Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2

Fukui function Related Abstracts

2 Allylation of Active Methylene Compounds with Cyclic Baylis-Hillman Alcohols: Why Is It Direct and Not Conjugate?

Authors: Karim Hrratha, Khaled Essalahb, Christophe Morellc, Henry Chermettec, Salima Boughdiria


Among the carbon-carbon bond formation types, allylation of active methylene compounds with cyclic Baylis-Hillman (BH) alcohols is a reliable and widely used method. This reaction is a very attractive tool in organic synthesis of biological and biodiesel compounds. Thus, in view of an insistent and peremptory request for an efficient and straightly method for synthesizing the desired product, a thorough analysis of various aspects of the reaction processes is an important task. The product afforded by the reaction of active methylene with BH alcohols depends largely on the experimental conditions, notably on the catalyst properties. All experiments reported that catalysis is needed for this reaction type because of the poor ability of alcohol hydroxyl group to be as a suitable leaving group. Within the catalysts, several transition- metal based have been used such as palladium in the presence of acid or base and have been considered as reliable methods. Furthemore, acid catalysts such as BF3.OEt2, BiX3 (X= Cl, Br, I, (OTf)3), InCl3, Yb(OTf)3, FeCl3, p-TsOH and H-montmorillonite have been employed to activate the C-C bond formation through the alkylation of active methylene compounds. Interestingly a report of a smoothly process for the ability of 4-imethyaminopyridine(DMAP) to catalyze the allylation reaction of active methylene compounds with cyclic Baylis-Hillman (BH) alcohol appeared recently. However, the reaction mechanism remains ambiguous, since the C- allylation process leads to an unexpected product (noted P1), corresponding to a direct allylation instead of conjugate allylation, which involves the most electrophilic center according to the electron withdrawing group CO effect. The main objective of the present theoretical study is to better understand the role of the DMAP catalytic activity as well as the process leading to the end- product (P1) for the catalytic reaction of a cyclic BH alcohol with active methylene compounds. For that purpose, we have carried out computations of a set of active methylene compounds varying by R1 and R2 toward the same alcohol, and we have attempted to rationalize the mechanisms thanks to the acid–base approach, and conceptual DFT tools such as chemical potential, hardness, Fukui functions, electrophilicity index and dual descriptor, as these approaches have shown a good prediction of reactions products.The present work is then organized as follows: In a first part some computational details will be given, introducing the reactivity indexes used in the present work, then Section 3 is dedicated to the discussion of the prediction of the selectivity and regioselectivity. The paper ends with some concluding remarks. In this work, we have shown, through DFT method at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory that: The allylation of active methylene compounds with cyclic BH alcohol is governed by orbital control character. Hence the end- product denoted P1 is generated by direct allylation.

Keywords: DFT calculation, gas phase pKa, theoretical mechanism, orbital control, charge control, Fukui function, transition state

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1 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Feng Wang, Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon


Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: NMR, Resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, Fukui function, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis

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