Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

FT-IR Related Abstracts

10 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: XRD, Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, FT-IR

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9 Application of XRF and Other Principal Component Analysis for Counterfeited Gold Coin Characterization in Forensic Science

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Hamideh Abolghasemi


At world market can be currently encountered a wide range of gemological objects that are incorrectly declared, treated, or it concerns completely different materials that try to copy precious objects more or less successfully. Counterfeiting of precious commodities is a problem faced by governments in most countries. Police have seized many counterfeit coins that looked like the real coins and because the feeling to the touch and the weight were very similar to those of real coins. Most people were fooled and believed that the counterfeit coins were real ones. These counterfeit coins may have been made by big criminal organizations. To elucidate the manufacturing process, not only the quantitative analysis of the coins but also the comparison of their morphological characteristics was necessary. Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of coins. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique and the other analytical techniques for example SEM/EDX/WDX, FT-IR/ATR and Raman Spectroscopy. Using four elements (Cu, Ag, Au and Zn) and obtaining XRF for several samples, they could be discriminated. XRF technique and SEM/EDX/WDX are used for study of chemical composition. XRF analyzers provide a fast, accurate, nondestructive method to test the purity and chemistry of all precious metals. XRF is a very promising technique for rapid and non destructive counterfeit coins identification in forensic science.

Keywords: Forensic, X-Ray fluorescence, FT-IR, counterfeit coins

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8 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush


Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, bacillus, PCA, FT-IR, alicyclobacillus

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7 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, M. Yildirim, E. M. Derun, A. Ersan, A. M. Erayvaz


Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: XRD, FT-IR, zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, reaction efficiency

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6 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad


Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: Essential Oil, HPTLC, FT-IR, GC-MS, cymbopogon martini, SC-CO2

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5 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Feng Wang, Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon


Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: NMR, Resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, Fukui function, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis

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4 Material Analysis for Temple Painting Conservation in Taiwan

Authors: Chen-Fu Wang, Lin-Ya Kung


For traditional painting materials, the artisan used to combine the pigments with different binders to create colors. As time goes by, the materials used for painting evolved from natural to chemical materials. The vast variety of ingredients used in chemical materials has complicated restoration work; it makes conservation work more difficult. Conservation work also becomes harder when the materials cannot be easily identified; therefore, it is essential that we take a more scientific approach to assist in conservation work. Paintings materials are high molecular weight polymer, and their analysis is very complicated as well other contamination such as smoke and dirt can also interfere with the analysis of the material. The current methods of composition analysis of painting materials include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), each of which has its own limitation. In this study, FT-IR was used to analyze the components of the paint coating. We have taken the most commonly seen materials as samples and deteriorated it. The aged information was then used for the database to exam the temple painting materials. By observing the FT-IR changes over time, we can tell all of the painting materials will be deteriorated by the UV light, but only the speed of its degradation had some difference. From the deterioration experiment, the acrylic resin resists better than the others. After collecting the painting materials aging information on FT-IR, we performed some test on the paintings on the temples. It was found that most of the artisan used tune-oil for painting materials, and some other paintings used chemical materials. This method is now working successfully on identifying the painting materials. However, the method is destructive and high cost. In the future, we will work on the how to know the painting materials more efficiently.

Keywords: Conservation, FT-IR, temple painting, painting material

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3 Characterization of Waste Thermocol Modified Bitumen by Spectroscopy, Microscopic Technique, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer

Authors: Supriya Mahida, Sangita, Yogesh U. Shah, Shanta Kumar


The global production of thermocol increasing day by day, due to vast applications of the use of thermocole in many sectors. Thermocol being non-biodegradable and more toxic than plastic leads towards a number of problems like its management into value-added products, environmental damage and landfill problems due to weight to volume ratio. Utilization of waste thermocol for modification of bitumen binders resulted in waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) used in road construction and maintenance technology. Modification of bituminous mixes through incorporating thermocol into bituminous mixes through a dry process is one of the new options besides recycling process which consumes lots of waste thermocol. This process leads towards waste management and remedies against thermocol waste disposal. The present challenge is to dispose the thermocol waste under different forms in road infrastructure, either through the dry process or wet process to be developed in future. This paper focuses on the use of thermocol wastes which is mixed with VG 10 bitumen in proportions of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by weight of bitumen. The physical properties of neat bitumen are evaluated and compared with modified VG 10 bitumen having thermocol. Empirical characterization like penetration, softening, and viscosity of bitumen has been carried out. Thermocol and waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) were further analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).

Keywords: FT-IR, DSR, FESEM, thermocol wastes

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2 Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Medium Using Devised Column Filters Packed with Chitosan from Trash Crab Shells: A Characterization Study

Authors: Charles Klein O. Gorit, Mark Tristan J. Quimque Jr., M. Cecilia V. Almeda, Concepcion M. Salvana


Chitosan is a promising biopolymer commonly found in crustacean shells that has plausible effects in water purification and wastewater treatment. It is a primary derivative of chitin and considered second of the most abundant biopolymer prior to cellulose. Morphological analysis had been done using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Microscopy (SEM/EDS), and due to its porous nature, it showcases a certain degree of porosity, hence, larger adsorption site of heavy metal. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy of the chitosan and ‘lead-bound’ chitosan, shows a relative increase of percent abundance of lead cation from 1.44% to 2.08% hence, adsorption occurs. Chitosan, as a nitrogenous polysaccharide, subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows amide bands ranging from 1635.36 cm⁻¹ for amide 1 band and 1558.40 cm-1 for amide 2 band with NH stretching. For ‘lead-bound’ chitosan, the FT-IR analysis shows a change in peaks upon adsorption of Pb(II) cation. The spectrum shows broadening of OH and NH stretching band. Such observation can be attributed to the probability that the attachment of Pb(II) ions is in these functional groups. A column filter was devised with lead-bound chitosan to determine the zero point charge (pHzpc) of the biopolymer. The results show that at pH 8.34, below than the zpc level of literatures cited for lead which ranges from pH 4 to 7, favors the adsorption site of chitosan and its capability to adsorb traces amount of aqueous lead.

Keywords: SEM, chitosan, heavy metal, FT-IR, biopolymer, zero-point charge, lead ions

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1 Biosorption of Manganese Mine Effluents Using Crude Chitin from Philippine Bivalves

Authors: Randy Molejona Jr., Elaine Nicole Saquin


The area around the Ajuy river in Iloilo, Philippines, is currently being mined for manganese ore, and river water samples exceed the maximum manganese contaminant level set by US-EPA. At the same time, the surplus of local bivalve waste is another environmental concern. Synthetic chemical treatment compromises water quality, leaving toxic residues. Therefore, an alternative treatment process is biosorption or using the physical and chemical properties of biomass to adsorb heavy metals in contaminated water. The study aims to extract crude chitin from shell wastes of Bractechlamys vexillum, Perna viridis, and Placuna placenta and determine its adsorption capacity on manganese in simulated and actual mine water. Crude chitin was obtained by pulverization, deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorization of shells. Biosorption by flocculation followed 5 g: 50 mL chitin-to-water ratio. Filtrates were analyzed using MP-AES after 24 hours. In both actual and simulated mine water, respectively, B. vexillum yielded the highest adsorption percentage of 91.43% and 99.58%, comparable to P. placenta of 91.43% and 99.37%, while significantly different to P. viridis of -57.14% and 31.53%, (p < 0.05). FT-IR validated the presence of chitin in shells based on carbonyl-containing functional groups at peaks 1530-1560 cm⁻¹ and 1660-1680 cm⁻¹. SEM micrographs showed the amorphous and non-homogenous structure of chitin. Thus, crude chitin from B. vexillum and P. placenta can be bio-sorbents for water treatment of manganese-impacted effluents, and promote appropriate waste management of local bivalves.

Keywords: SEM, chitin, biosorption, FT-IR, mine effluents

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