Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

functionalization Related Abstracts

14 Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite Reinforced with Copper Coated MWCNTs

Authors: M. Nazem Salimi, C. Abrinia, M. Baniassadi, M. Ehsani


Mechanical properties of epoxy based nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs were investigated and a comparative study between nanocomposites containing functionalized MWCNTs and copper coated MWCNTs which are already functionalized was conducted. The MWCNTs was deposited with copper nanoparticles through electroless deposition process after accomplishment of "two-step" method as sensitization and activation procedures on oxidized MWCNTs. In addition, functionalization of MWCNTs was carried out through combination of two covalent and non-covalent funcionalization methods using HNO3 for acid solution of covalent treatment and Triton X100 as non-ionic surfactant of non-covalent treatment. The presence of functional groups and removal of impurities of MWCNTs were confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The layer of copper nanoparticles on the MWCNTs wall increasing its diameter was observed by SEM. Utilizing solution blending process, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% wt loading of both copper coated MWCNTs and non-coated MWCNTs were used to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of nanocomposites were investigated. The results of tensile test demonstrated that nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs exhibited brittle behavior compared to those reinforced with functionalized MWCNTs, whereas former one exhibited higher values of modulus than latter one for concentrations more than 0.4% wt. Presence of copper particles on MWCNTs surface decreased the tensile strength of nanocomposites. In comparison to pure epoxy, nanocomposites with treated-MWCNTs and Cu-MWCNTs loading of 0.1% wt showed an increase of 35% and 51.6% for flexural strength beside 20% and 30% increase in flexural modulus, respectively, whereas flexural properties of both naocomposites decreased with increasing of CNTs concentration. The results of impact strength of nanocomposites with Cu-CNTs demonstrated that impact properties decreased with increasing of filler content with a optimum value at 0.1% wt while in high concentrations impact properties of Cu-nanocomposites exhibited lower values than f-MWCNT nanocomposites.

Keywords: nanocomposite, functionalization, Mechanical Properties, Copper, epoxyresin, electroless deposition process

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13 Functionalization of Carboxylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 2-En 4-Hydroxy Cyclo 1-Octanon and Toxicity Investigation

Authors: D. ChobfroushKhoei, S. K. Heidari, Sh. Dariadel


Carbon nanotubes were used in medical sciences especially in drug delivery system and cancer therapy. In this study, we functionalized carboxylated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) with 2-en 4-hydroxy cyclo 1-octanon. Synthesized sample was characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TGA and cellular investigations. The results showed well formation of SWNT-Ester. Cell viability assay results and microscopic observations demonstrated that cancerous cells were killed in the sample. The synthesized sample can be used as a toxic material for cancer therapy.

Keywords: functionalization, MWNT-COOH, phenylisocyanate, phenylisothiocyanate, toxicity investigation

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12 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Aliphatic Polyisocyanate

Authors: E. Ghasemi, E. Changizi, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian


In this study, the graphene oxide was functionalized with polyisocyanate (piGO). The functionalization was carried out at 45⁰C for 24 hrs under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized in order to evaluate the GO functionalization. The GO and piGO stability were then investigated in polar and nonpolar solvents. Results obtained showed that polyisocyanate was successfully grafted on the surface of graphen oxide sheets through covalent bonds formation. The surface nature of the graphen oxide was changed into the hydrophobic after functionalization. Moreover, the graphen oxide sheets interlayer distance increased after modification.

Keywords: functionalization, FTIR, XRD, TGA, graphen oxide, polyisocyanate

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11 Easy Method of Synthesis and Functionalzation of Zno Nanoparticules With 3 Aminopropylthrimethoxysilane (APTES)

Authors: Haythem Barrak, Gaetan Laroche, Adel M’nif, Ahmed Hichem Hamzaoui


The use of semiconductor oxides, as chemical or biological, requires their functionalization with appropriate dependent molecules of the substance to be detected. generally, the support materials used are TiO2 and SiO2. In the present work, we used zinc oxide (ZnO) known for its interesting physical properties. The synthesis of nano scale ZnO was performed by co-precipitation at low temperature (60 ° C).To our knowledge, the obtaining of this material at this temperature was carried out for the first time. This shows the low cost of this operation. On the other hand, the surface functionalization of ZnO was performed with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) by using a specific method using ethanol for the first time. In addition, the duration of this stage is very low compared to literature. The samples obtained were analyzed by XRD, TEM, DLS, FTIR, and TGA shows that XPS that the operation of grafting of APTES on our support was carried out with success.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, functionalization, ZnO, APTES, caractérisation

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10 Boron Nitride Nanoparticle Enhanced Prepreg Composite Laminates

Authors: Lifeng Zhang, Ajit D. Kelkar, Qiong Tian, Demei Yu


Low specific weight and high strength is the basic requirement for aerospace materials. Fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites are attractive materials for this purpose. Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) have good radiation shielding capacity, which is very important to aerospace materials. Herein a processing route for an advanced hybrid composite material is demonstrated by introducing dispersed BNNPs in standard prepreg manufacturing. The hybrid materials contain three parts: E-fiberglass, an aerospace-grade epoxy resin system, and BNNPs. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was utilized in this processing. Two BNNP functionalization approaches are presented in this study: (a) covalent functionalization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550); (b) non-covalent functionalization with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that BN powder was successfully functionalized via the covalent and non-covalent approaches without any crystal structure change and big agglomerate particles were broken into platelet-like nanoparticles (BNNPs) after functionalization. Compared to pristine BN powder, surface modified BNNPs could result in significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strength and modulus. CTAB functionalized BNNPs (CTAB-BNNPs) showed higher tensile and flexural strength but lower compressive strength than KH-550 functionalized BNNPs (KH550-BNNPs). These reinforcements are mainly attributed to good BNNPs dispersion and interfacial adhesion between epoxy matrix and BNNPs. This study reveals the potential in improving mechanical properties of BNNPs-containing composites laminates through surface functionalization of BNNPs.

Keywords: Composite, functionalization, Boron Nitride, epoxy, prepreg

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9 Luminescent Functionalized Graphene Oxide Based Sensitive Detection of Deadly Explosive TNP

Authors: Diptiman Dinda, Shyamal Kumar Saha


In the 21st century, sensitive and selective detection of trace amounts of explosives has become a serious problem. Generally, nitro compound and its derivatives are being used worldwide to prepare different explosives. Recently, TNP (2, 4, 6 trinitrophenol) is the most commonly used constituent to prepare powerful explosives all over the world. It is even powerful than TNT or RDX. As explosives are electron deficient in nature, it is very difficult to detect one separately from a mixture. Again, due to its tremendous water solubility, detection of TNP in presence of other explosives from water is very challenging. Simple instrumentation, cost-effective, fast and high sensitivity make fluorescence based optical sensing a grand success compared to other techniques. Graphene oxide (GO), with large no of epoxy grps, incorporate localized nonradiative electron-hole centres on its surface to give very weak fluorescence. In this work, GO is functionalized with 2, 6-diamino pyridine to remove those epoxy grps. through SN2 reaction. This makes GO into a bright blue luminescent fluorophore (DAP/rGO) which shows an intense PL spectrum at ∼384 nm when excited at 309 nm wavelength. We have also characterized the material by FTIR, XPS, UV, XRD and Raman measurements. Using this as fluorophore, a large fluorescence quenching (96%) is observed after addition of only 200 µL of 1 mM TNP in water solution. Other nitro explosives give very moderate PL quenching compared to TNP. Such high selectivity is related to the operation of FRET mechanism from fluorophore to TNP during this PL quenching experiment. TCSPC measurement also reveals that the lifetime of DAP/rGO drastically decreases from 3.7 to 1.9 ns after addition of TNP. Our material is also quite sensitive to 125 ppb level of TNP. Finally, we believe that this graphene based luminescent material will emerge a new class of sensing materials to detect trace amounts of explosives from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Graphene, functionalization, fluorescence quenching, FRET, nitroexplosive detection

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8 Surface Modification of Co-Based Nanostructures to Develop Intrinsic Fluorescence and Catalytic Activity

Authors: Monalisa Pal, Kalyan Mandal


Herein we report the molecular functionalization of promising transition metal oxide nanostructures, such as Co3O4 nanocubes, using nontoxic and biocompati-ble organic ligand sodium tartrate. The electronic structural modification of the nanocubes imparted through functionalization and subsequent water solubilization reveals multiple absorption bands in the UV-vis region. Further surface modification of the solubilized nanocubes, leads to the emergence of intrinsic multi-color fluorescence (from blue, cyan, green to red region of the spectrum), upon excitation at proper wavelengths, where the respective excitation wavelengths have a direct correlation with the observed UV-vis absorption bands. Using a multitude of spectroscopic tools we have investigated the mechanistic insight behind the origin of different UV-vis absorption bands and emergence of multicolor photoluminescence from the functionalized nanocubes. Our detailed study shows that ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) from tartrate ligand to Co2+/Co3+ ions and d-d transitions involving Co2+/Co3+ ions are responsible for generation of this novel optical properties. Magnetic study reveals that, antiferromagnetic nature of Co3O4 nanocubes changes to ferromagnetic behavior upon functionalization, however, the overall magnetic response was very weak. To combine strong magnetism with this novel optical property, we followed the same surface modification strategy in case of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which reveals that irrespective of size and shape, all Co-based oxides can develop intrinsic multi-color fluorescence upon facile functionalization with sodium tartrate ligands and the magnetic response was significantly higher. Surface modified Co-based oxide nanostructures also show excellent catalytic activity in degradation of biologically and environmentally harmful dyes. We hope that, our developed facile functionalization strategy of Co-based oxides will open up new opportunities in the field of biomedical applications such as bio-imaging and targeted drug delivery.

Keywords: Catalysis, functionalization, co-based oxide nanostructures, multi-color fluorescence

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7 Optical and Structural Properties of ZnO Quantum Dots Functionalized with 3-Aminopropylsiloxane Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: G. García, H. Juarez, M. Pacio, R. Pérez-Cuapio E. Rosendo, T. Díaz


In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by a simple route. The growth parameters for ZnO QDs were systematically studied inside a SiO2 shell; this shell acts as a capping agent and also enhances stability of the nanoparticles in water. ZnO QDs in silica shell could be produced by initially synthesizing a ZnO colloid (containing ZnO nanoparticles in methanol solution) and then was mixed with 3-aminopropylsiloxane used as SiO2 precursor. ZnO QDs were deposited onto silicon substrates (100) orientation by spin-coating technique. ZnO QDs into a SiO2 shell were pre-heated at 300 °C for 10 min after each coating, that procedure was repeated five times. The films were subsequently annealing in air atmosphere at 500 °C for 2 h to remove the trapped fluid inside the amorphous silica cage. ZnO QDs showed hexagonal wurtzite structure and about 5 nm in diameter. The composition of the films at the surface and in the bulk was obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), the spectra revealed the presence of Zn- and Si- related clusters associated to the chemical species in the solid matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra under 325 nm of excitation only show a strong UV emission band corresponding to ZnO QDs, such emission is enhanced with annealing. Our results showed that the method is appropriate for the preparation of ZnO QDs films embedded in a SiO2 shell with high UV photoluminescence.

Keywords: functionalization, sol gel, ZnO QDs

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6 Application of Electrochemically Prepared PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 Nano-Composite Film in Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Generation

Authors: D. C. Tiwari, Rajeev jain, Praveena Mishra


Nano-composite of polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes:mangenese oxide (PPy/MWCNT:MnO2) was electrochemically deposited on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). The nano-composite was structurally characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis studies. Nano-composite was also characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current voltage measurements (I-V) and the optical band gaps of film were evaluated from UV-Vis absorption studies. The PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite was used as anode in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sewage waste water treatment, power and coulombic efficiency measurement. The prepared electrode showed good electrical conductivity (0.1185 S m-1). This was also supported by band gap measurements (direct 0.8 eV, indirect 1.3 eV). The obtained maximum power density was 1125.4 mW m-2, highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 93% and the maximum coulombic efficiency was 59%. For the first time PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite for MFC prepared from nano-composite electrode having the potential for the use in MFC with good stability and better adhesion of microbes is being reported. The SEM images confirm the growth and development of microbe’s colony.

Keywords: functionalization, Microbial Fuel Cells, polypyrrole, multi walled carbon nanotubes, carbon cloth, electro-polymerization

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5 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xin Li, Dan Zhao, Xiaodong Xu, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin


Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: functionalization, Polypropylene, hemocompatibility, chiral monomer

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4 Gas-Phase Noncovalent Functionalization of Pristine Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 3D Metal(II) Phthalocyanines

Authors: Vladimir A. Basiuk, Laura J. Flores-Sanchez, Victor Meza-Laguna, Jose O. Flores-Flores, Lauro Bucio-Galindo, Elena V. Basiuk


Noncovalent nanohybrid materials combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with phthalocyanines (Pcs) is a subject of increasing research effort, with a particular emphasis on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts, efficient organic photovoltaic cells, lithium batteries, gas sensors, field effect transistors, among other possible applications. The possibility of using unsubstituted Pcs for CNT functionalization is very attractive due to their very moderate cost and easy commercial availability. However, unfortunately, the deposition of unsubstituted Pcs onto nanotube sidewalls through the traditional liquid-phase protocols turns to be very problematic due to extremely poor solubility of Pcs. On the other hand, unsubstituted free-base H₂Pc phthalocyanine ligand, as well as many of its transition metal complexes, exhibit very high thermal stability and considerable volatility under reduced pressure, which opens the possibility for their physical vapor deposition onto solid surfaces, including nanotube sidewalls. In the present work, we show the possibility of simple, fast and efficient noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a series of 3d metal(II) phthalocyanines Me(II)Pc, where Me= Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The functionalization can be performed in a temperature range of 400-500 °C under moderate vacuum and requires about 2-3 h only. The functionalized materials obtained were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, UV-visible and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggested that Me(II)Pc weight content is 30%, 17% and 35% for NiPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively (CoPc exhibited anomalous thermal decomposition behavior). The above values are consistent with those estimated from EDS spectra, namely, of 24-39%, 27-36% and 27-44% for CoPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively. A strong increase in intensity of D band in the Raman spectra of SWNT‒Me(II)Pc hybrids, as compared to that of pristine nanotubes, implies very strong interactions between Pc molecules and SWNT sidewalls. Very high absolute values of binding energies of 32.46-37.12 kcal/mol and the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO, respectively) distribution patterns, calculated with density functional theory by using Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation correlation functional in combination with the Grimme’s empirical dispersion correction (PBE-D) and the double numerical basis set (DNP), also suggested that the interactions between Me(II) phthalocyanines and nanotube sidewalls are very strong. The authors thank the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grant DGAPA-IN200516) and the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Natalia Alzate-Carvajal (CCADET of UNAM), Eréndira Martínez (IF of UNAM) and Iván Puente-Lee (Faculty of Chemistry of UNAM) for technical assistance with FTIR, TGA measurements, and TEM imaging, respectively.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, functionalization, gas-phase, metal(II) phthalocyanines

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3 Carbon Nanotubes Functionalization via Ullmann-Type Reactions Yielding C-C, C-O and C-N Bonds

Authors: Anna Kolanowska, Anna Kuziel, Sławomir Boncel


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a combination of lightness and nanoscopic size with high tensile strength, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. By now, CNTs have been used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis (CuCl anchored to pre-functionalized CNTs) in the Ullmann-type coupling with aryl halides toward formation of C-N and C-O bonds. The results indicated that the stability of the catalyst was much improved and the elaborated catalytic system was efficient and recyclable. However, CNTs have not been considered as the substrate itself in the Ullmann-type reactions. But if successful, this functionalization would open new areas of CNT chemistry leading to enhanced in-solvent/matrix nanotube individualization. The copper-catalyzed Ullmann-type reaction is an attractive method for the formation of carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. This condensation reaction is usually conducted at temperature as high as 200 oC, often in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of copper reagent and with activated aryl halides. However, a small amount of organic additive (e.g. diamines, amino acids, diols, 1,10-phenanthroline) can be applied in order to increase the solubility and stability of copper catalyst, and at the same time to allow performing the reaction under mild conditions. The copper (pre-)catalyst is prepared by in situ mixing of copper salt and the appropriate chelator. Our research is focused on the application of Ullmann-type reaction for the covalent functionalization of CNTs. Firstly, CNTs were chlorinated by using iodine trichloride (ICl3) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This method involves formation of several chemical species (ICl, Cl2 and I2Cl6), but the most reactive is the dimer. The fact (that the dimer is the main individual in CCl4) is the reason for high reactivity and possibly high functionalization levels of CNTs. This method, indeed, yielded a notable amount of chlorine onto the MWCNT surface. The next step was the reaction of CNT-Cl with three substrates: aniline, iodobenzene and phenol for the formation C-N, C-C and C-O bonds, respectively, in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as a base. As the CNT substrates, two multi-wall CNT (MWCNT) types were used: commercially available Nanocyl NC7000™ (9.6 nm diameter, 1.5 µm length, 90% purity) and thicker MWCNTs (in-house) synthesized in our laboratory using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD). In-house CNTs had diameter ranging between 60-70 nm and length up to 300 µm. Since classical Ullmann reaction was found as suffering from poor yields, we have investigated the effect of various solvents (toluene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide) on the coupling of substrates. Owing to the fact that the aryl halides show the reactivity order of I>Br>Cl>F, we have also investigated the effect of iodine presence on CNT surface on reaction yield. In this case, in first step we have used iodine monochloride instead of iodine trichloride. Finally, we have used the optimized reaction conditions with p-bromophenol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene for the control of CNT dispersion.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, functionalization, coupling reaction, Ullmann reaction

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2 Functionalization of Sanitary Pads with Probiotic Paste

Authors: O. Sauperl, L. Fras Zemljic


The textile industry is gaining increasing importance in the field of medical materials. Therefore, presented research is focused on textile materials for external (out-of-body) use. Such materials could be various hygienic textile products (diapers, tampons, sanitary napkins, incontinence products, etc.), protective textiles and various hospital linens (surgical covers, masks, gowns, cloths, bed linens, etc.) wound pillows, bandages, orthopedic socks, etc. Function of tampons and sanitary napkins is not only to provide protection during the menstrual cycle, but their function can be also to take care of physiological or pathological vaginal discharge. In general, women's intimate areas are against infection protected by a low pH value of the vaginal flora. High pH inhibits the development of harmful microorganisms, as it is difficult to be reproduced in an acidic environment. The normal vaginal flora in healthy women is highly colonized by lactobacilli. The lactic acid produced by these organisms maintains the constant acidity of the vagina. If the balance of natural protection breaks, infections can occur. In the market, there exist probiotic tampons as a medical product supplying the vagina with beneficial probiotic lactobacilli. But, many users have concerns about the use of tampons due to the possible dry-out of the vagina as well as the possible toxic shock syndrome, which is the reason that they use mainly sanitary napkins during the menstrual cycle. Functionalization of sanitary napkins with probiotics is, therefore, interesting in regard to maintain a healthy vaginal flora and to offer to users added value of the sanitary napkins in the sense of health- and environmentally-friendly products. For this reason, the presented research is oriented in functionalization of the sanitary napkins with the probiotic paste in order to activate the lactic acid bacteria presented in the core of the functionalized sanitary napkin at the time of the contact with the menstrual fluid. In this way, lactobacilli could penetrate into vagina and by maintaining healthy vaginal flora to reduce the risk of vaginal disorders. In regard to the targeted research problem, the influence of probiotic paste applied onto cotton hygienic napkins on selected properties was studied. The aim of the research was to determine whether the sanitary napkins with the applied probiotic paste may assure suitable vaginal pH to maintain a healthy vaginal flora during the use of this product. Together with this, sorption properties of probiotic functionalized sanitary napkins were evaluated and compared to the untreated one. The research itself was carried out on the basis of tracking and controlling the input parameters, currently defined by Slovenian producer (Tosama d.o.o.) as the most important. Successful functionalization of sanitary pads with the probiotic paste was confirmed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results of the methods used within the presented research show that the absorption of the pads treated with probiotic paste deteriorates compared to non-treated ones. The coating shows a 6-month stability. Functionalization of sanitary pads with probiotic paste is believed to have a commercial potential for lowering the probability of infection during the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: Textile Materials, functionalization, probiotic paste, sanitary pads

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1 Functionalized Spherical Aluminosilicates in Biomedically Grade Composites

Authors: Damian Stanislaw Nakonieczny, Grazyna Simha Martynkova, Marianna Hundakova, Karla Cech Barabaszova, G. Kratosová


The main aim of the research was to functionalize the surface of spherical aluminum silicates in the form of so-called cenospheres. Cenospheres are light ceramic particles with a density between 0.45 and 0.85 kgm-3 hat can be obtained as a result of separation from fly ash from coal combustion. However, their occurrence is limited to about 1% by weight of dry ash mainly derived from anthracite. Hence they are very rare and desirable material. Cenospheres are characterized by complete chemical inertness. Mohs hardness in range of 6 and completely smooth surface. Main idea was to prepare the surface by chemical etching, among others hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrogen peroxide, caro acid, silanization using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to obtain the maximum development and functionalization of the surface to improve chemical and mechanical connection with biomedically used polymers, i.e., polyacrylic methacrylate (PMMA) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). These polymers are used medically mainly as a material for fixed and removable dental prostheses and PEEK spinal implants. The problem with their use is the decrease in mechanical properties over time and bacterial infections fungal during implantation and use of dentures. Hence, the use of a ceramic filler that will significantly improve the mechanical properties, improve the fluidity of the polymer during shape formation, and in the future, will be able to support bacteriostatic substances such as silver and zinc ions seem promising. In order to evaluate our laboratory work, several instrumental studies were performed: chemical composition and morphology with scanning electron microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Probe (SEM/EDX), determination of characteristic functional groups of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), phase composition of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis of Thermo Gravimetric Analysis/differentia thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), as well as assessment of isotherm of adsorption with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface development. The surface was evaluated for the future application of additional bacteria and static fungus layers. Based on the experimental work, it was found that orated methods can be suitable for the functionalization of the surface of cenosphere ceramics, and in the future it can be suitable as a bacteriostatic filler for biomedical polymers, i.e., PEEK or PMMA.

Keywords: Composites, Bioceramics, functionalization, surface development

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