Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

fresh properties Related Abstracts

3 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa


The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Sulfate Attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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2 Extrudable Foamed Concrete: General Benefits in Prefabrication and Comparison in Terms of Fresh Properties and Compressive Strength with Classic Foamed Concrete

Authors: D. Falliano, G. Ricciardi, E. Gugliandolo


Foamed concrete belongs to the category of lightweight concrete. It is characterized by a density which is generally ranging from 200 to 2000 kg/m³ and typically comprises cement, water, preformed foam, fine sand and eventually fine particles such as fly ash or silica fume. The foam component mixed with the cement paste give rise to the development of a system of air-voids in the cementitious matrix. The peculiar characteristics of foamed concrete elements are summarized in the following aspects: 1) lightness which allows reducing the dimensions of the resisting frame structure and is advantageous in the scope of refurbishment or seismic retrofitting in seismically vulnerable areas; 2) thermal insulating properties, especially in the case of low densities; 3) the good resistance against fire as compared to ordinary concrete; 4) the improved workability; 5) cost-effectiveness due to the usage of rather simple constituting elements that are easily available locally. Classic foamed concrete cannot be extruded, as the dimensional stability is not permitted in the green state and this severely limits the possibility of industrializing them through a simple and cost-effective process, characterized by flexibility and high production capacity. In fact, viscosity enhancing agents (VEA) used to extrude traditional concrete, in the case of foamed concrete cause the collapsing of air bubbles, so that it is impossible to extrude a lightweight product. These requirements have suggested the study of a particular additive that modifies the rheology of foamed concrete fresh paste by increasing cohesion and viscosity and, at the same time, stabilizes the bubbles into the cementitious matrix, in order to allow the dimensional stability in the green state and, consequently, the extrusion of a lightweight product. There are plans to submit the additive’s formulation to patent. In addition to the general benefits of using the extrusion process, extrudable foamed concrete allow other limits to be exceeded: elimination of formworks, expanded application spectrum, due to the possibility of extrusion in a range varying between 200 and 2000 kg/m³, which allows the prefabrication of both structural and non-structural constructive elements. Besides, this contribution aims to present the significant differences regarding extrudable and classic foamed concrete fresh properties in terms of slump. Plastic air content, plastic density, hardened density and compressive strength have been also evaluated. The outcomes show that there are no substantial differences between extrudable and classic foamed concrete compression resistances.

Keywords: compressive strength, foamed concrete, fresh properties, extrusion, plastic air content, slump

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1 Effect of Permeability Reducing Admixture Utilization on Sulfate Resistance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixture

Authors: Ali Mardani-Aghabaglou, Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Semsi Yazici


In this study, the effect of permeability reducing admixture (PRA) utilization on fresh properties, compressive strength and sulfate resistance of self-consolidating concrete (SSC) were investigated. For this aim, two different commercial PRA were used at two utilization ratios as %0.1 and %0.2 wt. CEM I 42.5 R type cement and crushed limestone aggregate having Dmax of 15 mm were used for preparing of SCC mixtures. In all mixtures, cement content, water/cement ratio, and flow value were kept constant as 450 kg, 0.40 and 65 ± 2 cm, respectively. In order to obtain desired flow value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used at different content. T50 flow time, flow value, L-box, and U-funnel of SCC mixture were measured as fresh properties. 1, 3, 7 and 28-day compressive strength of SCC mixture were obtained on 150 mm cubic specimens. To investigate the sulfate resistance of SCC mixture 75x75x285 mm prismatic specimens were produced. After 28-day water curing, specimens were immersed in %5 sodium sulfate solution during 210 days. The length change of specimens was measured at 5-day time intervals up to 210 days. According to the test results, all fresh properties of SCC mixtures were in accordance with the European federation of specialist construction chemicals and concrete systems (EFNARC) critter for SCC mixtures. The utilization of PRA had no significant effect on compressive strength and fresh properties of SCC mixtures. Regardless of PRA type, sulfate resistance of SCC mixture increased by adding of PRA into the SCC mixtures. The length changes of the SCC mixtures containing %1 and %2 PRA were measured as %8 and %14 less than that of control mixture containing no PRA, respectively.

Keywords: Self-Consolidating Concrete, fresh properties, permeability reducing admixture, sulfate resistance

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