agronomically as well as economically important problem. Four fungicides, namely Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Thiophanate methyl and Chlorothalonil were used to control corm rot in gladiolus field. Fungicides were applied singly as foliar, in irrigation as well as with sulphuric acid in variable doses. The results revealed that application of all fungicides was variably effective to control corm rot in acid mixed irrigation followed by fungicide in irrigation. The application of all fungicides in various combinations was observed to be ineffective at all three doses.

Keywords: Fungicides, gladiolus, corm rot, Fusarium oxysporum

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5 Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study Offungicides: Propinèbe, Propiconazole, And Their Mixture in Wistar Rats

Authors: Aiche Mohamed Amine, Mallem Leila, Yahia El Khansa, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah

Abstract:

Until recently, toxicological studies focused on the effects of individual chemicals. However, humans and wildlife are exposed to a complex milieu of chemicals from different sources including food and water, personal care products and the environment. The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of two fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and oxidative damge induced in the rat. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole 60mg/Kg/day, Propinebe 100mg/Kg/day and their mixture 30mg Propiconazole/kg/day + 50mg Propineb/kg/day for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment period, animals of all groups were scarified, blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis and desired organs were removed and weighted. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture were toxic in the treated animals. The semen study showed a decrease in the count and mobility of spermatozoa in all treated group, it was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated group as compared with control. Reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was decreased in all treated groups.

Keywords: Fungicides, Oxidative Stress, Fertility, mixtures

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4 Oral Toxicity of Low Doses of Fungicides, Propinebe, Propiconazole and Their Mixtures in the Male Rat

Authors: Aiche Mohamed Amine, Mallem Leila, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah

Abstract:

A number of chemical compounds are being used to protect agricultural crops from diseases. Residues of these chemicals lead to environmental pollution and pose some threat to non target organisms, human and animal. The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the rat. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with propiconazole (60 mg/kg body weight/day), propinebe (100 mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment period, animals of all groups were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were toxic in the treated animals. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in all treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole, it was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated group as compared with control. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis and epidydimis and liver in the group treated with mixture.

Keywords: Fungicides, Fertility, Hematological, mixture, biochemical's parameters

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3 Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes in the Environment on the Behavior of Tadpoles Rana Saharica: Case of Fungicide (Artea 330ec)

Authors: H. Berrebah, S. Zouainia, R. Djebar, A. Sayeb

Abstract:

This work focused on the study of physiological and biochemical changes observed in tadpoles exposed to fungicide Rana saharica Artea 330ec recently introduced in Algeria. For this, we tested the effect of xenobiotics on growth and development of tadpoles; among the studied parameters: total protein, glutathione and respiratory activity. The study of physiological parameters showed that the tadpoles change perfectly in the absence of toxic and in favorable conditions (pH, temperature). Our results showed an increased rate of protein and GSH in the presence of the fungicide Artea 330ec. The latter causes uninhibited very highly significant respiratory activity of tadpoles treated. The presence of xenobiotics in the breeding tadpoles water causes disturbances in behavior and food metabolism.

Keywords: Pollution, Pesticides, Amphibians, Fungicides

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2 Varietal Screening of Watermelon against Powdery Mildew Disease and Its Management

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Asim Abbasi, Amer Habib, Sajid Hussain, Iqra, Hasnain Sajjad

Abstract:

Except for few scattered cases, powdery mildew disease was not a big problem for watermelon in the past but with the outbreaks of its pathotypes, races 1W and 2W, this disease becomes a serious issue all around the globe. The severe outbreak of this disease also increased the rate of fungicide application for its proper management. Twelve varieties of watermelon were screened in Research Area of Department of Plant pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to check the incidence of powdery mildew disease. Disease inoculum was prepared and applied with the help of foliar spray method. Fungicides and plants extracts were also applied after the disease incidence. Percentage leaf surface area diseased was assessed visually with a modified Horsfall-Barratt scale. The results of the experiment revealed that among all varieties, WT2257 and Zcugma F1 were highly resistant showing less than 5% disease incidence while Anar Kali and Sugar baby were highly susceptible with disease incidence of more than 65%. Among botanicals neem extract gave best results with disease incidence of less than 20%. Besides neem, all other botanicals also gave significant control of powdery mildew disease than the untreated check. In case of fungicides, Gemstar showed least disease incidence i.e. < 10%, however besides control maximum disease incidence was observed in Curzate (> 30%).

Keywords: Fungicides, Botanicals, powdery mildew, pathotypes

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1 Effects of Different Fungicide In-Crop Treatments on Plant Health Status of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Authors: F. Pal-Fam, S. Keszthelyi

Abstract:

Phytosanitary condition of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was endangered by several phytopathogenic agents, mainly microfungi, such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Diaporthe helianthi, Plasmopara halstedtii, Macrophomina phaseolina and so on. There are more agrotechnical and chemical technologies against them, for instance, tolerant hybrids, crop rotations and eventually several in-crop chemical treatments. There are different fungicide treatment methods in sunflower in Hungarian agricultural practice in the quest of obtaining healthy and economic plant products. Besides, there are many choices of useable active ingredients in Hungarian sunflower protection. This study carried out into the examination of the effect of five different fungicide active substances (found on the market) and three different application modes (early; late; and early and late treatments) in a total number of 9 sample plots, 0.1 ha each other. Five successive vegetation periods have been investigated in long term, between 2013 and 2017. The treatments were: 1)untreated control; 2) boscalid and dimoxystrobin late treatment (July); 3) boscalid and dimoxystrobin early treatment (June); 4) picoxystrobin and cyproconazole early treatment; 5) picoxystrobin and cymoxanil and famoxadone early treatment; 6) picoxystrobin and cyproconazole early; cymoxanil and famoxadone late treatments; 7) picoxystrobin and cyproconazole early; picoxystrobin and cymoxanil and famoxadone late treatments; 8) trifloxystrobin and cyproconazole early treatment; and 9) trifloxystrobin and cyproconazole both early and late treatments. Due to the very different yearly weather conditions different phytopathogenic fungi were dominant in the particular years: Diaporthe and Alternaria in 2013; Alternaria and Sclerotinia in 2014 and 2015; Alternaria, Sclerotinia and Diaporthe in 2016; and Alternaria in 2017. As a result of treatments ‘infection frequency’ and ‘infestation rate’ showed a significant decrease compared to the control plot. There were no significant differences between the efficacies of the different fungicide mixes; all were almost the same effective against the phytopathogenic fungi. The most dangerous Sclerotinia infection was practically eliminated in all of the treatments. Among the single treatments, the late treatment realised in July was the less efficient, followed by the early treatments effectuated in June. The most efficient was the double treatments realised in both June and July, resulting 70-80% decrease of the infection frequency, respectively 75-90% decrease of the infestation rate, comparing with the control plot in the particular years. The lowest yield quantity was observed in the control plot, followed by the late single treatment. The yield of the early single treatments was higher, while the double treatments showed the highest yield quantities (18.3-22.5% higher than the control plot in particular years). In total, according to our five years investigation, the most effective application mode is the double in-crop treatment per vegetation time, which is reflected by the yield surplus.

Keywords: Fungicides, treatments, Sunflower, phytopathogens

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