Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Fungi Related Abstracts

28 The Antimicrobrial Effect of Alkaloids (Harmin, Harmalin) Extracted from Peganum harmala (L) Seeds in the South of Algeria (Bousaada)

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene, Nadjiba Chebout


This work examines the study of the antimicrobrial effect of alkaloids extracted from the seeds of Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae). This natural substance is extracted by using different solvents (aqueous, ethanolic, and hexane). The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity has only dealt with alkaloids. The antimicrobial effect of alkaloids is evaluated on several microorganisms. It has been tested on eight bacterial strains. The extract has been studied by using two yeasts. Finally, three molds have been studied. It should be noted that these agents are characterized by a high frequency of contamination and pathogenicity. Through this study, we note that Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerievisae and E. coli are very sensitive in respect of the ethanol extract. Pseudomonas aerogenosa and Penicillium sp. are resistant to this extract. The other microorganisms are moderately sensitive. The study of the antimicrobial activity of different extracts of the Harmel has shown an optimal activity with the ethanol extract.

Keywords: Bacteria, Yeast, Antimicrobial activity, Seeds, Fungi, Alkaloids, Peganum harmala L

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27 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova


In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, Lipids, Fungi, culturing conditions, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics

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26 Microbial Diversity of El-Baida Marsh: Setif, Algeria

Authors: H. Necef, A. Benayad


Fungi are becoming more and more important in our life. Therefore, as a start for the symposium on filamentous fungi in biotechnology a short survey of the role of fungi in biotechnology. Salin soils occupy about 7% of land area; they are characterized by unsuitable physical conditions for the growth of living organisms. However, researches showed that some microorganisms especially fungi are able to grow and adapt to such extreme conditions; it is due to their ability to develop different physiological mechanisms in their adaptation. This is the first study on the physiological and biological characteristics of El-Beida marsh. Nine soil samples were taken at different points in two steps, the first was in winter (low temperature), and the second was in summer (high temperature). The physicochemical analyses of the soil were conducted, then the isolation process was applied using two methods, direct method and dilution method (10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4). Different species of fungi were identified belong to 21 genera in addition to 3 yeast species, Aspergillus showed the highest proportion by 43%, then Penicillium by 20% then Alternaria by 7%, in addition to various genera in different proportions. As for the sampling periods, it was observed that the spread of fungi in winter was higher than in summer with the proportion 75.47% and 24.53% respectively. Some halotolerant fungi have a biotechnological importance especially if the salinity of the medium is necessary for the fermentation, and if the halotolerance genes of the fungus will define, this will open the research to study and improve this property for the industrial important micro-organisms.

Keywords: Identification, Fungi, Salinity, aspergillus oryzae, halotolerance

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25 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye


Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: bioreactor, Bacterial, Purification, biodegradation, Fungi, Aspergillus niger, microbial load, greywater, organic matter and filtration

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24 Production, Extraction and Purification of Fungal Chitosan and Its Modification for Medical Applications

Authors: Debajyoti Bose


Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Chitosan is a positively charged natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It is a linear polysaccharide consisting of β-1,4 linked monomers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Chitosan can be mainly obtained from fungal sources during large fermentation process. In this study,three different fungal strains Aspergillus niger NCIM 1045, Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 645 and Mucor indicus MTCC 3318 were used for the production of chitosan. The growth mediums were optimized for maximum fungal production. The produced chitosan was characterized by determining degree of deacetylation. Chitosan possesses one reactive amino at the C-2 position of the glucosamine residue, and these amines confer important functional properties to chitosan which can be exploited for biofabrication to generate various chemically modified derivatives and explore their potential for pharmaceutical field. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The major effect on encapsulation and release of protein (e.g. enzyme diastase) in chitosan-TPP nanoparticles was investigated in order to control the loading and release efficiency. It was noted that the chitosan loading and releasing efficiency as a nanocapsule, obtained from different fungal sources was almost near to initial enzyme activity(12026 U/ml) with a negligible loss. This signify, chitosan can be used as a polymeric drug as well as active component or protein carrier material in dosage by design due to its appealing properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and relatively low production cost from abundant natural sources. Based upon these initial experiments, studies were also carried out on modification of chitosan based nanocapsules incorporated with physiologically important enzymes and nutraceuticals for target delivery.

Keywords: enzyme, Fungi, chitosan, nanocapsule

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23 Microbiological Analysis of Soil from Onu-Ebonyi Contaminated with Inorganic Fertilizer

Authors: M. N. Alo, U. C. C. Egbule, J. O. Orji, C. J. Aneke


Microbiological analysis of soil from Onu-Ebonyi Izzi local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria contaminated with inorganic fertilizer was carried out with a view to determine the effect of the fertilizer on the microbial flora of the soil. soil samples were analyzed for microbial burden. the result showed that the following organisms were isolated with their frequency of their occurrence as follows:pseudomonas species (33.3%) and aspergillus species (54.4%) had the highest frequncy of occurence in the whole sample of batches, while streptococcus species had 6.0% and Geotrichum species (5.3%) had the least and other predominant microorganism isolated: bacillus species,staphylococcus species and vibrio species, Escherichia species, rhzizopus species, mucor species and fusaruim species. From the result, it could be concluded that the soil was contaminated and this could affect adversely the fertility of the soil .

Keywords: Soil, Bacteria, Fungi, inorganic fertilizer, Onu- Ebonyi

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22 Efficiency for Enzyme Production of Fungi Isolated from the Stomach of Buffalo

Authors: Suphalucksana, Wichai, Sangsoponjit Settasit, Soytong Kasem


A study on the efficiency for enzyme production of fungi isolated from stomach of buffalo was conducted. The fungi were collected from 4 parts of stomach as rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The objective to study the efficiency of fungi from stomach of buffalo had effected to produced enzyme and to selected fungi for their ability to produced enzyme cellulase, hemicellulase and ligninase. Results shown that the fungi isolated from rumen were: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Rhyzopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4) and Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2). From the reticulum, Aspergillus glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus orchraceus (B-RET-02-2) and Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4) were found. In the omasum Aspergillus fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4) and Rhizopus stolonifer (B-OMA-02-3) were isolated and in the abomasums Aspergillus flavas (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillus fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillus niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). Results of enzyme analysis revealed that cellulase was produced by isolated: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4). Hemicellulase was produced Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Rhizopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4), Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA -01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1) Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4), Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). For the enzyme ligninase, two isolates were found to produced this enzyme namely : Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G).

Keywords: Agricultural Technology, Fungi, enzyme production from fungi, enzyme production

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21 Application of Phenol Degrading Microorganisms for the Treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW)

Authors: M. A. El-Khateeb


The growth of the olive oil production in Saudi Arabia peculiarly in Al Jouf region in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the discharge of associated processing waste. Olive mill waste is produced throughout the extraction of oil from the olive fruit using the traditional mill and press process. Deterioration of the environment due to olive mill disposal wastes is a serious problem. When olive mill waste disposed into the soil, it affects soil quality, soil micro flora, and also toxic to plants. The aim of this work is to isolate microorganism (bacterial or fungal strains) from OMW capable of degrading phenols. Olive mill wastewater, olive mill waste and soil (beside oil production mill) contaminated with olive waste were used for isolation of phenol tolerant microorganisms. Four strains (two fungal and two bacterial) were isolated from olive mill waste. The isolated strains were Candida tropicalis and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (fungal strains) and Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. (bacterial strains). These strains were able to degrade phenols and could be used for bioremediation of olive mill waste.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bacteria, Fungi, Sakaka

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20 Fermentable Bio-Ethanol Using Bakers and Palmwine Yeasts: Indices of Bioavailability of Carbohydrate and Sugar from Fungal Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen, Onwurah, Ikechukwu Noel Emmanuel


Pure strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF), aspergillus niger (AN), aspergillus oryzae (AO), trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), trichophyton rubrum (TR) and Trichophyton soudanense (TS) were isolated from decomposing rice husk. Freshly processed rice husk in Mandle’s medium were heat pre-treated using an autoclave at 121oC for 20 minutes. The isolated fungi as monoculture and di-culture combinations were inoculated into each of the pre-treated rice husk with the exception of two controls. Seven days hydrolysis was followed by estimation of carbohydrate, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar. Fungal treated rice husks were left to ferment for 7 days with introduction of both baker’s and palm wine yeast. The result obtained in the work gave the highest carbohydrate (20.53 ± 2.73 %) from rice husks treated with TS + TR di-culture. The highest soluble reducing sugar (2.66 ± 0.14 %) was obtained from rice husk treated with TM. The highest soluble nonreducing sugar (18.08 ± 2.61 %) was from AF. The introduction of yeasts from palm wine gave the highest bio-ethanol (12.82 ± 0.39 %) from AO. The highest bio-ethanol (6.60 ± 0.10 %) from baker's yeast fermentation was in AO + TS treated rice husk. There was increased availability of sugar and moderate yield of bio-ethanol, especially from palm wine yeast.

Keywords: Fermentation, Carbohydrate, Fungi, Ethanol, rice husk, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar

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19 On-Farm Biopurification Systems: Fungal Bioaugmentation of Biomixtures For Carbofuran Removal

Authors: Carlos E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Karla Ruiz-Hidalgo, Kattia Madrigal-Zúñiga, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Mario Masís-Mora, Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas


One of the main causes of contamination linked to agricultural activities is the spillage and disposal of pesticides, especially during the loading, mixing or cleaning of agricultural spraying equipment. One improvement in the handling of pesticides is the use of biopurification systems (BPS), simple and cheap degradation devices where the pesticides are biologically degraded at accelerated rates. The biologically active core of BPS is the biomixture, which is constituted by soil pre-exposed to the target pesticide, a lignocellulosic substrate to promote the activity of ligninolitic fungi and a humic component (peat or compost), mixed at a volumetric proportion of 50:25:25. Considering the known ability of lignocellulosic fungi to degrade a wide range of organic pollutants, and the high amount of lignocellulosic waste used in biomixture preparation, the bioaugmentation of biomixtures with these fungi represents an interesting approach for improving biomixtures. The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of the bioaugmentation of rice husk based biomixtures with the fungus Trametes versicolor in the removal of the insectice/nematicide carbofuran (CFN) and to optimize the composition of the biomixture to obtain the best performance in terms of CFN removal and mineralization, reduction in formation of transformation products and decrease in residual toxicity of the matrix. The evaluation of several lignocellulosic residues (rice husk, wood chips, coconut fiber, sugarcane bagasse or newspaper print) revealed the best colonization by T. versicolor in rice husk. Pre-colonized rice husk was then used in the bioaugmentation of biomixtures also containing soil pre-exposed to CFN and either peat (GTS biomixture) or compost (GCS biomixture). After spiking with 10 mg/kg CBF, the efficiency of the biomixture was evaluated through a multi-component approach that included: monitoring of CBF removal and production of CBF transformation products, mineralization of radioisotopically labeled carbofuran (14C-CBF) and changes in the toxicity of the matrix after the treatment (Daphnia magna acute immobilization test). Estimated half-lives of CBF in the biomixtures were 3.4 d and 8.1 d in GTS and GCS, respectively. The transformation products 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran were detected at the moment of CFN application, however their concentration continuously disappeared. Mineralization of 14C-CFN was also faster in GTS than GCS. The toxicological evaluation showed a complete toxicity removal in the biomixtures after 48 d of treatment. The composition of the GCS biomixture was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The design variables were the volumetric content of fungally pre-colonized rice husk and the volumetric ratio compost/soil. According to the response models, maximization of CFN removal and mineralization rate, and minimization in the accumulation of transformation products were obtained with an optimized biomixture of composition 30:43:27 (pre-colonized rice husk:compost:soil), which differs from the 50:25:25 composition commonly employed in BPS. Results suggest that fungal bioaugmentation may enhance the performance of biomixtures in CFN removal. Optimization reveals the importance of assessing new biomixture formulations in order to maximize their performance.

Keywords: Toxicity, Pesticides, Fungi, Bioaugmentation, degradation, biopurification systems

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18 Effect of Oyster Mushroom on Biodegradation of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Saidu, Afiz Busari, Ali Yuzir, Mohd Razman Salim


Degradation of agricultural residues from palm oil industry is increasing due to its expansion. Lignocelloulosic waste from these industry represent large amount of unutilized resources, this is due to their high lignin content. Since, white rot fungi are capable of degrading the lignin, its potential to degradation was accessed for upgrading it. The lignocellluloses content was measured before and after biodegradation and the rate of reduction was determined. From the results of biodegradation, it was observed that hemicellulose reduces by 22.62%, cellulose by 20.97% and lignin by 10.65% from the initials lignocelluloses contents. Thus, to improve the digestibility of palm oil mesocarp fibre, treatment by white rot-fungi is recommended.

Keywords: Biological, Fungi, oil palm, lignocelluses

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17 Howard Mold Count of Tomato Pulp Commercialized in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: M. B. Atui, A. M. Silva, M. A. M. Marciano, M. I. Fioravanti, V. A. Franco, L. B. Chasin, A. R. Ferreira, M. D. Nogueira


Fungi attack large amount of fruits and those who have suffered an injury on the surface are more susceptible to the growth, as they have pectinolytic enzymes that destroy the edible portion forming an amorphous and soft dough. The spores can reach the plant by the wind, rain and insects and fruit may have on its surface, besides the contaminants from the fruit trees, land and water, forming a flora composed mainly of yeasts and molds. Other contamination can occur for the equipment used to harvest, for the use of boxes and contaminated water to the fruit washing, for storage in dirty places. The hyphae in tomato products indicate the use of raw materials contaminated or unsuitable hygiene conditions during processing. Although fungi are inactivated in heat processing step, its hyphae remain in the final product and search for detection and quantification is an indicator of the quality of raw material. Howard Method count of fungi mycelia in industrialized pulps evaluates the amount of decayed fruits existing in raw material. The Brazilian legislation governing processed and packaged products set the limit of 40% of positive fields in tomato pulps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the tomato pulp sold in greater São Paulo, through a monitoring during the four seasons of the year. All over 2010, 110 samples have been examined; 21 were taking in spring, 31 in summer, 31 in fall and 27 in winter, all from different lots and trademarks. Samples have been picked up in several stores located in the city of São Paulo. Howard method was used, recommended by the AOAC, 19th ed, 2011 16:19:02 technique - method 965.41. Hundred percent of the samples contained fungi mycelia. The count average of fungi mycelia per season was 23%, 28%, 8,2% and 9,9% in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Regarding the spring samples of the 21 samples analyzed, 14.3% were off-limits proposed by the legislation. As for the samples of the fall and winter, all were in accordance with the legislation and the average of mycelial filament count has not exceeded 20%, which can be explained by the low temperatures during this time of the year. The acquired samples in the summer and spring showed high percentage of fungal mycelium in the final product, related to the high temperatures in these seasons. Considering that the limit of 40% of positive fields is accepted for the Brazilian Legislation (RDC nº 14/2014), 3 spring samples (14%) and 6 summer samples (19%) will be over this limit and subject to law penalties. According to gathered data, 82% of manufacturers of this product manage to keep acceptable levels of fungi mycelia in their product. In conclusion, only 9.2% samples were for the limits established by Resolution RDC. 14/2014, showing that the limit of 40% is feasible and can be used by these segment industries. The result of the filament count mycelial by Howard method is an important tool in the microscopic analysis since it measures the quality of raw material used in the production of tomato products.

Keywords: Fungi, Method, tomato, howard, pulps

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16 Studies on the Bioactivity of Different Solvents Extracts of Selected Marine Macroalgae against Fish Pathogens

Authors: Mary Ghobrial, Sahar Wefky


Marine macroalgae have proven to be rich source of bioactive compounds with biomedical potential, not only for human but also for veterinary medicine. Emergence of microbial disease in aquaculture industries implies serious loses. Usage of commercial antibiotics for fish disease treatment produces undesirable side effects. Marine organisms are a rich source of structurally novel biologically active metabolites. Competition for space and nutrients led to the evolution of antimicrobial defense strategies in the aquatic environment. The interest in marine organisms as a potential and promising source of pharmaceutical agents has increased in the last years. Many bioactive and pharmacologically active substances have been isolated from microalgae. Compounds with antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities have been also detected in green, brown and red algae. Selected species of marine benthic algae belonging to the Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, collected from different coastal areas of Alexandria (Egypt), were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal, activities. Macroalgae samples were collected during low tide from the Alexandria Mediterranean coast. Samples were air dried under shade at room temperature. The dry algae were ground, using electric mixer grinder. They were soaked in 10 ml of each of the solvents acetone, ethanol, methanol and hexane. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using well-cut diffusion technique In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts from the marine macroalgae Laurencia pinnatifida, Pterocladia capillaceae, Stepopodium zonale, Halopteris scoparia and Sargassum hystrix, showed specific activity in inhibiting the growth of five virulent strains of bacteria pathogenic to fish Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, V. tandara, Escherichia coli and two fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. Results showed that, acetone and ethanol extracts of all test macroalgae exhibited antibacterial activity, while acetone extract of the brown Sargassum hystrix displayed the highest antifungal activity. The extracts of seaweeds inhibited bacteria more strongly than fungi and species of the Rhodophyta showed the greatest activity against the bacteria rather than fungi tested. The gas liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection technique allows good qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fractionated extracts with high sensitivity to the smaller amounts of components. Results indicated that, the main common component in the acetone extracts of L. pinnatifida and P. capillacea is 4-hydroxy-4-methyl2-pentanone representing 64.38 and 58.60%. Thus, the extracts derived from the red macroalgae were more efficient than those obtained from the brown macroalgae in combating bacterial pathogens rather than pathogenic fungi. The most preferred species over all was the red Laurencia pinnatifida. In conclusion, the present study provides the potential of red and brown macroalgae extracts for development of anti-pathogenic agents for use in fish aquaculture.

Keywords: Bacteria, solvents, Fungi, extracts

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15 The Effects of Local Factors on the Concentrations and Flora of Viable Fungi in School Buildings

Authors: H. Salonen, E. Castagnoli, C. Vornanen-Winqvist, R. Mikkola, C. Duchaine, L. Morawska, J. Kurnitski


A wide range of health effects among occupants are associated with the exposure to bioaerosols from fungal sources. Although the accurate role of these aerosols in causing the symptoms and diseases is poorly understood, the important effect of bioaerosol exposure on human health is well recognized. Thus, there is a need to determine all of the contributing factors related to the concentration of fungi in indoor air. In this study, we reviewed and summarized the different factors affecting the concentrations of viable fungi in school buildings. The literature research was conducted using Pubmed and Google Scholar. In addition, we searched the lists of references of selected articles. According to the literature, the main factors influencing the concentration of viable fungi in the school buildings are moisture damage in building structures, the season (temperature and humidity conditions), the type and rate of ventilation, the number and activities of occupants and diurnal variations. This study offers valuable information that can be used in the interpretation of the fungal analysis and to decrease microbial exposure by reducing known sources and/or contributing factors. However, more studies of different local factors contributing to the human microbial exposure in school buildings—as well as other type of buildings and different indoor environments—are needed.

Keywords: Fungi, School, Concentration, indoor, contributing factor

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14 Assessment of Bioaerosol and Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds in Different Sections of Library

Authors: Himanshu Lal, Bipasha Ghosh, Arun Srivastava


A pilot study of indoor air quality in terms of bioaerosol (fungus and bacteria) and few selective microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was carried out in different indoor sections of a library for two seasons, namely monsoon and post monsoon. Bioaerosol sampling was carried out using Anderson six stage viable sampler at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min while MVOCs were collected on activated charcoal tubes ORBOTM 90 Carboxen 564.Collected MVOCs were desorbed using carbon disulphide (CS2) and analysed by GC-FID. Microscopic identification for fungus was only carried out. Surface dust was collected by sterilised buds and cultured to identify fungal contaminants. Unlike bacterial size distribution, fungal bioaerosol concentration was found to be highest in the fourth stage in different sections of the library. In post monsoon season both fungal bioaerosol (710 to 3292cfu/m3) and bacterial bioaerosol (298 to 1475cfu/m3) were fund at much greater concentration than in monsoon. In monsoon season unlike post monsoon, I/O ratio for both the bioaerosol fractions was more than one. Rain washout could be the reason of lower outdoor concentration in monsoon season. On the contrary most of the MVOCs namely 1-hexene, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol were found in the monsoon season instead of post monsoon season with the highest being 1-hexene with 7.09µg/m3 concentration. Among the six identified fungal bioaerosol Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were found in maximum concentration while Aspergillus niger, Curvuleria lunata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium sp., was indentified in surface dust samples. According to regression analysis apart from environmental factors other factors also played an important role. Thus apart from outdoor infiltration and human sources, accumulated surface dust mostly on organic materials like books, wooden furniture and racks can be attributed to being one of the major sources of both fungal bioaerosols as well as MVOCs found in the library.

Keywords: Indoor Air, Bacteria, Fungi, MVOCs

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13 Surface Sterilization Retain Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry and Cherry Tomato during Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Authors: Ju Young Kim, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Mahmuda Akter Mele, Su Jeong Han, Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang


Strawberry and tomato fruits were harvested at the red ripens maturity stage in the Republic of Korea. The fruits were dipped in fungi solution and afterwards were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. Some fruits were dipped in 150μL/L NaOCl solution for 10 minutes, and others were treated with 5μL/L ClO2 gas for 12 hours and packed with 20,000 cc OTR (oxygen transmission rate) film, the rest were packed in 10,000 cc OTR film inserted with 5μL/L ClO2 gas. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed the lowest carbon dioxide and ethylene, and the highest oxygen concentration was on the final storage day (15th day) in both strawberry and tomato fruits. Tomato fruits showed the lowest fresh weight loss in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. The visual quality as well as shelf life showed the highest in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment of both strawberry and tomato fruits. In addition, the fungal incidence of strawberry and tomato fruits were the most suppressed in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed higher firmness and soluble solids in both strawberry and tomato fruits. So, 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment may be useful to prevent the fungal incidence as well as retaining the postharvest quality, and increase the shelf life of strawberry and tomato fruits for long term storage. This study was supported by Export Promotion Technology Development Program (314027-03), IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

Keywords: Fungi, Ethylene, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite

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12 White-Rot Fungi Phellinus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents

Authors: Yogesh Dalvi, Ruby Varghese, Nibu Varghese, C. K. Krishnan Nair


Introduction: The Genus Phellinus, locally known as Phansomba is a well-known traditional folk medicine. Especially, in Western Ghats of India, many tribes use several species of Phellinus for various ailments related to teeth, throat, tongue, stomach and even wound healing. It is one of the few mushrooms which play a pivotal role in Ayurvedic Dravyaguna. Aim: The present study focuses on to investigate phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, and antitumor (in vitro and in vivo) potential of Phellinus robinae from South India, Kerala Material and Methods: The present study explores the following: 1. Phellinus samples were collected from Ranni, Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, India from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and species were identified using rDNA region. 2. The fruiting body was shadow dried, powdered and extracted with 50% alcohol using water bath at 60°C which was further condensed by rotary evaporator and lyophilized at minus 40°C temperature. 3. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by using various phytochemical screening assay (Hager’s Test, Wagner’s Test, Sodium hydroxide Test, Lead acetate Test, Ferric chloride Test, Folin-ciocalteu Test, Foaming Test, Benedict’s test, Fehling’s Test and Lowry’s Test). 4. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were analyzed by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. 5. The antitumor potential of Water alcohol extract of Phellinus (PAWE) is evaluated through In vitro condition by Trypan blue dye exclusion method in DLA cell line and In vivo by murine model. Result and Discussion: Preliminary phytochemical screening by various biochemical tests revealed presence of a variety of active secondary molecules like alkaloids, flavanoids, saponins, carbohydrate, protein and phenol. In DPPH and FRAP assay PAWE showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. While, in Iron chelating assay, PAWE exhibits similar antioxidant activity that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standard. Further, in the in vitro study, PAWE showed significant inhibition on DLA cell proliferation in dose dependent manner and showed no toxicity on mice splenocytes, when compared to standard chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. In vivo study, oral administration of PAWE showed dose dependent tumor regression in mice and also raised the immunogenicity by restoring levels of antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney tissue. In both in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies PAWE up-regulates pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Caspases 3, 8 and 9) and down- regulates anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2). PAWE also down regulates inflammatory gene (Cox-2) and angiogenic gene (VEGF). Conclusion: Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that PAWE contains various secondary metabolites which contribute to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property as evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and Iron chelating assay. PAWE exhibits anti-proliferative activity by the induction of apoptosis through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic (Caspase8 and Tnf-α), as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic (caspase9) and caspase pathways (Caspase3, 8 and 9) and also by regressing angiogenic factor (VEGF) without any inflammation or adverse side effects. Hence, PAWE serve as a potential antioxidant and antitumor agent.

Keywords: Fungi, antioxidant, antitumor, Dalton lymphoma ascites (DLA), Phellinus robinae

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11 Biodiesel Production and Heavy Metal Removal by Aspergillus fumigatus sp.

Authors: Ahmed M. Haddad, Hadeel S. El-Shaal, Gadallah M. Abu-Elreesh


Some of filamentous fungi can be used for biodiesel production as they are able to accumulate high amounts of intracellular lipids when grown at stress conditions. Aspergillus fumigatus sp. was isolated from Nile delta soil in Egypt. The fungus was primarily screened for its capacity to accumulate lipids using Nile red staining assay. The fungus could accumulate more than 20% of its biomass as lipids when grown at optimized minimal medium. After lipid extraction, we could use fungal cell debris to remove some heavy metals from contaminated waste water. The fungal cell debris could remove Cd, Cr, and Zn with absorption efficiency of 73%, 83.43%, and 69.39% respectively. In conclusion, the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate may be considered as a promising biodiesel producer, and its biomass waste can be further used for bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Lipids, Biodiesel, Heavy Metals, Fungi, oleaginous

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10 Study of Microbial Diversity Associated with Tarballs and Their Exploitation in Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Varsha Shinde, Belle Damodara Shenoy


Tarballs are crude oil remnants found in oceans after long term weathering process and are a global concern since several decades as potential marine pollutant. Being complicated in structure microbial remediation of tarballs in natural environment is a slow process. They are rich in high molecular weight alkanes and poly aromatic hydrocarbons which are resistant to microbial attack and other environmental factors, therefore remain in environment for long time. However, it has been found that many bacteria and fungi inhabit on tarballs for nutrients and shelter. Many of them are supposed to be oil degraders, while others are supposed to be getting benefited by byproducts formed during hydrocarbon metabolism. Thus tarballs are forming special interesting ecological niche of microbes. This work aimed to study diversity of bacteria and fungi from tarballs and to see their potential application in crude oil degradation. The samples of tarballs were collected from Betul beach of south Goa (India). Different methods were used to isolate culturable fraction of bacteria and fungi from it. Those were sequenced for 16S rRNA gene and ITS for molecular level identification. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 bacterial genera/clades (Alcanivorax, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Marinobacter, Nitratireductor, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Tistrella and Vibrio), while the ITS sequence analysis placed the fungi in 8 diverse genera/ clades (Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scytalidium/ Xylogone, Talaromyces and Trichoderma). All bacterial isolates were screened for oil degradation capacity. Potential strains were subjected to crude oil degradation experiment for quantification. Results were analyzed by GC-MS-MS.

Keywords: Diversity, biodegradation, Bacteria, Fungi, crude oil, tarballs

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9 Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam

Authors: Ifueko Oghogho Ukponmwan, Mike O. Orji


This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.

Keywords: Fungi, Bacillus subtilis, yam, rot

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8 Effects of Storage Methods on Proximate Compositions of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Temitope A. Oyedele, Clement G. Afolabi


One of the limitations of African yam bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) is poor storage ability due to the adverse effect of seed-borne fungi. This study was conducted to examine the effects of storage methods on the nutritive composition of AYB seeds stored in three types of storage materials viz; Jute bags, Polypropylene bags, and Plastic Bowls. Freshly harvested seeds of AYB seeds were stored in all the storage materials for 6 months using 2 × 3 factorial (2 AYB cultivars and 3 storage methods) in 3 replicates. The proximate analysis of the stored AYB seeds was carried out at 3 and 6 months after storage using standard methods. The temperature and relative humidity of the storeroom was recorded monthly with Kestrel pocket weather tracker 4000. Seeds stored in jute bags gave the best values for crude protein (24.87%), ash (5.69%) and fat content (6.64%) but recorded least values for crude fibre (2.55%), carbohydrate (50.86%) and moisture content (12.68%) at the 6th month of storage. The temperature of the storeroom decreased from 32.9ºC - 28.3ºC, while the relative humidity increased from 78% - 86%. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Geotricum candidum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor meihei was accompanied by the increase in storage fungi viz: Apergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium espansum and Penicillium atrovenetum with prolonged storage. The study showed that of the three storage materials jute bag was more effective at preserving AYB seeds.

Keywords: Fungi, proximate composition, African yam bean, storage methods

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7 Combined Use of Microbial Consortia for the Enhanced Degradation of Type-IIx Pyrethroids

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Chandrajit B. Majumder


The unrestrained usage of pesticides to meet the burgeoning demand of enhanced crop productivity has led to the serious contamination of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. The remediation of mixture of pesticides is a challenging affair regarding inadvertent mixture of pesticides from agricultural lands treated with various compounds. Global concerns about the excessive use of pesticides have driven the need to develop more effective and safer alternatives for their remediation. We focused our work on the microbial degradation of a mixture of three Type II-pyrethroids, namely Cypermethrin, Cyhalothrin and Deltamethrin commonly applied for both agricultural and domestic purposes. The fungal strains (Fusarium strain 8-11P and Fusarium sp. zzz1124) had previously been isolated from agricultural soils and their ability to biotransform this amalgam was studied. In brief, the experiment was conducted in two growth systems (added carbon and carbon-free) enriched with variable concentrations of pyrethroids between 100 to 300 mgL⁻¹. Parameter optimization (pH, temperature, concentration and time) was done using a central composite design matrix of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). At concentrations below 200 mgL⁻¹, complete removal was observed; however, degradation of 95.6%/97.4 and 92.27%/95.65% (in carbon-free/added carbon) was observed for 250 and 300 mgL⁻¹ respectively. The consortium has been shown to degrade the pyrethroid mixture (300 mg L⁻¹) within 120 h. After 5 day incubation, the residual pyrethroids concentration in unsterilized soil were much lower than in sterilized soil, indicating that microbial degradation predominates in pyrethroids elimination with the half-life (t₁/₂) of 1.6 d and R² ranging from 0.992-0.999. Overall, these results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains. The findings will complement our current understanding of the bioremediation of mixture of Type II pyrethroids with microbial consortia and potentially heighten the importance for considering bioremediation as an effective alternative for the remediation of such pollutants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Fungi, pyrethroids

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6 The Production of Reinforced Insulation Bricks out of the Concentration of Ganoderma lucidum Fungal Inoculums and Cement Paste

Authors: Jovie Esquivias Nicolas, Ron Aldrin Lontoc Austria, Crisabelle Belleza Bautista, Mariane Chiho Espinosa Bundalian, Owwen Kervy Del Rosario Castillo, Mary Angelyn Mercado Dela Cruz, Heinrich Theraja Recana De Luna, Chriscell Gipanao Eustaquio, Desiree Laine Lauz Gilbas, Jordan Ignacio Legaspi, Larah Denise David Madrid, Charles Linelle Malapote Mendoza, Hazel Maxine Manalad Reyes, Carl Justine Nabora Saberdo, Claire Mae Rendon Santos


In response to the global race in discovering the next advanced sustainable material that will reduce our ecological footprint, the researchers aimed to create a masonry unit which is competent in physical edifices and other constructional facets. From different proven researches, mycelium has been concluded that when dried can be used as a robust and waterproof building material that can be grown into explicit forms, thus reducing the processing requirements. Hypothesizing inclusive measures to attest fungi’s impressive structural qualities and absorbency, the researchers projected to perform comparative analyses in creating mycelium bricks from mushroom spores of G. lucidum. Three treatments were intended to classify the most ideal concentration of clay and substrate fixings. The substrate bags fixed with 30% clay and 70% mixings indicated highest numerical frequencies in terms of full occupation of fungal mycelia. Subsequently, sorted parts of white portions from the treatment were settled in a thermoplastic mold and burnt. Three proportional concentrations of cultivated substrate and cement were also prioritized to gather results of variation focused on the weights of the bricks in the Water Absorption Test and Durability Test. Fungal inoculums with solutions of cement showed small to moderate amounts of decrease and increase in load. This proves that the treatments did not show any significant difference when it comes to strength, efficiency and absorption capacity. Each of the concentration is equally valid and could be used in supporting the worldwide demands of creating numerous bricks while also taking into consideration the recovery of our nature.

Keywords: Fungi, Mycelium, water absorption test, fungal mycelia, durability test

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5 DNA-Based Analysis of Gut Content of Zygoribatula sp (Acari: Oribatida) and Scheloribates sp (Acari: Oribatida), under the Canopy of Prosopis Laevigata, in a Semiarid Land

Authors: Daniel Isaac Sanchez Chavez, Salvador Rodríguez Zaragoza, Patricia Velez Aguilar


In arid and semi-arid regions, plants are essential in the functional activity and productivity, modifying the microclimatic conditions of their environment, which allows many organisms to grow under them. Within these organisms, oribatid mites play a key role in reintegrating nutrients into the soil through the consumption of soil fungi. However, oribatid mites feed on a vast array of fungal species, which is likely to have strong impacts on their population dynamics and their environment. So, in this study, the aim was to determine the gut content of the abundant oribatid mites Zygoribatula sp and Scheloribates sp, under the canopy of the bush P. laevigata in a semi-arid zone through DNA-based analysis. The results showed the presence in the gut of both mites of different fungal taxa. Fungi, such as Aspergillus sp and Mortierella sp, probably served as a food despite the production of deterrent compounds or structures from both fungal species. Saccharomyces sp might serve as well as a food source; however, it might be part of their microbial endosymbionts. On the other hand, the presence of Beauveria sp indicates a probable pathogenicity interaction, instead of fungal consumption, since this fungus is known to be entomopathogenic. Finally, the results might indicate a feeding preference to certain soil fungi according to diverse features from both taxa.

Keywords: Microenvironment, Fungi, Oribatida, endosymbionts

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4 The Order Russulales of Basidiomycota: Systematics, Ecology and Chemotaxonomy

Authors: Marco Clericuzio, Alfredo Vizzini


The secondary metabolites of Russulales (one of the main orders of phylum Basidiomycota), have been studied. They are mainly terpenoids, with sesquiterpenes being the most common ones, but also triterpenoids and prenylated phenols have been isolated. We found that classes of specific compounds seem to be often allied to systematic groupings, so that they may have chemotaxonomic significance. Moreover, the ecological implications of such metabolites, as well as their biological activities, are discussed. Lately, we have focused our attention on the anti-arthropod activity of Russula metabolites, in particular on the toxicity against mites and other crop pests.

Keywords: Fungi, insecticidal activity, terpenoids, chemotaxonomy, russulales

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3 Isolation and Identification of Fungi from Different Types of Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Ecuador

Authors: Ana Paola Echavarria, Mariuxi Medina, Haydelba D'Armas, Carmita Jaramillo, Diana San Martin


The use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest and most extended medical therapies that goes back to prehistoric times, and nowadays, they are also used in the preparation of phytopharmaceuticals with options to cure diseases. The test for the determination of fungi was carried out in the Pharmacy Pilot Plant (treatment of the leaves of the plant species) and the Microbiology Laboratory (determination of fungi of the plant species, using growth medium called Sabouraud agar plus the vegetal sample), of the Academic Unit of Chemical Sciences and Health, of the Universidad Tecnica de Machala. Subsequently, colony counting was performed, both macroscopic, which is determined in the growth medium of the seeding, and microscopic, to identify the germinative forms using blue lactophenol. The procedure was repeated in duplicate to replicate the results data. The determination of the total fungal content of the following plant species was evaluated: Cymbopogon citratus (lemon verbena), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Artemisia absinthium (absinthe), Piper carpunya (guaviduca), Moringa oleifera (moringa), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Momordica charantia (achochilla), Borago officinalis (borage), Aloysia citriodora (cedron), Ambrosia artemisifolia (altamisa) and Ageratum conyzoides (mastrante). The results obtained showed that all the samples of the twelve plant species studied developed filamentous fungi, with great variability of them, within the permissible limits and contemplated by the Ecuadorian Institute of Normalization (INEN), being suitable as raw material for its use in the preparation of nutraceuticals and medicinal products or phytodrugs; with the exception of A. conyzoides (mastranto) which is the only species that exceeds the regulation in the average of dilutions.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Fungi, Microbiological Quality, colonies, Sabouraud agar

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2 Extraction, Characterization, and Applicability of Rich β-Glucan Fractions from Fungal Biomass

Authors: Zaida Perez-Bassart, Berta Polanco-Estibalez, Maria Jose Fabra, Amparo Lopez-Rubio, Antonio Martinez-Abad


Mushroom production has enormously increased in recent years, not only as food products but also for applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. Consequently, interest in its chemical composition, nutritional value, and therapeutic properties has also increased. Fungi are rich in bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, glycopeptides, and ergosterol, of great medicinal value, but within polysaccharides, β-glucans are the most prominent molecules. They are formed by D-glucose monomers, linked by β-glucosidic bonds β-(1,3) with side chains linked by β-(1,6) bonds. The number and position of the β-(1,6) branches strongly influence the arrangement of the tertiary structure, which, together with the molecular weight, determine the different attributed bioactivities (immunostimulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, prebiotic, etc.) and physico-chemical properties (solubility, bioaccessibility, viscosity or emulsifying). On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the study of fungi as an alternative source of chitin obtained from the by-products of the fungal industry. In this work, a cascade extraction process using aqueous neutral and alkaline treatments was carried out for Grifola frondosa and Lentinula edodes, and the compositional analysis and functional properties of each fraction were characterized. Interestingly, the first fraction obtained by using aqueous treatment at room temperature was the richest in polysaccharides, proteins, and polyphenols, thus obtaining a greater antioxidant capacity than in the other fractions. In contrast, the fractions obtained by alkaline treatments showed a higher degree of β-glucans purification compared to aqueous extractions but a lower extraction yield. Results revealed the different structural recalcitrance of β-glucans, preferentially linked to proteins or chitin depending on the fungus type, which had a direct impact on the functionalities and bioactivities of each fraction.

Keywords: Fungi, mushroom, chitin, β-glucans

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1 Anti Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Action of Thermophilic Fungi Acrophialophora levis IBSD19 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscopy

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Indira Sarangthem


Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the major causes of healthcare-associated and community-onset infections worldwide. Hence the search for non-toxic natural compounds having antibacterial activity has intensified for future drug development. The exploration of less studied niches of Earth can highly increase the possibility to discover novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, in this study, the cultivable fraction of fungi from the sediments of natural hot springs has been studied to mine potential fungal candidates with antibacterial activity against the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated diverse strains of thermophilic fungi from a collection of samples from sediment. Following a standard method, we isolated a promising thermophilic fungus strain IBSD19, identified as Acrophialophora levis, possessing the potential to produce an anti-Staphylococcus aureus agent. The growth conditions were optimized and scaled to fermentation, and its produced extract was subjected to chemical extraction. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to display significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. The cell membrane integrity assay and SEM suggested that the fungal metabolites cause bacteria clustering and further lysis of the cell.

Keywords: Fungi, Thermophiles, antibacterial activity, antioxidant, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA

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