Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Friction Stir Welding Related Abstracts

24 Finite Element Modeling of Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Alloys

Authors: Fadi Al-Badour, Nesar Merah, Abdelrahman Shuaib, Abdelaziz Bazoune


In the current work, a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) model is developed to simulate the friction stir welding (FSW) process of dissimilar Aluminum alloys (Al 6061-T6 with Al 5083-O). The model predicts volumetric defects, material flow, developed temperatures, and stresses in addition to tool reaction loads. Simulation of welding phase is performed by employing a control volume approach, whereas the welding speed is defined as inflow and outflow over Eulerian domain boundaries. Only material softening due to inelastic heat generation is considered and material behavior is assumed to obey Johnson-Cook’s Model. The model was validated using published experimentally measured temperatures, at similar welding conditions, and by qualitative comparison of dissimilar weld microstructure. The FE results showed that most of developed temperatures were below melting and that the bulk of the deformed material in solid state. The temperature gradient on AL6061-T6 side was found to be less than that of Al 5083-O. Changing the position Al 6061-T6 from retreating (Ret.) side to advancing (Adv.) side led to a decrease in maximum process temperature and strain rate. This could be due to the higher resistance of Al 6061-T6 to flow as compared to Al 5083-O.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Friction Stir Welding, dissimilar metals, coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
23 Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for Joining Aluminium Alloys using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, A. M. El-Kassas, I. Sabry


The objective of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties in order to demonstrate the feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminium alloys. Welding was performed on pipe with different thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm), five rotational speeds (485, 710, 910, 1120 and 1400 rpm) and a traverse speed of 4mm/min. This work focuses on two methods which are artificial neural networks using software and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminium alloy. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. Tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters tool rotation speed, material thickness and axial force as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was also developed and the values obtained for the response tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameters on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminium alloy has been analysed in detail.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Friction Stir Welding, response surface methodology, aluminium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
22 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal


The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: Microstructure, Friction Stir Welding, Aluminum Alloy, SEM analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
21 Effect of Shot Peening on the Mechanical Properties for Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6

Authors: Muna Khethier Abbass, Khairia Salman Hussan, Huda Mohummed AbdudAlaziz


This work aims to study the effect of shot peening on the mechanical properties of welded joints which performed by two different welding processes: Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and friction stir welding (FSW) processes of aluminum alloy 6061 T6. Arc welding process (TIG) was carried out on the sheet with dimensions of (100x50x6 mm) to obtain many welded joints with using electrode type ER4043 (AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon as shielding gas. While the friction stir welding process was carried out using CNC milling machine with a tool of rotational speed (1000 rpm) and welding speed of (20 mm/min) to obtain the same butt welded joints. The welded pieces were tested by X-ray radiography to detect the internal defects and faulty welded pieces were excluded. Tensile test specimens were prepared from welded joints and base alloy in the dimensions according to ASTM17500 and then subjected to shot peening process using steel ball of diameter 0.9 mm and for 15 min. All specimens were subjected to Vickers hardness test and micro structure examination to study the effect of welding process (TIG and FSW) on the micro structure of the weld zones. Results showed that a general decay of mechanical properties of TIG and FSW welded joints comparing with base alloy while the FSW welded joint gives better mechanical properties than that of TIG welded joint. This is due to the micro structure changes during the welding process. It has been found that the surface hardening by shot peening improved the mechanical properties of both welded joints, this is due to the compressive residual stress generation in the weld zones which was measured using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) inspection.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Friction Stir Welding, TIG welding, shot peening

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
20 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang, Ankur Gill


In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
19 Friction Stir Welding of Al-Mg-Mn Aluminum Alloy Plates: A Review

Authors: K. Subbaiah, C. V. Jayakumar


Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process. Friction stir welding process eliminates the defects found in fusion welding processes. It is environmentally friend process. 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation industries. The Al-Mg-Mn (5000) and Al-Mg-Si (6000) alloys are preferably offer best combination of use in Marine construction. The medium strength and high corrosion resistant 5000 series alloys are the aluminum alloys, which are found maximum utility in the world. In this review, the tool pin profile, process parameters such as hardness, yield strength and tensile strength, and microstructural evolution of friction stir welding of Al-Mg-Mn alloys (5000 Series) have been discussed.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, Al-Mg-Mn alloys, tool pin profile, microstructure and mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
18 Review of Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar 5000 and 6000 Series Aluminum Alloy Plates

Authors: K. Subbaiah


Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process. Friction stir welding process eliminates the defects found in fusion welding processes. It is environmentally friend process. 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation industries. The Al-Mg-Mn (5000) and Al-Mg-Si (6000) alloys are preferably offer best combination of use in Marine construction. The medium strength and high corrosion resistant 5000 series alloys are the aluminum alloys, which are found maximum utility in the world. In this review, the tool pin profile, process parameters such as hardness, yield strength and tensile strength, and microstructural evolution of friction stir welding of Al-Mg alloys 5000 Series and 6000 series have been discussed.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, tool pin profile, microstructure and properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
17 Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Obtained by FSW of Similar and Dissimilar Non-Ferrous Alloys Used in Aerospace and Automobile Industry

Authors: Ajay Sidana, Kulbir Singh Sandhu, Balwinder Singh Sidhu


Joining of dissimilar non-ferrous alloys like aluminium and magnesium alloys becomes important in various automobile and aerospace applications due to their low density and good corrosion resistance. Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining process, successfully welds difficult to weld similar and dissimilar aluminum and magnesium alloys. Two tool rotation speeds were selected by keeping the transverse speed constant to weld similar and dissimilar alloys. Similar(Al to Al) and Dissimilar(Al to Mg) weld joints were obtained by FSW. SEM scans revealed that higher tool rotation fragments the coarse grains of base material into fine grains in the weld zone. Also, there are less welding defects in weld joints obtained with higher tool rotation speed. The material of dissimilar alloys was mixed with each other forming recrystallised new intermetallics. There was decrease in hardness of similar weld joint however there is significant increase in hardness of weld zone in case of dissimilar weld joints due to stirring action of tool and formation of inter metallics. Tensile tests revealed that there was decrease in percentage elongation in both similar and dissimilar weld joints.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminum Alloys, Magnesium Alloys, Friction Stir Welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
16 Material Flow Modeling in Friction Stir Welding of AA6061-T6 Alloy and Study of the Effect of Process Parameters

Authors: T. Medhi, S. C. Saha, B. SahaRoy


To understand the friction stir welding process, it is very important to know the nature of the material flow in and around the tool. The process is a combination of both thermal as well as mechanical work i.e it is a coupled thermo-mechanical process. Numerical simulations are very much essential in order to obtain a complete knowledge of the process as well as the physics underlying it. In the present work a model based approach is adopted in order to study material flow. A thermo-mechanical based CFD model is developed using a Finite Element package, Comsol Multiphysics. The fluid flow analysis is done. The model simultaneously predicts shear strain fields, shear strain rates and shear stress over the entire workpiece for the given conditions. The flow fields generated by the streamline plot give an idea of the material flow. The variation of dynamic viscosity, velocity field and shear strain fields with various welding parameters is studied. Finally the result obtained from the above mentioned conditions is discussed elaborately and concluded.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Material Flow, Friction Stir Welding, AA6061-T6

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
15 Microstructure Analysis of TI-6AL-4V Friction Stir Welded Joints

Authors: P. Leo, E. Cerri, L. Fratini, G. Buffa


The Friction Stir Welding process uses an inert rotating mandrel and a force on the mandrel normal to the plane of the sheets to generate the frictional heat. The heat and the stirring action of the mandrel create a bond between the two sheets without melting the base metal. As matter of fact, the use of a solid state welding process limits the insurgence of defects, due to the presence of gas in melting bath, and avoids the negative effects of materials metallurgical transformation strictly connected with the change of phase. The industrial importance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is well known. It provides an exceptional good balance of strength, ductility, fatigue and fracture properties together with good corrosion resistance and good metallurgical stability. In this paper, the authors analyze the microstructure of friction stir welded joints of Ti-6Al-4V processed at the same travel speed (35 mm/min) but at different rotation speeds (300-500 rpm). The microstructure of base material (BM), as result from both optical microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis is not homogenous. It is characterized by distorted α/β lamellar microstructure together with smashed zone of fragmented β layer and β retained grain boundary phase. The BM has been welded in the-as received state, without any previous heat treatment. Even the microstructure of the transverse and longitudinal sections of joints is not homogeneous. Close to the top of weld cross sections a much finer microstructure than the initial condition has been observed, while in the center of the joints the microstructure is less refined. Along longitudinal sections, the microstructure is characterized by equiaxed grains and lamellae. Both the length and area fraction of lamellas increases with distance from longitudinal axis. The hardness of joints is higher than that of BM. As the process temperature increases the average microhardness slightly decreases.

Keywords: Microstructure, Microhardness, Friction Stir Welding, Ti-6Al-4V

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
14 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi


Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: Microstructure, Friction Stir Welding, tensile properties, fracture locations

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
13 Model Based Development of a Processing Map for Friction Stir Welding of AA7075

Authors: Elizabeth Hoyos, Hernán Alvarez, Diana Lopez, Yesid Montoya


The main goal of this research relates to the modeling of FSW from a different or unusual perspective coming from mechanical engineering, particularly looking for a way to establish process windows by assessing soundness of the joints as a priority and with the added advantage of lower computational time. This paper presents the use of a previously developed model applied to specific aspects of soundness evaluation of AA7075 FSW welds. EMSO software (Environment for Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization) was used for simulation and an adapted CNC machine was used for actual welding. This model based approach showed good agreement with the experimental data, from which it is possible to set a window of operation for commercial aluminum alloy AA7075, all with low computational costs and employing simple quality indicators that can be used by non-specialized users in process modeling.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, aluminum AA7075, phenomenological based semiphysical model, processing map

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
12 Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin


The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar and similar aluminum alloys welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The specimens investigated by applying different welding speed and rotary speed. Typically, mechanical properties of the joints performed through tensile test fatigue test and microhardness (HV) at room temperature. Fatigue test investigated by using electromechanical testing machine under constant loading control with similar since wave loading. The Maximum stress versus minimum got the range between 0.1 to 0.3 in the research. Based upon welding parameters by optical observation and scanning electron microscopy microstructural properties fulfilled with a cross section of welds, in addition, SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, al alloys, fatigue and tensile test, microstructural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
11 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: M. Ishak, N. H. Othman, N. Udin, L. H. Shah


This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
10 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang


Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, aluminium alloy, central composite design, mathematical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
9 Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Parameters on Macrostructure and Weld Strength in Friction Stir Welded of High Density Polyethylene Sheets

Authors: Mustafa Kemal Bilici, Memduh Kurtulmuş, İlyas Kartal, Ahmet İrfan Yükler


Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of butt joints produced by friction stir welding (FSW) in high density polyethylene sheets of 4 mm thickness. The effects of critical welding parameters and tool design have affected on mechanical properties, weld surface and macrostructure of friction stir welded polyethylene. Experiments were performed at tool rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 r/min and traverse speeds of 30, 45 and 60 mm/min, tool diameters (d) of 4, 5, 6 mm and tool shoulder diameters (D) 20, 25, 30 mm. A strength value of 80 % of the base material was achieved at the isolated optimum welding condition. According to the tool design, the welding parameters and the mechanical properties changed to a great extent. The highest tensile strength was achieved at low feed rates, high tool rotation speeds and shoulder diameters/pin diameters ratio.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Polyethylene, Friction Stir Welding, high density polyethylene, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
8 Finite Element Simulation of Limiting Dome Height Test on the Formability of Aluminium Tailor Welded Blanks

Authors: M. J. Davidson, Lakhya Jyoti Basumatary


Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) have established themselves to be a revolutionary and foremost integral part of the automotive and aerospace industries. Metals sheets with varied thickness, strength and coatings are welded together to form TWBs through friction stir welding and laser welding prior to stamping operations. The formability of the TWBs completely varies from those of conventional blanks due to the diverse strength levels of individual sheets which are made to deform under the same forming load uniformly throughout causing unequal and unsatisfactory deformation in the blank. Limiting Dome Height(LDH) test helps predicting the formability of each blanks and assists in determining the appropriate TWB. Finite Element Simulation of LDH test for both base material and TWBs was performed and analysed for both before and after the solution heat treatment. The comparison and validation of simulation results are done with the experimental data and correlated accordingly. The formability of solution heat treated TWBs had enhanced than those of blanks made from non-heat treated TWBs.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, finite element simulation, tailor welded blanks, limiting dome height test

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
7 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu


Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminum Alloys, Friction Stir Welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
6 Welding Technology Developments for Stringer-Skin Joints with Al-Li Alloys

Authors: Egoitz Aldanondo, Ekaitz Arruti, Amaia Iturrioz, Ivan Huarte, Fidel Zubiri


Manufacturing aeronautic structures joining extruded profiles or stringers to sheets or skins of aluminium is a typical manufacturing procedure in aeronautic structures. Although riveting is the conventional manufacturing technology to produce such joints, the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technologies have also demonstrated their potential for this kind of applications. Therefore, FSW and LBW technologies have the potential to continue their development as manufacturing processes for aeronautic structures showing benefits such as time-saving, light-weighting and overall cost reduction. In addition to that, new aluminium-lithium based alloy developments represent great opportunities for advanced aeronautic structure manufacturing with potential benefits such as lightweight construction or improved corrosion resistance. This work presents the main approaches by FSW and LBW to develop those technologies to produce stiffened panel structures such as fuselage by stringer-skin joints and using innovative aluminium-lithium alloys. Initial welding tests were performed in AA2198-T3S aluminium alloys for LBW technology and with AA2198-T851 for FSW. Later tests for both FSW and LBW have been carried out using AA2099-T83 alloy extrusions as stringers and AA2060-T8E30 as skin materials. The weld quality and properties have been examined by metallographic analysis and mechanical testing, including shear tensile tests and pull-out tests. The analysis of the results have shown the relationships between processing conditions, micro-macrostructural properties and the mechanical strength of the welded joints. The effects produced in the different alloys investigated have been observed and particular weld formation mechanics have been studied for each material and welding technology. Therefore, relationships between welding conditions and the obtained weld properties for each material combination and welding technology will be discussed in this presentation.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, AA2060-T8E30, AA2099-T83, AA2198-T3S, AA2198-T851, laser beam welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
5 Temperature Evolution, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding: Comparison with Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: Saliha Gachi, Mouloud Aissani, Fouad Boubenider


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that can join material without melting the plates to be welded. In this work, we are interested to demonstrate the potentiality of FSW for joining the heat-treatable aluminum alloy 2024-T3 which is reputed as difficult to be welded by fusion techniques. Thereafter, the FSW joint is compared with another one obtained from a conventional fusion process Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG). FSW welds are made up using an FSW tool mounted on a milling machine. Single pass welding was applied to fabricated TIG joint. The comparison between the two processes has been made on the temperature evolution, mechanical and microstructure behavior. The microstructural examination revealed that FSW weld is composed of four zones: Base metal (BM), Heat affected zone (HAZ), Thermo-mechanical affected zone (THAZ) and the nugget zone (NZ). The NZ exhibits a recrystallized equiaxed refined grains that induce better mechanical properties and good ductility compared to TIG joint where the grains have a larger size in the welded region compared with the BM due to the elevated heat input. The microhardness results show that, in FSW weld, the THAZ contains the lowest microhardness values and increase in the NZ; however, in TIG process, the lowest values are localized on the NZ.

Keywords: Microstructure, Aluminum, Friction Stir Welding, tungsten inert gaz

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
4 Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Welded EN AW 5754 Aluminum Alloy Using Load Increase Procedure

Authors: A. B. Chehreh, M. Grätzel, M. Klein, J. P. Bergmann, F. Walther


Friction stir welding (FSW) is an advantageous method in the thermal joining processes, featuring the welding of various dissimilar and similar material combinations, joining temperatures below the melting point which prevents irregularities such as pores and hot cracks as well as high strengths mechanical joints near the base material. The FSW process consists of a rotating tool which is made of a shoulder and a probe. The welding process is based on a rotating tool which plunges in the workpiece under axial pressure. As a result, the material is plasticized by frictional heat which leads to a decrease in the flow stress. During the welding procedure, the material is continuously displaced by the tool, creating a firmly bonded weld seam behind the tool. However, the mechanical properties of the weld seam are affected by the design and geometry of the tool. These include in particular microstructural and surface properties which can favor crack initiation. Following investigation compares the dynamic properties of FSW weld seams with conventional and stationary shoulder geometry based on load increase test (LIT). Compared to classical Woehler tests, it is possible to determine the fatigue strength of the specimens after a short amount of time. The investigations were carried out on a robotized welding setup on 2 mm thick EN AW 5754 aluminum alloy sheets. It was shown that an increased tensile and fatigue strength can be achieved by using the stationary shoulder concept. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the LIT is a valid method to describe the fatigue behavior of FSW weld seams.

Keywords: fracture, Friction Stir Welding, Aluminum Alloy, fatigue performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
3 Development of Fixture for Pipe to Pipe Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Materials

Authors: Hardik Vyas, Aashutosh A. Tadse, Kush Mehta


Friction Stir Welding is a process in which an FSW tool produces friction heat and thus penetrates through the junction and upon rotation carries out the weld by exchange of material within the 2 metals being welded. It involves holding the workpieces stiff enough to bear the force of the tool moving across the junction to carry out a successful weld. The weld that has flat plates as workpieces, has a quite simpler geometry in terms of fixture holding them. In the case of FSW of pipes, the pipes need to be held firm with the chucks and jaws according to the diameter of the pipes being welded; the FSW tool is then revolved around the pipes to carry out the weld. Machine requires a larger area and it becomes more costly because of such a setup. To carry out the weld on the Milling machine, the newly designed fixture must be set-up on the table of milling machine and must facilitate rotation of pipes by the motor being shafted to one end of the fixture, and the other end automatically rotated because of the rotating jaws held tight enough with the pipes. The set-up has tapered cones as the jaws that would go in the pipes thus holding it with the help of its knurled surface providing the required grip. The process has rotation of pipes with the stationary rotating tool penetrating into the junction. The FSW on pipes in this process requires a very low RPM of pipes to carry out a fine weld and the speed shall change with every combination of material and diameter of pipes, so a variable speed setting motor shall serve the purpose. To withstand the force of the tool, an attachment to the shaft is provided which will be diameter specific that will resist flow of material towards the center during the weld. The welded joint thus carried out will be proper to required standards and specifications. Current industrial requirements state the need of space efficient, cost-friendly and more generalized form of fixtures and set-ups of machines to be put up. The proposed design considers every mentioned factor and thus proves to be positive in the same.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, milling machine, force of tool, rotation of pipes, tapered cones

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
2 Feasibility Study of Friction Stir Welding Application for Kevlar Material

Authors: Ahmet Taşan, Süha Tirkeş, Yavuz Öztürk, Zafer Bingül


Friction stir welding (FSW) is a joining process in the solid state, which eliminates problems associated with the material melting and solidification, such as cracks, residual stresses and distortions generated during conventional welding. Among the most important advantages of FSW are; easy automation, less distortion, lower residual stress and good mechanical properties in the joining region. FSW is a recent approach to metal joining and although originally intended for aluminum alloys, it is investigated in a variety of metallic materials. The basic concept of FSW is a rotating tool, made of non-consumable material, specially designed with a geometry consisting of a pin and a recess (shoulder). This tool is inserted as spinning on its axis at the adjoining edges of two sheets or plates to be joined and then it travels along the joining path line. The tool rotation axis defines an angle of inclination with which the components to be welded. This angle is used for receiving the material to be processed at the tool base and to promote the gradual forge effect imposed by the shoulder during the passage of the tool. This prevents the material plastic flow at the tool lateral, ensuring weld closure on the back of the pin. In this study, two 4 mm Kevlar® plates which were produced with the Kevlar® fabrics, are analyzed with COMSOL Multiphysics in order to investigate the weldability via FSW. Thereafter, some experimental investigation is done with an appropriate workbench in order to compare them with the analysis results.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, heat generation, analytical modeling, composite materials welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
1 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Gurbhinder Singh Brar, Sukhdeep Singh Gill


In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.

Keywords: Structural Applications, Magnesium, Aluminum, Friction Stir Welding, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 9