Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

funding Related Abstracts

13 Higher Education and the Economy in Western Canada: Is Institutional Autonomy at Risk?

Authors: James Barmby


Canada’s westernmost provinces of British Columbia and Alberta are similar in many respects as they are both reliant on volatile natural resources for major portions of their economies. The two provinces have banded together to develop mutually beneficial trade, investment and labour market mobility rules, but in terms of developing systems of higher education, the two provinces are attempting to align higher education programs to economic development objectives by means that are quite different. In British Columbia, the recently announced initiative, B.C’s Skills for Jobs Blueprint will “make sure education and training programs are aligned with the demands of the labor market.” Meanwhile in Alberta, the province’s institutions of higher education are enjoying the tenth year of their membership in the Campus Alberta Quality Council, which makes recommendations to government on issues related to post-secondary education, including the approval of new programs. In B.C., public institutions of higher education are encouraged to comply with government objectives, and are rewarded with targeted funds for their efforts. In Alberta, the institutions as a system tell the government what programs they want to offer and government can agree or not agree to fund these programs through a ministerial approval process. In comparing the two higher education systems, the question emerges as to which one is more beneficial to the province: the one where change is directed primarily by financial incentives to achieve economic objectives or the one that makes recommendations to the government for changes in programs to achieve institutional objectives? How is institutional autonomy affected in each strategy? Does institutional autonomy matter anymore? In recent years, much has been written in regard to academic freedom, but less about institutional autonomy, which is seen by many as essential to protecting academic freedom. However, while institutional autonomy means freedom from government control, it does not necessarily mean self-government. In this study, a comparison of the two higher education systems is made using recent government policy initiatives in both provinces, and responses to those actions by the higher education institutions. The findings indicate that the economic needs in both provinces take precedence over issues of institutional autonomy.

Keywords: funding, alberta, British Columbia, institutional autonomy

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12 Alternative Sources of Funding Tertiary Institution in Nigeria

Authors: Mark Omu


Education has remained the greatest fulcrum on which the developmental aspirations of societies and the world over is Anchored. This has been the case from the antiquity. As a result of recognition of this fact, education occupies a crucial and centripetal position at different epochs of societal formation and transformation. This paper recognized the all-embracing role of education to society and it utilized the literary research and review of literature to espouse on the role of alternative sources of financing education. This position was borne out of the dwindling resources available to education. Especially to finance teaching, learning, research and retraining of staffers. This paper found among other things that alternative funding of education is possible and it can be achieved through selling of its research products like entrepreneurial skills, collaborative ventures in public private partnership, philanthropic of endowments, etc. These are capable of bridging the financial gap currently bedevilling the educational sectors.

Keywords: Education, Society, funding, Partnership, Nigeria, tertiary, alternative sources

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11 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova


Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: Productivity, Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding

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10 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed


Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: Facilities, Program, Sponsorship, funding, Sport Policy, personnel, sport development

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9 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova


In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: Bibliometrics, Collaboration, funding, Gender Differences, research output

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8 Crowdfunding in Funding Lithuanian Movies

Authors: Irena Alperyte


Since the regaining of the Independence, the Lithuanian state has been confronting an increasingly dramatic challenge because of the lack of funding sources dedicated to the film industries. During the Soviet times, Lithuanian film was under a total supervision of the Soviet functioners. This means that the responsibility of the state to make movies was of a monopolist character. The filmmakers’ community of the newly independent state needed to learn how to develop their fundraising skills, co-production and marketing techniques. Currently, Lithuanian film is experiencing a new phase concerning its funding: it is exploring the possibilities of motivating the public to invest in entertainment via crowd funding and crowd sourcing techniques and making these activities an alternative way of funding films. The paper aims at the exploration of the existing film financing practices in Lithuania and abroad and provides recommendations on how to improve the alternative Lithuanian film financing strategy via employing new possibilities, such as crowd funding and other alternative marketing tools. Objectives: 1) To examine the theories on creative industries and possibilities for their application. 2) To analyze the current situation in the film industry Lithuania. 3) To analyze the statistical data on movie theater visitors in Lithuania. 4) To discuss alternative options for film financing system. 5) To look through the alternative funding strategies tailored for Lithuanian film industry. 6) To propose recommendations for alternative funding strategies in Lithuanian film fundraising.

Keywords: Film, funding, creative industries, fun theory

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7 SME Internationalisation and Its Financing: An Exploratory Study That Analyses Government Support and Funding Mechanisms for Irish and Scottish International SMEs

Authors: L. Spencer, S. O’ Donohoe


Much of the research to date on internationalisation relates to large firms with much less known about how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) engage in internationalisation. Given the crucial role of SMEs in contributing to economic growth, there is now an emphasis on the need for SMEs internationalise. Yet little is known about how SMEs undertake and finance such expansion and whether or not internationalisation actually hinders or helps them in securing finance. The purpose of this research is to explore the internationalisation process for SMEs, the sources of funding used in financing this expansion and support received from the state agencies in assisting their overseas expansion. A conceptual framework has been devised which marries the two strands of literature together (internationalisation and financing the firm). The exploratory nature of this research dictates that the most appropriate methodology was to use semi-structured interviews with SME owners; bank representatives and support agencies. In essence, a triangulated approach to the research problem facilitates assessment of the perceptions and experiences from firms, the state and the financial institutions. Our sample is drawn from SMEs operating in Ireland and Scotland, two small but very open economies where SMEs are the dominant form of organisation. The sample includes a range of industry sectors. Key findings to date suggest some SMEs are born global; others are born again global whilst a significant cohort can be classed as traditional internationalisers. Unsurprisingly there is a strong industry effect with firms in the high tech sector more likely to be faster internationalisers in contrast to those in the traditional manufacturing sectors. Owner manager’s own funds are deemed key to financing initial internationalisation lending support for the financial growth life cycle model albeit more important for the faster internationalisers in contrast to the slower cohort who are more likely to deploy external sources especially bank finance. Retained earnings remain the predominant source of on-going financing for internationalising firms but trade credit is often used and invoice discounting is utilised quite frequently. In terms of lending, asset based lending backed by personal guarantees appears paramount for securing bank finance. Whilst the lack of diversified sources of funding for internationalising SMEs was found in both jurisdictions there appears no evidence to suggest that internationalisation impedes firms in securing finance. Finally state supports were cited as important to the internationalisation process, in particular those provided by Enterprise Ireland were deemed very valuable. Considering the paucity of studies to date on SME internationalisation and in particular the funding mechanisms deployed by them; this study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge in both the international business and finance disciplines.

Keywords: funding, Government Support, international pathways, modes of entry

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6 Consequences of Inadequate Funding in Nigerian Educational System

Authors: Sylvia Nkiru Ogbuoji


This paper discussed the consequences of inadequate funding in Nigerian education system. It briefly explained the meaning of education in relation to the context and identified various ways education in Nigeria can be funded. It highlighted some of the consequences of inadequate funding education system to include: Inadequate facilitates for teaching and learning, western brain drain, unemployment, crises of poverty, low staff morale it. Finally, some recommendations were put forward, the government should improve the annual budget allocation to education, in order to achieve educational objective, also government should monitor the utilization of allocated funds to minimize embezzlement.

Keywords: Education, Corruption, funding, consequences

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5 Role of Dedicated Medical Social Worker in Fund Mobilisation and Economic Evaluation in Ovarian Cancer: Experience from a Tertiary Referral Centre in Eastern India

Authors: Zakir Husain, Aparajita Bhattacharya, Mousumi Dutta, Dionne Sequeira, Asima Mukhopadhyay


Background: Tata Medical Centre (TMC), Kolkata is a major cancer referral centre in Eastern India and neighbouring countries providing state of the art facilities; however, it is a non-profit organisation with patients requiring to pay at subsidised rates. Although a system for social assessment and applying for governmental/ non-governmental (NGO) funds is in place, access is challenging. Amongst gynaecological cancers (GC), ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with the highest treatment cost; majority of which is required at the beginning when complex surgery is performed and funding arrangements cannot be made in time. We therefore appointed a dedicated Medical Social Worker (MSW) in 2016, supported by NGO for GC patients in order to assist patients/family members to access/avail these funds more readily and assist in economic evaluation for both direct and opportunity costs. Objectives: To reflect on our experience and challenges in collecting data on economic evaluation of cancer patients and compare success rates in achieving fund mobilization after introduction of MSW. Methods: A Retrospective survey. Patients with OC and their relatives were seen by the MSW during the initial outpatients department visit and followed though till discharge from the hospital and during follow-up visits. Assistance was provided in preparing the essential documents/paperwork/contacts for the funding agencies including both governmental (Chief-Minister/Prime-Minister/President) and NGO sources. In addition, a detailed questionnaire was filled up for economic assessment of direct/opportunity costs during the entire treatment and 12 months follow up period which forms a part of the study called HEPTROC (Health economic evaluation of primary treatment for ovarian cancer) developed in collaboration with economics departments of Universities. Results: In 2015, 102 patients were operated for OC; only 16 patients (15.68 %) had availed funding of a total sum of INR 1640000 through the hospital system for social assessment. Following challenges were faced by majority of the relatives: 1. Gathering important documents/proper contact details for governmental funding bodies and difficulty in following up the current status 3. Late arrival of funds. In contrast in 2016, 104 OC patients underwent surgery; the direct cost of treatment was significantly higher (median, INR 300000- 400000) compared to other GCs (n=274). 98/104 (94.23%) OC patients could be helped to apply for funds and 90/104(86.56%) patients received funding amounting to a total of INR 10897000. There has been a tenfold increase in funds mobilized in 2016 after the introduction of dedicated MSW in GC. So far, in 2017 (till June), 46/54(85.18%) OC patients applied for funds and 37/54(68.51%) patients have received funding. In a qualitative survey, all patients appreciated the role of the MSW who subsequently became the key worker for patient follow up and the chief portal for patient reported outcome monitoring. Data collection quality for the HEPTROC study was improved when questionnaires were administered by the MSW compared to researchers. Conclusion: Introduction of cancer specific MSW can expedite the availability of funds required for cancer patients and it can positively impact on patient satisfaction and outcome reporting. The economic assessment will influence fund allocation and decision for policymaking in ovarian cancer. Acknowledgement: Jivdaya Foundation Dallas, Texas.

Keywords: Ovarian Cancer, Economic Evaluation, funding, medical social worker

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4 Current Status of Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shahid Shah, Akram Maqbool, Samina Ashraf


Since start of this century, world has adopted inclusion as a trend in special education. To meet the challenges of inclusion response, the Punjab government has developed a progressive policy to implement inclusive education. The objectives of this research were to analyze the administration and implementation process by consideration on the management, student’s admission process, screening and assessment, adaptations in curriculum and instruction along with an evaluation, government and nonprofit organizations support. The sample consisted of 50 schools both public and private with a total of 3000 students, 9 percent of which (270) were students with disabilities. Among all the students with disabilities, 63 percent (170) were male and 37 percent (100) were female. The concluded remarks regarding management revealed that a large number of inclusive schools was lacking in terms of developing a certain model for inclusion, including the managerial breakup of staff, the involvement of stakeholders, and conducted frequent meetings. Many of schools are not able to restructure their school organizations due to lack of financial resources, consultations, and backup. As for as student’s admission/identification/assessment was concerned, only 12 percent schools applied a selection process regarding student admission, half of which used different procedures for disable candidates. Approximately 5 percent of inclusive schools had modified their curriculum, including a variety of standards. In terms of instruction, 25 percent of inclusive schools reported that they modified their instructional process. Only a few schools, however, provided special equipment for students with visual impairment, physical impairment, speech and hearing problems, students with mild intellectual disabilities, and autism. In a student evaluation, more than 45 percent reported that test items, administration, time allocations, and students’ reports were modified. For the primary board examination conducted by the Education Department of Government of Punjab, this number decreased dramatically. Finally, government and nonprofit organizations support in the forms of funding, coaching, and facilities were mostly provided by provincial governments and by Ghazali Education Trust.

Keywords: Identification, Facilities, Inclusion, Evaluation, Assessment, funding

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3 Factors Responsible for Delays in the Execution of Adequately Funded Construction Projects

Authors: Edoghogho Ogbeifun, Charles Mbohwa, J. H. C. Pretorius


Several research report on the factors responsible for the delays in the completion of construction projects has identified the issue of funding as a critical factor; insufficient funding, low cash-flow or lack of funds. Indeed, adequate funding plays pivotal role in the effective execution of construction projects. In the last twenty years (or so), there has been increase in the funds available for infrastructure development in tertiary institution in Nigeria, especially, through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund. This funding body ensures that there is enough fund for each approved project, which is released in three stages during the life of the construction project. However, a random tour of many of the institutions reveals striking evidence of projects not delivered on schedule, to quality and sometime out rightly abandoned. This suggests, therefore, that there are other latent factors, responsible for project delays, that should be investigated. Thus, this research, a pilot scheme, is aimed at unearthing the possible reasons for the delays being experienced in the execution of construction projects for infrastructure upgrade in public tertiary institutions in Nigeria, funded by Tertiary Education Trust Fund. The multiple site case study of qualitative research was adopted. The respondents were the Directors of Physical Planning and the Directors of Works of four Nigerian Public Universities. The findings reveal that delays can be situated within three entities, namely, the funding body, the institutions and others. Therefore, the emerging factors have been classified as external factors (haven to do with the funding body), internal factors (these concern the operations within the institutions) and general factors. The outcome of this pilot exercise provides useful information to guide the Directors as they interact with the funding body as well as challenges themselves to address the loopholes in their internal operations.

Keywords: funding, delays, external factors, internal factors, general factors

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2 The Political Economy of Police Corruption in Nigeria

Authors: Tosin Osasona


The Nigeria Police Force bears the constitutional mandate as the primary policing agency for the protection of life and property within Nigeria; however, the police have an historical ill-reputation for corruption, ineptitude and impunity. Using the institutional theory of police as the framework of analysis, the paper argues that the performance of the police in Nigeria mirrors the dominant political, social and economic institutions and the structural environment of the Nigerian state. The article puts in perspective the deliberate political decision to underfund the police, leaving officers of the force the extra task of foraging for funds to undertake the duty that the Nigeria state primarily exists for; the article further explores the nexus between corruption in the police in Nigeria and the issue of funding. The article finds that the Nigerian state, by deliberately under-funding the police, while expecting the agency to perform its duties, has indirectly sanctioned the corruption of the force and approved the cooption of the institution of police and policing for private use in Nigeria.

Keywords: funding, Police Corruption, Informal Taxation, POlice Checkpoint

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1 Strategies Considered Effective for Funding Public Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Jacinta Ifeoma Obidile


The study sought to ascertain from the opinions of the business educators, effective strategies for funding public tertiary institutions in Anambra State Nigeria, for effective functioning and delivery. Funding of tertiary institutions has become so important following the dilapidated state of most of the public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Tertiary institutions are known for the production of competitive and competent workforce in the nation. Considering the state of public tertiary institutions currently, one wonders if their objectives are achieved. Many scholars have identified funding as one of the major barriers to effective functioning of tertiary institutions. Although federal and state governments have been supporting the tertiary institutions, but their support seems not to be adequate. This study therefore ascertained from the perspective of business educators, other strategies for funding public tertiary institutions in Anambra State Nigeria, for effective functioning and delivery. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 104 business educators from the public tertiary institutions in the State constituted the population. There was no sampling, hence the whole population was used. Structured questionnaire validated by three experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.82 was the instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Findings from the study revealed that public-private partnership and external aids were among the strategies considered effective for funding public tertiary institutions. It was therefore recommended among others that associations like alumni should be strongly instituted in each of the public tertiary institutions so as to assist in the funding of tertiary institutions for effective functioning and delivery.

Keywords: Strategies, funding, tertiary institutions, business educators

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