Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

fresh water Related Abstracts

5 Activity of Malate Dehydrogenase in Cell Free Extracts from S. proteamaculans, A. hydrophila, and K. pneumoniae

Authors: Mohamed M. Bumadian, D. James Gilmour


Three bacterial species were isolated from the River Wye (Derbyshire, England) and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Serratia proteamaculans, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Respiration rates of the strains were measured in order to determine the metabolic activity under salt stress. The highest respiration rates of all three strains were found at 0.17 M and 0.5 M NaCl and then the respiration rate decreased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition, the effect of increasing concentrations of NaCl on malate dehydrogenase activity was determined using cell-free extracts of the three strains. Malate dehydrogenase activity was stimulated at NaCl concentrations up to 0.5 M, and a small level of activity remained even at 3.5 M NaCl. The pH optimum of the malate dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of all strains was higher than pH 7.5.

Keywords: fresh water, halotolerant pathogenic bacteria, cell-free extracts, respiration rates, malate dehydrogenase

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4 Development of Latent Fingerprints on Non-Porous Surfaces Recovered from Fresh and Sea Water

Authors: A. Somaya Madkour, B. Abeer sheta, C. Fatma Badr El Dine, D. Yasser Elwakeel, E. Nermine AbdAllah


Criminal offenders have a fundamental goal not to leave any traces at the crime scene. Some may suppose that items recovered underwater will have no forensic value, therefore, they try to destroy the traces by throwing items in water. These traces are subjected to the destructive environmental effects. This can represent a challenge for Forensic experts investigating finger marks. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to determine the optimal method for latent fingerprints development on non-porous surfaces submerged in aquatic environments at different time interval. The two factors analyzed in this study were the nature of aquatic environment and length of submerged time. In addition, the quality of developed finger marks depending on the used method was also assessed. Therefore, latent fingerprints were deposited on metallic, plastic and glass objects and submerged in fresh or sea water for one, two, and ten days. After recovery, the items were subjected to cyanoacrylate fuming, black powder and small particle reagent processing and the prints were examined. Each print was evaluated according to fingerprint quality assessment scale. The present study demonstrated that the duration of submersion affects the quality of finger marks; the longer the duration, the worse the quality.The best results of visualization were achieved using cyanoacrylate either in fresh or sea water. This study has also revealed that the exposure to sea water had more destructive influence on the quality of detected finger marks.

Keywords: sea, Fingerprints, fresh water, non-porous

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3 Impact of Lined and Unlined Water Bodies on the Distribution and Abundance of Fresh Water Snails in Certain Governorates in Egypt

Authors: Nahed Mohamed Ismail, Bayomy Mostafa, Ahmed Abdel Kader, Ahmed Mohamed Azzam


Effect of lining watercourses on the distribution and abundance of fresh water snails at two Egyptian governorates, Baheria (new reclaimed area) and Giza was studied. Seasonal survey in lined and unlined sites during two successive years was carried out. Samples of snails and water were collected from each examined site and the ecological conditions were recorded. The collected snails from each site were placed in plastic aquaria and transferred to the laboratory, where they were sorted out, identified, counted and examined for natural infection. The size frequency distribution was calculated for each snail species. Results revealed that snails were represented in all examined watercourses (lined and unlined) at the two tested habitats by 14 species. (Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, Bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta. Helisoma duryi, Lymnaea natalensis, Planorbis planorbis, Cleopatra bulimoids, Lanistes carinatus, Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata, Theodoxus nilotica, Succinia cleopatra and Gabbiella senaarensis). During spring, the percentage of live (45%) and dead (55%) snail species was extremely highly significant lower (p>0.001) in lined water bodies compared to the unlined ones (93.5% and 6.5%, respectively) in the examined sites at Baheria. At Giza, the percentage values of live snail species from all lined watercourses (82.6% and 60.2%, during winter and spring, respectively) was significantly lower (p>0.05 & p>0.01) than those in unlined ones (91.1% and 79%, respectively). Size frequency distribution of snails collected from the lined and unlined water bodies at Baheria and Giza governorates during all seasons revealed that during survey, snail populations were stable and the recruitment of young to adult was continuing for some species, where the recruits were observed with adults. However, there was no sign of small snails occurrence in case of B. glabrata and B. alexandrina during autumn, winter and spring and disappear during summer at Giza. Meanwhile they completely absent during all seasons at Baheria Governorate. Chemical analysis of some heavy metals of water samples collected from lined and unlined sites from Baheria and Giza governorates during autumn, winter and spring were approximately as the same in both lined and unlined water bodies. However, Zn and Fe were higher in lined sites (0.78±0.37and 17.4 ± 4.3, respectively) than that of unlined ones (0.4±0.1 and 10.95 ± 1.93, respectively) and Cu was absent in both lined and unlined sites during summer at Baheria governorate. At Giza, Cu and Pb were absent and Fe were higher in lined sites (4.7± 4.2) than that of unlined ones (2.5 ± 1.4) during summer. Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference in all physico-chemical parameters of water in lined and unlined water bodies at the two tested habitats during all seasons. However, it was found that the water conductivity and TDS showed a lower mean values in lined sites than those of unlined ones. Thus, the present obtained data support the concept of utilizing environmental modification such as lining of water courses to help in minimizing the population density of certain vector snails and consequently reduce the transmission of snails born diseases.

Keywords: fresh water, watercourses, lining, snails

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2 Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for X65 Steel Tank Containing Fresh Water

Authors: A. M. Al-Sabagh, M. A. Deyab, M. N. Kroush


The present study focused on critical and detailed approach for using aluminum electrode as impressed current anode for cathodic protection of X65 steel tank containing fresh water. The impressed current design calculation showed 0.6 A of current demand and voltage of 0.33 V required to adequately protect the X65 steel tank with internal surface area of 421 m². We used here one transformer rectifier with current and voltage output of 25 A and 25 V, respectively. The data showed that the potentials ranged from -0.474 to -0.509 V (vs. Cu/CuSO₄), prior to the application of cathodic protection. When the potential was measured 1 h after the application of cathodic protection, the potential values showed considerable shift within protection range (-0.950 V vs. Cu/CuSO₄). The results confirmed that aluminum anode can be used in freshwater applications with high efficiency (current capacity) and low consumption rate.

Keywords: steel, Aluminum, fresh water, cathodic protection

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1 Impact of Flood on Phytoplankton Biochemical Composition in Subtropical Reservoir, Lake Nasser

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Howayda Abd El-Hady, Nehad Khalifa


Lake Nasser is vital to Egypt as it is the main Nile water reservoir. One of the major challenges in ecological flood is to establish how environmental enrichment in nutrients availability may affect both the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and the species communities. Samples were collected from twenty sites representing different lake sectors along the main channel of the lake during 2017. Generally, phytoplankton distribution during flood season in Lake Nasser indicates the predominance of Cyanophyceae at all lake sectors. Increases in NO₂ (9.31 µg/l) and PO₄ (7.11µg/l) at the Abu-Simble sector are associated with changes in community structure and biochemical composition of phytoplankton, where Cyanophyceae blooming occur associated with retardation in biopolymeric particulate organic carbon. The maximum total biochemical contents (91.29 mg/l) and biopolymeric particulate organic carbon (37.15 mg/l) was found at El-Madiq sector where there was optimum nutrients (NO₂ 0.479 µg/l and PO₄ 5.149µg/l), a highly positive correlation was found between Cyanophyceae and NO₂ in the lake (r = 0.956). A highly positive correlation was detected between carbohydrates and both transparency and pH in the lake (r = 0.974 and 0.787). Also carbohydrates had a positive relation with Bacillariophyceae (r = 0.610). Flood positively alter the water quality of the lake by increasing dissolved oxygen and nutrients enrichment to the aquatic ecosystem, affecting other aquatic organisms of higher trophic levels as economic fishes inhabiting the lake.

Keywords: biochemical composition, fresh water, aquatic microalgae, Aswan high dam lake

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