Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Functional ingredients Related Abstracts

3 In vitro Evaluation of Prebiotic Potential of Wheat Germ

Authors: Lígia Pimentel, Miguel Pereira, Manuela Pintado


Wheat germ is a by-product of wheat flour refining. Despite this by-product being a source of proteins, lipids, fibres and complex carbohydrates, and consequently a valuable ingredient to be used in Food Industry, only few applications have been studied. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential prebiotic effect of natural wheat germ. The prebiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro assays with individual microbial strains (Lactobacillus paracasei L26 and Lactobacillus casei L431). A simulated model of the gastrointestinal digestion was also used including the conditions present in the mouth (artificial saliva), oesophagus–stomach (artificial gastric juice), duodenum (artificial intestinal juice) and ileum. The effect of natural wheat germ and wheat germ after digestion on the growth of lactic acid bacteria was studied by growing those microorganisms in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth (with 2% wheat germ and 1% wheat germ after digestion) and incubating at 37 ºC for 48 h with stirring. A negative control consisting of MRS broth without glucose was used and the substrate was also compared to a commercial prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Samples were taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h for bacterial cell counts (CFU/mL) and pH measurement. Results obtained showed that wheat germ has a stimulatory effect on the bacteria tested, presenting similar (or even higher) results to FOS, when comparing to the culture medium without glucose. This was demonstrated by the viable cell counts and also by the decrease on the medium pH. Both L. paracasei L26 and L. casei L431 could use these compounds as a substitute for glucose with an enhancement of growth. In conclusion, we have shown that wheat germ stimulate the growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. In order to understand if the composition of gut bacteria is altered and if wheat germ could be used as potential prebiotic, further studies including faecal fermentations should be carried out. Nevertheless, wheat germ seems to have potential to be a valuable compound to be used in Food Industry, mainly in the Bakery Industry.

Keywords: Functional ingredients, by-products, prebiotic potential, wheat germ

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2 Effects of Brewer's Yeast Peptide Extract on the Growth of Probiotics and Gut Microbiota

Authors: Manuela Amorim, Cláudia S. Marques, Maria Conceição Calhau, Hélder J. Pinheiro, Maria Manuela Pintado


Recently it has been recognized peptides from different food sources with biological activities. However, no relevant study has proven the potential of brewer yeast peptides in the modulation of gut microbiota. The importance of human intestinal microbiota in maintaining host health is well known. Probiotics, prebiotics and the combination of these two components, can contribute to support an adequate balance of the bacterial population in the human large intestine. The survival of many bacterial species inhabiting the large bowel depends essentially on the substrates made available to them, most of which come directly from the diet. Some of these substrates can be selectively considered as prebiotics, which are food ingredients that can stimulate beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli or Bifidobacteria growth in the colon. Moreover, conventional food can be used as vehicle to intake bioactive compounds that provide those health benefits and increase people well-being. In this way, the main objective of this work was to study the potential prebiotic activity of brewer yeast peptide extract (BYP) obtained via hydrolysis of yeast proteins by cardosins present in Cynara cardunculus extract for possible use as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the effect of BYP on the modulation of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity model, Wistar rats were fed either with a standard or a high-fat diet. Quantified via 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR), genera of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.) and three main phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria) were assessed. Results showed relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Bacteroidetes was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by BYP. Consequently, the potential health-promoting effects of WPE through modulation of gut microbiota were demonstrated in vivo. Altogether, these findings highlight the possible intervention of BYP as gut microbiota enhancer, promoting healthy life style, and the incorporation in new food products, leads them bringing associated benefits endorsing a new trend in the improvement of new value-added food products.

Keywords: Functional ingredients, Gut Microbiota, Prebiotics, brewer yeast peptide extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
1 Functional Ingredients from Potato By-Products: Innovative Biocatalytic Processes

Authors: Salwa Karboune, Amanda Waglay


Recent studies indicate that health-promoting functional ingredients and nutraceuticals can help support and improve the overall public health, which is timely given the aging of the population and the increasing cost of health care. The development of novel ‘natural’ functional ingredients is increasingly challenging. Biocatalysis offers powerful approaches to achieve this goal. Our recent research has been focusing on the development of innovative biocatalytic approaches towards the isolation of protein isolates from potato by-products and the generation of peptides. Potato is a vegetable whose high-quality proteins are underestimated. In addition to their high proportion in the essential amino acids, potato proteins possess angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory potency, an ability to reduce plasma triglycerides associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis, and stimulate the release of the appetite regulating hormone CCK. Potato proteins have long been considered not economically feasible due to the low protein content (27% dry matter) found in tuber (Solanum tuberosum). However, potatoes rank the second largest protein supplying crop grown per hectare following wheat. Potato proteins include patatin (40-45 kDa), protease inhibitors (5-25 kDa), and various high MW proteins. Non-destructive techniques for the extraction of proteins from potato pulp and for the generation of peptides are needed in order to minimize functional losses and enhance quality. A promising approach for isolating the potato proteins was developed, which involves the use of multi-enzymatic systems containing selected glycosyl hydrolase enzymes that synergistically work to open the plant cell wall network. This enzymatic approach is advantageous due to: (1) the use of milder reaction conditions, (2) the high selectivity and specificity of enzymes, (3) the low cost and (4) the ability to market natural ingredients. Another major benefit to this enzymatic approach is the elimination of a costly purification step; indeed, these multi-enzymatic systems have the ability to isolate proteins, while fractionating them due to their specificity and selectivity with minimal proteolytic activities. The isolated proteins were used for the enzymatic generation of active peptides. In addition, they were applied into a reduced gluten cookie formulation as consumers are putting a high demand for easy ready to eat snack foods, with high nutritional quality and limited to no gluten incorporation. The addition of potato protein significantly improved the textural hardness of reduced gluten cookies, more comparable to wheat flour alone. The presentation will focus on our recent ‘proof-of principle’ results illustrating the feasibility and the efficiency of new biocatalytic processes for the production of innovative functional food ingredients, from potato by-products, whose potential health benefits are increasingly being recognized.

Keywords: Functional ingredients, peptides, Potato Proteins, biocatalytic approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 252