Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

functional properties Related Abstracts

15 Evaluating the Functional Properties of Flours Varying Percentage Blend of Malted Acha, Aya and Ede flours as Potentials for Weaning Food Formulation

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, E. Chibuzo, H. M. Badau


Traditional weaning foods are dense or thick paste, which are then diluted with large volume of water to produce thin drinkable consistency for infants. This work was aimed at evaluating the functional properties of six varying percentage blends of locally abundant, underutilized crops; malted acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and ede (Colocasia esculentum) flours as weaning foods. The results of bulk density and starch digestibility showed a decrease with increasing percentage addition of malted acha with values from 5.889±0.98 to 7.953±0.103; -5.45 to -13.6 respectively. While water absorption capacity, measure of dispersibility, wettability, swelling power, % solubility increased with increase in percentage addition of malted acha with values from 6.6±0.712 to 8.1±0.1; 2.12 to 37.225; 3.21±0.04 to 3.6±0.03; 20.64 to 24.46 respectively. There was no significant difference between all the formula and the control. Results of pasting properties showed that the peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity, setback values from -0.42±0.085 to -3.67±0.085; 5.63±0.045 to 1.79±0.04;-3.88±0.045 to -1.475±0.275; 2.17±0.045 to 2.93±0.045 respectively. There was no significant different between some of the weaning formula and the control for peak viscosity, break down, final viscosity and temperatures required to form paste. The formula compared favorably with the control- a commercially sold formula.

Keywords: weaning food, functional properties, under-utilized crops, blends

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14 Effect of Cooking Time, Seed-To-Water Ratio and Soaking Time on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian Walnut) Seeds

Authors: J. O. Idoko, C. N. Michael, T. O. Fasuan


This study investigated the effects of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time on proximate and functional properties of African walnut seed using Box-Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology (BBD-RSM) with a view to increase its utilization in the food industry. African walnut seeds were sorted washed, soaked, cooked, dehulled, sliced, dried and milled. Proximate analysis and functional properties of the samples were evaluated using standard procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Quadratic models were obtained to predict the proximate and functional qualities as a function of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time. The results showed that the crude protein ranged between 11.80% and 23.50%, moisture content ranged between 1.00% and 4.66%, ash content ranged between 3.35% and 5.25%, crude fibre ranged from 0.10% to 7.25% and carbohydrate ranged from 1.22% to 29.35%. The functional properties showed that soluble protein ranged from 16.26% to 42.96%, viscosity ranged from 23.43 mPas to 57 mPas, emulsifying capacity ranged from 17.14% to 39.43% and water absorption capacity ranged from 232% to 297%. An increase in the volume of water used during cooking resulted in loss of water soluble protein through leaching, the length of soaking time and the moisture content of the dried product are inversely related, ash content is inversely related to the cooking time and amount of water used, extraction of fat is enhanced by increase in soaking time while increase in cooking and soaking times result into decrease in fibre content. The results obtained indicated that African walnut could be used in several food formulations as protein supplement and binder.

Keywords: response surface methodology, functional properties, African walnut, proximate analysis

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13 Effect of Fermentation Time on Some Functional Properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed Flour

Authors: S. James, Ocheme B. Ocheme, Omobolanle O. Oloyede, Eleojo V. Akpa


The effect of fermentation time on some functional properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed flour was examined. Fermentation, an effective processing method used to improve nutritional quality of plant foods, tends to affect the characteristics of food components and their behaviour in food systems just like other processing methods. Hence the need for this study. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally by soaking in potable water and allowing it to stand for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At the end of fermentation, the seeds were oven dried at 600C for 12 hours and then milled into flour. Flour obtained from unfermented seeds served as control: hence a total of five flour samples. The functional properties were analyzed using standard methods. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) increased the water holding capacity of Moringa seed flour from 0.86g/g - 2.31g/g. The highest value was observed after 48 hours of fermentation The same trend was observed for oil absorption capacity with values between 0.87 and 1.91g/g. Flour from unfermented Moringa seeds had a bulk density of 0.60g/cm3 which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the bulk densities of flours from seeds fermented for 12, 24 and 48. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the dispersibility of Moringa seed flours from 36% to 21, 24, 29 and 20% after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation respectively. The flours’ emulsifying capacities increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing fermentation time with values between 50 – 68%. The flour obtained from seeds fermented for 12 hours had a significantly (p<0.05) higher foaming capacity of 16% while the flour obtained from seeds fermented for 0, 24 and 72 hours had the least foaming capacities of 9%. Flours from seeds fermented for 12 and 48 hours had better functional properties than flours from seeds fermented for 24 and 72 hours.

Keywords: Fermentation, functional properties, moringa, flour

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12 Evaluation of Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysate from the Fresh Water Mussel Lamellidens marginalis for Nutraceutical Therapy

Authors: Jana Chakrabarti, Madhushrita Das, Ankhi Haldar, Roshni Chatterjee, Tanmoy Dey, Pubali Dhar


High incidences of Protein Energy Malnutrition as a consequence of low protein intake are quite prevalent among the children in developing countries. Thus prevention of under-nutrition has emerged as a critical challenge to India’s developmental Planners in recent times. Increase in population over the last decade has led to greater pressure on the existing animal protein sources. But these resources are currently declining due to persistent drought, diseases, natural disasters, high-cost of feed, and low productivity of local breeds and this decline in productivity is most evident in some developing countries. So the need of the hour is to search for efficient utilization of unconventional low-cost animal protein resources. Molluscs, as a group is regarded as under-exploited source of health-benefit molecules. Bivalve is the second largest class of phylum Mollusca. Annual harvests of bivalves for human consumption represent about 5% by weight of the total world harvest of aquatic resources. The freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis is widely distributed in ponds and large bodies of perennial waters in the Indian sub-continent and well accepted as food all over India. Moreover, ethno-medicinal uses of the flesh of Lamellidens among the rural people to treat hypertension have been documented. Present investigation thus attempts to evaluate the potential of Lamellidens marginalis as functional food. Mussels were collected from freshwater ponds and brought to the laboratory two days before experimentation for acclimatization in laboratory conditions. Shells were removed and fleshes were preserved at- 20oC until analysis. Tissue homogenate was prepared for proximate studies. Fatty acids and amino acids composition were analyzed. Vitamins, Minerals and Heavy metal contents were also studied. Mussel Protein hydrolysate was prepared using Alcalase 2.4 L and degree of hydrolysis was evaluated to analyze its Functional properties. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and DPPH Antioxidant assays were performed. Anti-hypertensive property was evaluated by measuring Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition assay. Proximate analysis indicates that mussel meat contains moderate amount of protein (8.30±0.67%), carbohydrate (8.01±0.38%) and reducing sugar (4.75±0.07%), but less amount of fat (1.02±0.20%). Moisture content is quite high but ash content is very low. Phospholipid content is significantly high (19.43 %). Lipid constitutes, substantial amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which have proven prophylactic values. Trace elements are found present in substantial amount. Comparative study of proximate nutrients between Labeo rohita, Lamellidens and cow’s milk indicates that mussel meat can be used as complementary food source. Functionality analyses of protein hydrolysate show increase in Fat absorption, Emulsification, Foaming capacity and Protein solubility. Progressive anti-oxidant and anti-hypertensive properties have also been documented. Lamellidens marginalis can thus be regarded as a functional food source as this may combine effectively with other food components for providing essential elements to the body. Moreover, mussel protein hydrolysate provides opportunities for utilizing it in various food formulations and pharmaceuticals. The observations presented herein should be viewed as a prelude to what future holds.

Keywords: Functional food, functional properties, Lamellidens marginalis, protein hydrolysate

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11 Influence of Cooking on the Functional Properties of Dioscorea Schimperiana During Chips Production

Authors: Djeukeu Asongni William, Leng Marlyse, Gouado Inocent


Background: Process for obtaining D. schimperiana chips involves a long period of cooking followed by drying of obtained products in the sun. Such a process could induce the modification of the functional properties of the chips, thus reducing the technological uses of these products. This study was conducted with a view to assessing the impact of this process on the chips of D. schimperiana. Methods: The chips used were purchased in Baham, Bamendjou and Bagangté markets during the month of February 2013. A representative sample of each market chips was formed by mixing the chips of several sellers. The control sample consisted of fresh yams that have been sliced to the average size of local chips then dried in the oven at 45 ° C for 36 h. On each sample was performed the analysis of the physico-chemical properties (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, iron , phosphorus, reducing sugars, ash and total starch) and gelling properties both with and without inhibitor alpha-amylases (0.018 and 0.146 mol / l). Results: Results show that the levels of ash 2.99 g / 100gms, iron 1.01 g / 100gms and phosphorus 532.06 mg / 100gms fresh sample were significantly higher than those of the products obtained in the traditional process. The functional properties of the chips obtained from different methods shows that the peak viscosity of the fresh sample is larger than the other samples with or without inhibitor. In addition, the fresh sample has the lowest breakdown under the same conditions. Conclusion: These results show that traditional process reduces technological potential of chips, thus limiting the value of D. schimperiana.

Keywords: Valorization, functional properties, technological properties, Dioscorea schimperiana, chips

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10 Pale, Soft, Exudative (PSE) Turkey Meat in a Brazilian Commercial Processing Plant

Authors: Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana L. Soares, Danielle C. B. Honorato, Rafael H. Carvalho, Ana Paula F. R. L. Bracarense, Paulo D. Guarnieri


Over the past decade, the Brazilian production of turkey meat increased by more than 50%, indicating that the turkey meat is considered a great potential for the Brazilian economy contributing to the growth of agribusiness at the marketing international scenario. However, significant color changes may occur during its processing leading to the pale, soft and exudative (PSE) appearance on the surface of breast meat due to the low water holding capacity (WHC). Changes in PSE meat functional properties occur due to the myofibrils proteins denaturation caused by a rapid postmortem glycolysis resulting in a rapid pH decline while the carcass temperature is still warm. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical, chemical and histological characteristics of PSE turkey meat obtained from a Brazilian commercial processing plant. The turkey breasts samples were collected (n=64) at the processing line and classified as PSE at L* ≥ 53 value. The pH was also analyzed after L* measurement. In sequence, PSE meat samples were evaluated for WHC, cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF), myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), protein denaturation (PD) and histological evaluation. The abnormal color samples presented lower pH values, 16% lower fiber diameter, 11% lower SF and 2% lower WHC than those classified as normal. The CL, PD and MFI were, respectively, 9%, 18% and 4% higher in PSE samples. The Pearson correlation between the L* values and CL, PD and MFI was positive, while that SF and pH values presented negative correlation. Under light microscopy, a shrinking of PSE muscle cell diameter was approximately 16% shorter in relation to normal samples and an extracellular enlargement of endomysium and perimysium sheaths as the consequence of higher water contents lost as observed previously by lower WHC values. Thus, the results showed that PSE turkey breast meat presented significant changes in their physical, chemical and histological characteristics that may impair its functional properties.

Keywords: Meat Quality, functional properties, histological evaluation, PSE

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9 Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality

Authors: B. Nazari, M. A. Mohammadifar, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, L. Mirmoghtadaie


Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.

Keywords: functional properties, structural properties, high intensity ultrasound, millet protein concentrate

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8 Effect of Thermal Pretreatment on Functional Properties of Chicken Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Nutnicha Wongpadungkiat, Suwit Siriwatanayotin, Aluck Thipayarat, Punchira Vongsawasdi, Chotika Viriyarattanasak


Chicken products are major export product of Thailand. With a dramatically increasing consumption of chicken product in the world, there are abundant wastes from chicken meat processing industry. Recently, much research in the development of value-added products from chicken meat industry has focused on the production of protein hydrolysate, utilized as food ingredients for human diet and animal feed. The present study aimed to determine the effect of thermal pre-treatment on functional properties of chicken protein hydrolysate. Chicken breasts were heated at 40, 60, 80 and 100ºC prior to hydrolysis by Alcalase at 60ºC, pH 8 for 4 hr. The hydrolysate was freeze-dried, and subsequently used for assessment of its functional properties molecular weight by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The obtained results show that increasing the pre-treatment temperature increased oil holding capacity and emulsion stability while decreasing antioxidant activity and water holding capacity. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed the evidence of protein aggregation in the hydrolysate treated at the higher pre-treatment temperature. These results suggest the connection between molecular weight of the hydrolysate and its functional properties.

Keywords: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, functional properties, chicken protein hydrolysate, thermal pretreatment

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7 Impact of Heat Moisture Treatment on the Yield of Resistant Starch and Evaluation of Functional Properties of Modified Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Starch

Authors: Sreejani Barua, P. P. Srivastav


Formulation of new functional food products for diabetes patients and obsessed people is a challenge for food industries till date. Starch is a certainly happening, ecological, reasonable and profusely obtainable polysaccharide in plant material. In the present scenario, there is a great interest in modifying starch functional properties without destroying its granular structure using different modification techniques. Resistant starch (RS) contains almost zero calories and can control blood glucose level to prevent diabetes. The current study focused on modification of mung bean starch which is a good source of legumes carbohydrate for the production of functional food. Heat moisture treatment (HMT) of mung starch was conducted at moisture content of 10-30%, temperature of 80-120 °C and time of 8-24 h.The content of resistant starch after modification was significantly increased from native starches containing RS 7.6%. The design combinations of HMT had been completed through Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The effects of HMT process variables on the yield of resistant starch was studied through Rapid Surface Methodology (RSM). The highest increase of resistant starch was found up to 34.39% when treated the native starch with 30% m.c at 120 °C temperature for 24 h.The functional properties of both native and modified mung bean starches showed that there was a reduction in the swelling power and swelling volume of HMT starches. However, the solubility of the HMT starches was higher than that of untreated native starch and also observed change in structural (scanning electron microscopy), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, blue value and thermal (differential scanning calorimetry) properties. Therefore, replacing native mung bean starch with heat-moisture treated mung bean starch leads to the development of new products with higher resistant starch levels and functional properties.

Keywords: functional properties, resistant starch, Mung bean starch, heat moisture treatment

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6 Obtaining Nutritive Powder from Peel of Mangifera Indica L. (Mango) as a Food Additive

Authors: Chajira Garrote, Laura Arango, Lourdes Merino


This research explains how to obtain nutritious powder from a variety of ripe mango peels Hilacha (Mangifera indica L.) to use it as a food additive. Also, this study intends to use efficiently the by-products resulting from the operations of mango pulp manufacturing process by processing companies with the aim of giving them an added value. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mango peels and the benefits that may help humans, were studied. Unit operations are explained for the processing of mango peels and the production of nutritive powder as a food additive. Emphasis is placed on the preliminary operations applied to the raw material and on the drying method, which is very important in this project to obtain the suitable characteristics of the nutritive powder. Once the powder was obtained, it was subjected to laboratory tests to determine its functional properties: water retention capacity (WRC) and oil retention capacity (ORC), also a sensory analysis for the powder was performed to determine the product profile. The nutritive powder from the ripe mango peels reported excellent WRC and ORC values: 7.236 g of water / g B.S. and 1.796 g water / g B.S. respectively and the sensory analysis defined a complete profile of color, odor and texture of the nutritive powder, which is suitable to use it in the food industry.

Keywords: Sensory Analysis, Powder, functional properties, nutritive, mango, peel

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5 Functionality and Application of Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates in Oil in Water Emulsions: Their Stabilities to Environmental Stresses

Authors: R. Charoen, S. Tipkanon, W. Savedboworn, N. Phonsatta, A. Panya


Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared from defatted rice bran of two different Thai rice cultivars (Plai-Ngahm-Prachinburi; PNP and Khao Dok Mali 105; KDM105) using an enzymatic method. This research aimed to optimize enzyme-assisted protein extraction. In addition, the functional properties of RBPH and their stabilities to environmental stresses including pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 mM to 500 mM) and the thermal treatment (30 °C to 90 °C) were investigated. Results showed that enzymatic process for protein extraction of defatted rice bran was as follows: enzyme concentration 0.075 g/ 5 g of protein, extraction temperature 50 °C and extraction time 4 h. The obtained protein hydrolysate powders had a degree of hydrolysis (%) of 21.05% in PNP and 19.92% in KDM105. The solubility of protein hydrolysates at pH 4-6 was ranged from 27.28-38.57% and 27.60-43.00% in PNP and KDM105, respectively. In general, antioxidant activities indicated by total phenolic content, FRAP, ferrous ion-chelating (FIC), and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) of KDM105 had higher than PNP. In terms of functional properties, the emulsifying activity index (EAI) was was 8.78 m²/g protein in KDM105, whereas PNP was 5.05 m²/g protein. The foaming capacity at 5 minutes (%) was 47.33 and 52.98 in PNP and KDM105, respectively. Glutamine, Alanine, Valine, and Leucine are the major amino acid in protein hydrolysates where the total amino acid of KDM105 gave higher than PNP. Furthermore, we investigated environmental stresses on the stability of 5% oil in water emulsion (5% oil, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by RBPH (3.5%). The droplet diameter of emulsion stabilized by KDM105 was smaller (d < 250 nm) than produced by PNP. For environmental stresses, RBPH stabilized emulsions were stable at pH around 3 and 5-6, at high salt (< 400 mM, pH 7) and at temperatures range between 30-50°C.

Keywords: Protein Hydrolysates, functional properties, rice bran protein, oil in water emulsion

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4 Nutritional Composition of Maize-Based Snack Fortified with Kidney Beans and Alligator Pepper

Authors: B. E. Adeyanju, M. K. Bolade, V. N. Enijuigha


This work examined the nutritional composition of maize-based snack (kango) fortified with kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta). The snack is essentially traditional food being consumed by all ages in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Three varieties of maize were obtained from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Ibadan, Nigeria, namely: ART-98-SW06-W, Br 9943-DMR-SR-W and SUWAN-1-SR-Y. Flour blends were obtained using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) which resulted in appropriate blending ratios of maize, kidney beans and alligator pepper. Kango was prepared by milling maize grain into flour; ingredients such as pepper, onion, salt and water were added to the maize flour, mixed together to make a slurry. The slurry was fried in hot groundnut oil at a temperature of 126°C for 8 minutes. The incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper in maize flour was observed to increase the water and oil absorption capacities of the resultant blends thereby giving 109.21 to 156.90 ml/mg and 110.68 to 136.67 ml/mg respectively for kango. The pasting properties of the maize flour blends were also enhanced due to the incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper. The peak viscosity of the flour blends ranged from 3.24 to 7.67 RVU. The incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper in the production of the snacks increased the protein contents from 9.63 to 16.37%. The mineral contents (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc) of the snacks were equally increased due to the incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper. A general increase was observed for vitamin B1 (0.69- 1.25 mg/100g), B2 (0.09 - 0.46 mg/100g) and B3 (0.11 - 0.72 mg/100g) in the snacks due to the incorporation of kidney bean and alligator pepper. This research work showed that kango produced from the composited maize flour, kidney bean and alligator pepper had better functional properties and higher nutritional contents.

Keywords: functional properties, Snack, kango, nutritional composition

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3 Cultivation of Halophytes: Effect of Salinity on Nutritional and Functional Properties

Authors: Luisa Barreira, Viana Castaneda, Maria J. Rodrigues, Florinda Gama, Tamara Santos, Marta Oliveira, Catarina Pereira, Maribela Pestana, Pedro Correia, Miguel Salazar, Carla Nunes, Luisa Custodio, Joao Varela


In the last century, the world witnessed an exponential demographic increase that has put an enormous pressure on agriculture and food production. Associated also with climate changes, there has been a decrease in the amount of available freshwater and an increased salinization of soils which can affect the production of most food crops. Halophytes, however, are plants able to withstand high salinities while maintaining a good growth productivity. To cope with the excess salt, they produce secondary metabolites (e.g. vitamins and phenolic compounds) which, along with the natural presence of some minerals, makes them not only nutritionally rich but also functional foods. Some halophytes, as quinoa or salicornia, are already used in some countries, mostly as gourmet food. Hydroponic cultivation of halophytes using seawater or diluted seawater for watering can decrease the pressure on freshwater resources while producing a nutritional and functional food. The XtremeGourmet project funded by the EU aims to develop and optimize the production of different halophytes by hydroponics. One of the more specific objectives of this project is the study of halophytes’ productivity and chemical composition under different abiotic conditions, e.g. salt and nutrient concentration and light intensity. Three species of halophytes commonly occurring in saltmarshes of the South of Portugal (Inula chrithmoides, Salicornia ramosissima and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated using hydroponics under different salinities, ranging from 5 to 45 dS/m. For each condition, several parameters were assessed namely: total and commercial productivity, electrical conductivity, total soluble solids, proximal composition, mineral profile, total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins content and antioxidant activity. Results show that productivity was significantly reduced for all plants with increasing salinity up to salinity 29 dS/m and remained low onwards. Oppositely, the electrical conductivity and the total soluble solids content of the produced plants increased with salinity, reaching a plateau at 29 dS/m. It seems that plants reflect the salt concentration of the water up to some point, being able to regulate their salt content for higher salinities. The same tendency was observed for the ash content of these plants, which is related to the mineral uptake from the cultivating media and the plants’ capacity to both accumulate and regulate ions’ concentration in their tissues. Nonetheless, this comes with a metabolic cost which is observed by a decrease in productivity. The mineral profile of these plants shows high concentrations of sodium but also high amounts of potassium. In what concerns the microelements, these plants appear to be a good source of manganese and iron and the low amounts of toxic metals account for their safe consumption in moderate amounts. Concerning the phenolics composition, plants presented moderate concentrations of phenolics but high amounts of condensed tannins, particularly I. crithmoides which accounts for its characteristic sour and spicy taste. Contrary to some studies in which higher amounts of phenolics were found in plants cultivated under higher salinities, in this study, the highest amount of phenolic compounds were found in plants grown at the lowest or intermediate salinities. Nonetheless, there was a positive correlation between the concentration of these compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plants’ extracts.

Keywords: Hydroponics, functional properties, halophytes, nutritional composition, salinity effect

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2 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui


The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: Conservation, Quality, Valorization, Whey Proteins, Gelatin, functional properties, pectin, fermented milk

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1 Relationship between Functional Properties and Supramolecular Structure of the Poly(Trimethylene 2,5-Furanoate) Based Multiblock Copolymers with Aliphatic Polyethers or Aliphatic Polyesters

Authors: I. Irska, S. Paszkiewicz, D. Pawlikowska, E. Piesowicz, A. Linares, T. A. Ezquerra, A. Zubkiewicz, A. Szymczyk


Over the last century, the world has become increasingly dependent on oil as its main source of chemicals and energy. Driven largely by the strong economic growth of India and China, demand for oil is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. This growth in demand, combined with diminishing reserves, will require the development of new, sustainable sources for fuels and bulk chemicals. Biomass is an attractive alternative feedstock, as it is widely available carbon source apart from oil and coal. Nowadays, academic and industrial research in the field of polymer materials is strongly oriented towards bio-based alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics with enhanced properties for advanced applications. In this context, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a biomass-based chemical product derived from lignocellulose, is one of the most high-potential biobased building blocks for polymers and the first candidate to replace the petro-derived terephthalic acid. FDCA has been identified as one of the top 12 chemicals in the future, which may be used as a platform chemical for the synthesis of biomass-based polyester. The aim of this study is to synthesize and characterize the multiblock copolymers containing rigid segments of poly(trimethylene 2,5-furanoate) (PTF) and soft segments of poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) with excellent elastic properties or aliphatic polyesters of polycaprolactone (PCL). Two series of PTF based copolymers, i.e., PTF-block-PTMO-T and PTF-block-PCL-T, with different content of flexible segments were synthesized by means of a two-step melt polycondensation process and characterized by various methods. The rigid segments of PTF, as well as the flexible PTMO/or PCL ones, were randomly distributed along the chain. On the basis of 1H NMR, SAXS and WAXS, DSC an DMTA results, one can conclude that both phases were thermodynamically immiscible and the values of phase transition temperatures varied with the composition of the copolymer. The copolymers containing 25, 35 and 45wt.% of flexible segments (PTMO) exhibited elastomeric property characteristics. Moreover, with respect to the flexible segments content, the temperatures corresponding to 5%, 25%, 50% and 90% mass loss as well as the values of tensile modulus decrease with the increasing content of aliphatic polyether or aliphatic polyester in the composition.

Keywords: functional properties, multiblock copolymers, furan based polymers, supramolecular structure

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