Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Fruit Ripening Related Abstracts

3 New Insights into Ethylene and Auxin Interplay during Tomato Ripening

Authors: Bruna Lima Gomes, Vanessa Caroline De Barros Bonato, Luciano Freschi, Eduardo Purgatto


Plant hormones are long known to be tightly associated with fruit development and are involved in controlling various aspects of fruit ripening. For fleshy fruits, ripening is characterized for changes in texture, color, aroma and other parameters that markedly contribute to its quality. Ethylene is one of the major players regulating the ripening-related processes, but emerging evidences suggest that auxin is also part of this dynamic control. Thus, the aim of this study was providing new insights into the auxin role during ripening and the hormonal interplay between auxin and ethylene. For that, tomato fruits (Micro-Tom) were collected at mature green stage and separated in four groups: one for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment, one for ethylene, one for a combination of IAA and ethylene, and one for control. Hormone solution was injected through the stylar apex, while mock samples were injected with buffer only. For ethylene treatments, fruits were exposed to gaseous hormone. Then, fruits were left to ripen under standard conditions and to assess ripening development, hue angle was reported as color indicator and ethylene production was measured by gas chromatography. The transcript levels of three ripening-related ethylene receptors (LeETR3, LeETR4 and LeETR6) were evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results showed that ethylene treatment induced ripening, stimulated ethylene production, accelerated color changes and induced receptor expression, as expected. Nonetheless, auxin treatment showed the opposite effect once fruits remained green for longer time than control group and ethylene perception has changed, taking account the reduced levels of receptor transcripts. Further, treatment with both hormones revealed that auxin effect in delaying ripening was predominant, even with higher levels of ethylene. Altogether, the data suggest that auxin modulates several aspects of the tomato fruit ripening modifying the ethylene perception. The knowledge about hormonal control of fruit development will help design new strategies for effective manipulation of ripening regarding fruit quality and brings a new level of complexity on fruit ripening regulation.

Keywords: Ethylene, Fruit Ripening, auxin, hormonal crosstalk

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2 The Plant Hormone Auxin Impacts the Profile of Aroma Compounds in Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum)

Authors: Bruna Lima Gomes, Vanessa Caroline De Barros Bonato, Luciano Freschi, Eduardo Purgatto


The plant hormone ethylene is closely related to the metabolic changes that occur during fruit ripening, including volatile biosynthesis. Although knowledge about the biochemistry pathways that produce flavor compounds and the importance of ethylene to these processes are extensively covered, little is known about the regulation mechanisms. In addition, growing body of evidences indicates that auxin is also involved in controlling ripening. However, there is scarce information about the involvement of auxin in fruit volatile production. This study aimed to assess auxin-ethylene interactions and its influence on tomato fruit volatile profile. Fruits from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom were treated with IAA and ethylene, separately and in combination. The hormonal treatment was performed by injection (IAA) or gas exposure (ethylene) and the volatiles were extracted by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC-MS. Ethylene levels and color were measured by gas chromatography and colorimetry, respectively. The results indicate that the treatment with IAA (even in the presence of high concentrations of exogenous ethylene), impacted the profile of volatile compounds derived from fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and isoprenoids. Ethylene is a well-known regulator of the transition from green to red color and also is implicated in the biosynthesis of characteristic volatile compounds of tomato fruit. The effects observed suggest the existence of a crosstalk between IAA and ethylene in the aroma volatile formation in the fruit. A possible interference of IAA in the ethylene sensitivity in the fruit flesh is discussed. The data suggest that auxin plays an important role in the volatile synthesis in the tomato fruit and introduce a new level of complexity in the regulation of the fruit aroma formation during ripening.

Keywords: fruit quality, Fruit Ripening, Phytohormones, aroma compounds

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1 Correlation between Polysaccharides Molecular Weight Changes and Pectinases Gene Expression during Papaya Ripening

Authors: Samira B. R. Prado, Paulo R. Melfi, Beatriz T. Minguzzi, João P. Fabi


Fruit softening is the main change that occurs during papaya (Carica papaya L.) ripening. It is characterized by the depolymerization of cell wall polysaccharides, especially the pectic fractions, which causes cell wall disassembling. However, it is uncertain how the modification of the two main pectin polysaccharides fractions (water-soluble – WSF, and oxalate-soluble fractions - OSF) accounts for fruit softening. The aim of this work was to correlate molecular weight changes of WSF and OSF with the gene expression of pectin-solubilizing enzymes (pectinases) during papaya ripening. Papaya fruits obtained from a producer were harvest and storage under specific conditions. The fruits were divided in five groups according to days after harvesting. Cell walls from all groups of papaya pulp were isolated and fractionated (WSF and OSF). Expression profiles of pectinase genes were achieved according to the MIQE guidelines (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real-time PCR Experiments). The results showed an increased yield and a decreased molecular weight throughout ripening for WSF and OSF. Gene expression data support that papaya softening is achieved by polygalacturonases (PGs) up-regulation, in which their actions might have been facilitated by the constant action of pectinesterases (PMEs). Moreover, BGAL1 gene was up-regulated during ripening with a simultaneous galactose release, suggesting that galactosidases (GALs) could also account for pulp softening. The data suggest that a solubilization of galacturonans and a depolymerization of cell wall components were caused mainly by the action of PGs and GALs.

Keywords: Plant cell wall, Fruit Ripening, carica papaya, galactosidases, polygalacturonases

Procedia PDF Downloads 305