Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

framework Related Abstracts

38 Non-Profit Organizations and the Future: Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Annual Reports

Authors: Nadzira Yahaya, Saunah Zainon, Marshita Hashim, Ruhaya Atan


Non-profit organizations (NPOs) in Malaysia are diverse in their origins, structures, objectives, and stakeholders. The largest category of NPOs is from charity and religious category while many other categories such as youth, professionals, women, education and mutual benefits either operate independently or controlled by governments. NPOs have stewardship obligations to their stakeholders and other users of their annual reports, including the public at large. The existing accounting practices without the proper framework of the preparation and presentation of annual reports resulted in a lack of uniformity in the preparation and presentation of NPOs annual reports. Furthermore, a lack of awareness of the applicability of accounting standards and the adoption of different bases of accounting resulted in the need for framework in the preparation and presentation of financial statements for true and fair view of the state of affairs and the operating result of the NPOs activities. This study presents the proposed framework for the preparation and presentation of NPOs annual reports to help the organizations provide high-quality reporting for them to be accountable for good stewardship.

Keywords: annual reports, framework, NPOs, preparation and presentation

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37 Towards Development of a Framework for Saudi Education Software Ecosystem

Authors: Fazal-e-Amin, Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Iftikhar Ahmad


Software ecosystems’ concept is an inspiration from the natural ecosystem. Software ecosystems refer to large systems developed on top of a platform composed of different components developed by different entities of that ecosystem. Ecosystems improve information access, dissemination and coordination considerably. The ability to evolve and accommodate new subsystems gives a boost to the software ecosystems. In this paper, Saudi education software ecosystem is discussed and its need and potential benefits are highlighted. This work will provide a basis for further research in this area and foundation in development of Saudi education ecosystem.

Keywords: Software Engineering, framework, software ecosystem, education software

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36 MyAds: A Social Adaptive System for Online Advertisment from Hypotheses to Implementation

Authors: Dana A. Al Qudah, Alexandra I. Critea, Rizik M. H. Al Sayyed, Amer Obeidah


Online advertisement is one of the major incomes for many companies; it has a role in the overall business flow and affects the consumer behavior directly. Unfortunately most users tend to block their ads or ignore them. MyAds is a social adaptive hypermedia system for online advertising and its main goal is to explore how to make online ads more acceptable. In order to achieve such a goal, various technologies and techniques are used. This paper presents a theoretical framework as well as the system architecture for MyAds that was designed based on a set of hypotheses and an exploratory study. The system then was implemented and a pilot experiment was conducted to validate it. The main outcomes suggest that the system has provided personalized ads for users. The main implications suggest that the system can be used for further testing and validating.

Keywords: Social, framework, adaptive hypermedia, e-advertisement, hypotheses, exploratory study

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35 Achieving Success in NPD Projects

Authors: Ankush Agrawal, Nadia Bhuiyan


The new product development (NPD) literature emphasizes the importance of introducing new products on the market for continuing business success. New products are responsible for employment, economic growth, technological progress, and high standards of living. Therefore, the study of NPD and the processes through which they emerge is important. The goal of our research is to propose a framework of critical success factors, metrics, and tools and techniques for implementing metrics for each stage of the new product development (NPD) process. An extensive literature review was undertaken to investigate decades of studies on NPD success and how it can be achieved. These studies were scanned for common factors for firms that enjoyed success of new products on the market. The paper summarizes NPD success factors, suggests metrics that should be used to measure these factors, and proposes tools and techniques to make use of these metrics. This was done for each stage of the NPD process, and brought together in a framework that the authors propose should be followed for complex NPD projects. While many studies have been conducted on critical success factors for NPD, these studies tend to be fragmented and focus on one or a few phases of the NPD process.

Keywords: Performance, New Product Development, critical success factors, framework

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34 The Use of Ontology Framework for Automation Digital Forensics Investigation

Authors: Ahmad Luthfi


One of the main goals of a computer forensic analyst is to determine the cause and effect of the acquisition of a digital evidence in order to obtain relevant information on the case is being handled. In order to get fast and accurate results, this paper will discuss the approach known as ontology framework. This model uses a structured hierarchy of layers that create connectivity between the variant and searching investigation of activity that a computer forensic analysis activities can be carried out automatically. There are two main layers are used, namely analysis tools and operating system. By using the concept of ontology, the second layer is automatically designed to help investigator to perform the acquisition of digital evidence. The methodology of automation approach of this research is by utilizing forward chaining where the system will perform a search against investigative steps and atomically structured in accordance with the rules of the ontology.

Keywords: Automation, Ontology, Forensics, framework

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33 Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS) Framework Development

Authors: A. P. Puvanasvaran, Suresh A. L. Vasu, N. Norazlin


The Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS) framework development is integration between lean core element and ISO 14001. The curiosity on the relationship between continuous improvement and sustainability of lean implementation has influenced this study toward LEMIS. Characteristic of ISO 14001 standard clauses and core elements of lean principles are explored from past studies and literature reviews. Survey was carried out on ISO 14001 certified companies to examine continual improvement by implementing the ISO 14001 standard. The study found that there is a significant and positive relationship between Lean Principles: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection with the ISO 14001 requirements. LEMIS is significant to support the continuous improvement and sustainability. The integration system can be implemented to any manufacturing company. It gives awareness on the importance on why organizations need to sustain its Environmental management system. At the meanwhile, the lean principle can be adapted in order to streamline daily activities of the company. Throughout the study, it had proven that there is no sacrifice or trade-off between lean principles with ISO 14001 requirements. The framework developed in the study can be further simplified in the future, especially the method of crossing each sub requirements of ISO 14001 standard with the core elements of Lean principles in this study.

Keywords: Integration, ISO 14001, framework, LEMIS

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32 Framework for Government ICT Projects

Authors: Manal Rayes


In its efforts to utilize the information and communication technology to enhance the quality of public service delivery, national and local governments around the world are competing to introduce more ICT applications as tools to automate processes related to law enforcement or policy execution, increase citizen orientation, trust, and satisfaction, and create one-stop-shops for public services. In its implementation, e-Government ICTs need to maintain transparency, participation, and collaboration. Due to this diverse of mixed goals and requirements, e-Government systems need to be designed based on special design considerations in order to eliminate the risks of failure to compliance to government regulations, citizen dissatisfaction, or market repulsion. In this article we suggest a framework with guidelines for designing government information systems that takes into consideration the special requirements of the public sector. Then we introduce two case studies and show how applying those guidelines would result in a more solid system design.

Keywords: e-Government, System Design, framework, guidelines

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31 Sustainable Design in the Use of Deployable Structures

Authors: Umweni Osahon Joshua, Anton Ianakiev


Deployable structures have been used in various scenarios from moving roofs in stadia, space antennae or booms. There has been a lot of literature relating deployable structures but with main focus on space applications. The complexities in the design of deployable structures may be the reason only few have been constructed for earth based solutions. This paper intends to explore the possibilities of integrating sustainable design concepts in deployable structures. Key aspects of sustainable design of structures as applicable to deployable structures have not been explored. Sustainable design of structures have mainly been concerned with static structures in the built environment. However, very little literature, concepts or framework has been drafted as it relates to deployable structures or their integration to static structures as a model for sustainable design. This article seeks to address this flaw in sustainable design for structural engineering and to provide a framework for designing structures in a sustainable manner. This framework will apply to deployable structures for earth-based environments as a form of disaster relief measures and also as part of static structures in the built environment.

Keywords: Sustainable Design, framework, deployable structures, earth-based environments

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30 Developing a Group Guidance Framework: A Review of Literature

Authors: Abdul Rawuf Hussein, Rusnani Abdul Kadir, Mona Adlina Binti Adanan


Guidance program has been an essential approach in helping professions from many institutions of learning as well as communities, organizations, and clinical settings. Although the term varies depending on the approaches, objectives, and theories, the core and central element is typically developmental in nature. In this conceptual paper, the researcher will review literature on the concept of group guidance, its impact on students’ and individual’s development, developing a guidance module and proposing a synthesised framework for group guidance program.

Keywords: framework, concept, group guidance, module development

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29 Defining a Holistic Approach for Model-Based System Engineering: Paradigm and Modeling Requirements

Authors: Hycham Aboutaleb, Bruno Monsuez


Current systems complexity has reached a degree that requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into account all the necessary aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex systems are specified and designed. The exponential growing effort, cost and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework and a environment to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and defines the refined functional as well as non functional requirements modeling tools needs to meet to be useful in model-based system engineering.

Keywords: System Modeling, Modeling Language, framework, modeling requirements

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28 Exploring the Application of Human Resource Management Bundles: A Case Study

Authors: Maniam Kaliannan


Studies on best practice or “bundles” of human resource management aims at providing a ‘universal solution’ to organizations yet critics challenge this view and place importance on the architecture of human resource processes in response to the dynamic needs of organizations. This paper identifies these best practices and explores how the applications of selected human resource management practices to a case study help solved their human resource problems. The case study includes insights on the problems faced; the approach taken to identify its root causes and explores how selected human resource management practices helped managed the overall predicament. The case study results supports the importance of aligning ‘bundles’ of practices with organizational architecture and ensuring that the architecture of human resource practices evolve with the changing needs of organizations. In addition, a framework based on the events of the case study is proposed to systematically manage their human resources

Keywords: Human resource management, Bundles, framework, best practices, organizational architecture

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27 Framework for the Modeling of the Supply Chain Collaborative Planning Process

Authors: D. Pérez, M. M. E. Alemany


In this work a Framework to model the Supply Chain (SC) Collaborative Planning (CP) Process is proposed, and particularly its Decisional view. The main Framework contributions with regards to previous related works are the following, 1) the consideration of not only the Decision view, the most important one due to the Process type, but other additional three views which are the Physical, Organisation and Information ones, closely related and complementing the Decision View, 2) the joint consideration of two interdependence types, the Temporal (among Decision Centres belonging to different Decision Levels) and Spatial (among Decision Centres belonging to the same Decision Level) to support the distributed Decision-Making process in SC where several decision Centres interact among them in a collaborative manner.

Keywords: Collaborative Planning, framework, decision view, distributed decision-making

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26 A Framework for Internet Education: Personalised Approach

Authors: Zoe Wong


The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for internet education. This framework uses the personalized learning approach for everyone who can freely develop their qualifications & careers. The key components of the framework includes students, teachers, assessments and infrastructure. It allows remove the challenges and limitations of the current educational system and allows learners' to cope with progressing learning materials.

Keywords: Information Technology, framework, internet education, personalized approach

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25 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida


The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: Climate, Assessment, Conceptual, Change, Adaptation, Vulnerability, framework

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24 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari


Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: Mobile Technology, Augmented Reality, framework, pre-literacy skills

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23 Presenting an Integrated Framework for the Introduction and Evaluation of Social Media in Enterprises

Authors: Gerhard Peter


In this paper, we present an integrated framework that governs the introduction of social media into enterprises and its evaluation. It is argued that the framework should address the following issues: (1) the contribution of social media for increasing efficiency and improving the quality of working life; (2) the level on which this contribution happens (i.e., individual, team, or organisation); (3) a description of the processes for implementing and evaluating social media; and the role of (4) organisational culture and (5) management. We also report the results of a case study where the framework has been employed to introduce a social networking platform at a German enterprise. This paper only considers the internal use of social media.

Keywords: Social Media, Case study, framework, enterprise 2.0, introducing and evaluating social media

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22 Towards A Framework for Using Open Data for Accountability: A Case Study of A Program to Reduce Corruption

Authors: Darusalam, Jorish Hulstijn, Marijn Janssen


Media has revealed a variety of corruption cases in the regional and local governments all over the world. Many governments pursued many anti-corruption reforms and have created a system of checks and balances. Three types of corruption are faced by citizens; administrative corruption, collusion and extortion. Accountability is one of the benchmarks for building transparent government. The public sector is required to report the results of the programs that have been implemented so that the citizen can judge whether the institution has been working such as economical, efficient and effective. Open Data is offering solutions for the implementation of good governance in organizations who want to be more transparent. In addition, Open Data can create transparency and accountability to the community. The objective of this paper is to build a framework of open data for accountability to combating corruption. This paper will investigate the relationship between open data, and accountability as part of anti-corruption initiatives. This research will investigate the impact of open data implementation on public organization.

Keywords: open data, Accountability, Anti-Corruption, framework

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21 Framework for the Assessment of National Systems of Innovation in Biotechnology

Authors: Andrea Schiffauerova, Amnah Alzeyoudi


This paper studies patterns of innovation within national constitutional context. Its objective is to examine national systems of innovation in biotechnology in six leading innovative countries: the US, Japan, Germany, the UK, France and Canada. The framework proposed for this purpose consists of specific factors considered critical for the development of national systems of innovation, which are industry size, innovative activities, area of specialization, industry structure, national policy, the level of government intervention, the stock of knowledge in universities and industries, knowledge transfer from universities to industry and country-specific conditions for start-ups. The paper then uses the framework to provide detailed cross-country comparisons while highlighting particular features of national institutional context which affect the creation and diffusion of scientific knowledge within the system. The study is primarily based on the extensive survey of literature and it is complemented by the quantitative analysis of the patent data extracted from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The empirical analysis provides numerous insights and greatly complements the data gained from the literature and other sources. The final cross-country comparative analysis identifies three patterns followed by the national innovation systems in the six countries. The proposed cross-country relative positioning analysis may help in drawing policy implications and strategies leading to the enhancement of national competitive advantage and innovation capabilities of nations.

Keywords: National systems of innovation, Patent analysis, Comparative Analysis, framework, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)

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20 Improvement of the Geometric of Dental Bridge Framework through Automatic Program

Authors: Rong-Yang Lai, Jia-Yu Wu, Chih-Han Chang, Yung-Chung Chen


The dental bridge is one of the clinical methods of the treatment for missing teeth. The dental bridge is generally designed for two layers, containing the inner layer of the framework(zirconia) and the outer layer of the porcelain-fused to framework restorations. The design of a conventional bridge is generally based on the antagonist tooth profile so that the framework evenly indented by an equal thickness from outer contour. All-ceramic dental bridge made of zirconia have well demonstrated remarkable potential to withstand a higher physiological occlusal load in posterior region, but it was found that there is still the risk of all-ceramic bridge failure in five years. Thus, how to reduce the incidence of failure is still a problem to be solved. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop mechanical designs for all-ceramic dental bridges framework by reducing the stress and enhancing fracture resistance under given loading conditions by finite element method. In this study, dental design software is used to design dental bridge based on tooth CT images. After building model, Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) Method algorithm implemented in finite element software was employed to analyze results of finite element software and determine the distribution of the materials in dental bridge; BESO searches the optimum distribution of two different materials, namely porcelain and zirconia. According to the previous calculation of the stress value of each element, when the element stress value is higher than the threshold value, the element would be replaced by the framework material; besides, the difference of maximum stress peak value is less than 0.1%, calculation is complete. After completing the design of dental bridge, the stress distribution of the whole structure is changed. BESO reduces the peak values of principle stress of 10% in outer-layer porcelain and avoids producing tensile stress failure.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, framework, dental bridge, automatic program

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19 Providing Support On-Time: Need to Establish De-Radicalization Hotlines

Authors: Ashir Ahmed


Peacekeeping is a collective responsibility of governments, law enforcement agencies, communities, families, and individuals. Moreover, the complex nature of peacekeeping activities requires a holistic and collaborative approach where various community sectors work together to form collective strategies that are likely to be more effective than strategies designed and delivered in isolation. Similarly, it is important to learn from past programs to evaluate the initiatives that have worked well and the areas that need further improvement. Review of recent peacekeeping initiatives suggests that there have been tremendous efforts and resources put in place to deal with the emerging threat of terrorism, radicalization and violent extremism through number of de-radicalization programs. Despite various attempts in designing and delivering successful programs for deradicalization, the threat of people being radicalized is growing more than ever before. This research reviews the prominent de-radicalization programs to draw an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. Some of the weaknesses in the existing programs include. Inaccessibility: Limited resources, geographical location of potential participants (for offline programs), inaccessibility or inability to use various technologies (for online programs) makes it difficult for people to participate in de-radicalization programs. Timeliness: People might need to wait for a program on a set date/time to get the required information and to get their questions answered. This is particularly true for offline programs. Lack of trust: The privacy issues and lack of trust between participants and program organizers are another hurdle in the success of de-radicalization programs. The fear of sharing participants information with organizations (such as law enforcement agencies) without their consent led them not to participate in these programs. Generalizability: Majority of these programs are very generic in nature and do not cater the specific needs of an individual. Participants in these programs may feel that the contents are irrelevant to their individual situations and hence feel disconnected with purpose of the programs. To address the above-mentioned weaknesses, this research developed a framework that recommends some improvements in de-radicalization programs. One of the recommendations is to offer 24/7, secure, private and online hotline (also referred as helpline) for the people who have any question, concern or situation to discuss with someone who is qualified (a counsellor) to deal with people who are vulnerable to be radicalized. To make these hotline services viable and sustainable, the existing organizations offering support for depression, anxiety or suicidal ideation could additionally host these services. These helplines should be available via phone, the internet, social media and in-person. Since these services will be embedded within existing and well-known services, they would likely to get more visibility and promotion. The anonymous and secure conversation between a person and a counsellor would ensure that a person can discuss the issues without being afraid of information sharing with any third party – without his/her consent. The next stage of this project would include the operationalization of the framework by collaborating with other organizations to host de-radicalization hotlines and would assess the effectiveness of such initiatives.

Keywords: framework, de-radicalization, hotlines, peacekeeping

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18 Characterising Performative Technological Innovation: Developing a Strategic Framework That Incorporates the Social Mechanisms That Promote Change within a Technological Environment

Authors: Joan Edwards, J. Lawlor


Technological innovation is frequently defined in terms of bringing a new invention to market through a relatively straightforward process of diffusion. In reality, this process is complex and non-linear in nature, and includes social and cognitive factors that influence the development of an emerging technology and its related market or environment. As recent studies contend technological trajectory is part of technological paradigms, which arise from the expectations and desires of industry agents and results in co-evolution, it may be realised that social factors play a major role in the development of a technology. It is conjectured that collective social behaviour is fuelled by individual motivations and expectations, which inform the possibilities and uses for a new technology. The individual outlook highlights the issues present at the micro-level of developing a technology. Accordingly, this may be zoomed out to realise how these embedded social structures, influence activities and expectations at a macro level and can ultimately strategically shape the development and use of a technology. These social factors rely on communication to foster the innovation process. As innovation may be defined as the implementation of inventions, technological change results from the complex interactions and feedback occurring within an extended environment. The framework presented in this paper, recognises that social mechanisms provide the basis for an iterative dialogue between an innovator, a new technology, and an environment - within which social and cognitive ‘identity-shaping’ elements of the innovation process occur. Identity-shaping characteristics indicate that an emerging technology has a performative nature that transforms, alters, and ultimately configures the environment to which it joins. This identity–shaping quality is termed as ‘performative’. This paper examines how technologies evolve within a socio-technological sphere and how 'performativity' facilitates the process. A framework is proposed that incorporates the performative elements which are identified as feedback, iteration, routine, expectations, and motivations. Additionally, the concept of affordances is employed to determine how the role of the innovator and technology change over time - constituting a more conducive environment for successful innovation.

Keywords: Affordances, framework, performativity, strategic innovation

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17 Changing Behaviour in the Digital Era: A Concrete Use Case from the Domain of Health

Authors: Francesca Spagnoli, Shenja van der Graaf, Pieter Ballon


Humans do not behave rationally. We are emotional, easily influenced by others, as well as by our context. The study of human behaviour became a supreme endeavour within many academic disciplines, including economics, sociology, and clinical and social psychology. Understanding what motivates humans and triggers them to perform certain activities, and what it takes to change their behaviour, is central both for researchers and companies, as well as policy makers to implement efficient public policies. While numerous theoretical approaches for diverse domains such as health, retail, environment have been developed, the methodological models guiding the evaluation of such research have reached for a long time their limits. Within this context, digitisation, the Information and communication technologies (ICT) and wearable, the Internet of Things (IoT) connecting networks of devices, and new possibilities to collect and analyse massive amounts of data made it possible to study behaviour from a realistic perspective, as never before. Digital technologies make it possible to (1) capture data in real-life settings, (2) regain control over data by capturing the context of behaviour, and (3) analyse huge set of information through continuous measurement. Within this complex context, this paper describes a new framework for initiating behavioural change, capitalising on the digital developments in applied research projects and applicable both to academia, enterprises and policy makers. By applying this model, behavioural research can be conducted to address the issues of different domains, such as mobility, environment, health or media. The Modular Behavioural Analysis Approach (MBAA) is here described and firstly validated through a concrete use case within the domain of health. The results gathered have proven that disclosing information about health in connection with the use of digital apps for health, can be a leverage for changing behaviour, but it is only a first component requiring further follow-up actions. To this end, a clear definition of different 'behavioural profiles', towards which addressing several typologies of interventions, it is essential to effectively enable behavioural change. In the refined version of the MBAA a strong focus will rely on defining a methodology for shaping 'behavioural profiles' and related interventions, as well as the evaluation of side-effects on the creation of new business models and sustainability plans.

Keywords: Health, Sustainability, framework, behavioural change, nudging

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16 Implementation of Inclusive Education in DepEd-Dasmarinas: Basis for Inclusion Program Framework

Authors: Manuela S. Tolentino, John G. Nepomuceno


The purpose of this investigation was to assess the implementation of inclusive education (IE) in 6 elementary and 5 secondary public schools in the City Schools Division of Dasmarinas. Participants in this study were 11 school heads, 73 teachers, 22 parents and 22 students (regular and with special needs) who were selected using purposive sampling. A 30-item questionnaire was used to gather data on the extent of the implementation of IE in the division while focus group discussion (FGD) was used to gather insights on what facilitate and hinder the implementation of the IE program. This study assessed the following variables: school culture and environment, inclusive education policy implementation, and curriculum design and practices. Data were analyzed using frequency count, mean and ranking. Results revealed that participants have similar assessment on the extent of the implementation of IE. School heads rated school culture and environment as highest in terms of implementation while teachers and pupils chose curriculum design and practices. On the other hand, parents felt that inclusive education policies are implemented best. School culture and environment are given high ratings. Participants perceived that the IE program in the division is making everyone feel welcome regardless of age, sex, social status, physical, mental and emotional state; students with or without disability are equally valued, and students help each. However, some aspects of the IE program implementation are given low ratings namely: partnership between staff, parents and caregivers, school’s effort to minimize discriminatory practice, and stakeholders sharing the philosophy of inclusion. As regards education policy implementation, indicators with the highest ranks were school’s effort to admit students from the locality especially students with special needs, and the implementation of the child protection policy and anti-bullying policy. The results of the FGD revealed that both school heads and teachers possessed the welcoming gesture to accommodate students with special needs. This can be linked to the increasing enrolment of SNE in the division. However, limitations of the teachers’ knowledge on handling learners, facilities and collaboration among stakeholders hinder the implementation of IE program. Based on the findings, inclusion program framework was developed for program enhancement. This will be the basis for the improvement of the program’s efficiency, the relationship between stakeholders, and formulation of solutions.

Keywords: Inclusion, Special Education, Inclusive Education, framework

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15 Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Development Programs in Nepal: Construction of a Stakeholder Informed Framework

Authors: Divya Dawadi, Kerry Bissaker


Inclusion of children with a disability (CwD) in Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) programs in Nepal while viewed as desirable is not widespread. Even though the ECED program is currently providing access to ECED services for one million young children, with the aim to improve children's school readiness by equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills to succeed more effectively in their primary schooling, access to early year's education in inclusive settings for CwD is challenging. Using a heuristic qualitative design, this research aims to construct a framework by analyzing the perspectives of parents and professionals through interviews and focus group discussions, with a view to recommending a new policy to address the rights of CwD and their families. Several school-based and/or organizational and contextual factors interact to contribute to CwD becoming victims of multiple layers of exclusion. The school-based factors include policy, attitudes, teacher efficacy, resources, coordination and parental engagement. The contextual factors are spirituality, caste ethnicity, language, economic status, and geographic location. However, there is a varied effect of the interaction between school-based and contextual factors on different groups of CwD. A policy needs to recognize the multiplicity of the interactions between these factors that inhibit the inclusion of varied groups of CwD in ECED programs and address them separately.

Keywords: Inclusion, framework, children with a disability, early childhood education and development

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14 Pyramid of Deradicalization: Causes and Possible Solutions

Authors: Ashir Ahmed


Generally, radicalization happens when a person's thinking and behaviour become significantly different from how most of the members of their society and community view social issues and participate politically. Radicalization often leads to violent extremism that refers to the beliefs and actions of people who support or use violence to achieve ideological, religious or political goals. Studies on radicalization negate the common myths that someone must be in a group to be radicalised or anyone who experiences radical thoughts is a violent extremist. Moreover, it is erroneous to suggest that radicalisation is always linked to religion. Generally, the common motives of radicalization include ideological, issue-based, ethno-nationalist or separatist underpinning. Moreover, there are number of factors that further augments the chances of someone being radicalised and may choose the path of violent extremism and possibly terrorism. Since there are numbers of factors (and sometimes quite different) contributing in radicalization and violent extremism, it is highly unlikely to devise a single solution that could produce effective outcomes to deal with radicalization, violent extremism and terrorism. The pathway to deradicalization, like the pathway to radicalisation, is different for everyone. Considering the need of having customized deradicalization resolution, this study proposes a multi-tier framework, called ‘pyramid of deradicalization’ that first help identifying the stage at which an individual could be on the radicalization pathway and then propose a customize strategy to deal with the respective stage. The first tier (tier 1) addresses broader community and proposes a ‘universal approach’ aiming to offer community-based design and delivery of educational programs to raise awareness and provide general information on possible factors leading to radicalization and their remedies. The second tier focuses on the members of community who are more vulnerable and are disengaged from the rest of the community. This tier proposes a ‘targeted approach’ targeting the vulnerable members of the community through early intervention such as providing anonymous help lines where people feel confident and comfortable in seeking help without fearing the disclosure of their identity. The third tier aims to focus on people having clear evidence of moving toward extremism or getting radicalized. The people falls in this tier are believed to be supported through ‘interventionist approach’. The interventionist approach advocates the community engagement and community-policing, introducing deradicalization programmes to the targeted individuals and looking after their physical and mental health issues. The fourth and the last tier suggests the strategies to deal with people who are actively breaking the law. ‘Enforcement approach’ suggests various approaches such as strong law enforcement, fairness and accuracy in reporting radicalization events, unbiased treatment by law based on gender, race, nationality or religion and strengthen the family connections.It is anticipated that the operationalization of the proposed framework (‘pyramid of deradicalization’) would help in categorising people considering their tendency to become radicalized and then offer an appropriate strategy to make them valuable and peaceful members of the community.

Keywords: Terrorism, Deradicalization, Violent Extremism, framework

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13 Training the Competences for the 'Expert Teacher': A Framework of Skills for Teachers

Authors: Sofia Cramerotti, Angela Cattoni, Laura Biancato, Dario Ianes


The recognition of specific standards for new professionals, within the teaching profile, is a necessary process in order to foster an innovative school vision in accordance with the change that school is experiencing. In line with the reform of the national education and training system and with the National Training Plan for teachers, our Research and Development department developed a training project based on a framework (Syllabus) of skills that each 'Expert Teacher' should master in order to fulfill what the different specific profiles request. The syllabus is a fundamental tool for a training process consistent with the teaching profiles, both to guide the to-become teachers entering in service and to provide the in-service teachers with a system of evaluation and improvement of their skills. According to the national and international literature about professional standards for teachers, we aggregated the skills of the syllabus in three macro areas: (1) Area of professional skills related to the teacher profile and their continuous training; (2) area of teaching skills related to the school innovation; (3) area of organizing skills related to school participation for its improvement. The syllabus is a framework that identifies and describes the skills of the expert teacher in all of their roles. However, the various skills take on different importance in the different profiles involved in the school; some of those skills are determining a role, others could be secondary. Therefore, the characterization of the different profiles is represented by suitably weighted skills sets. In this way, the same skill could differently characterize each profile. In the future, we hope that the skills development and training for the teacher could evolve in a skills development and training for the whole school staff ('Expert Team'). In this perspective, the school will, therefore, benefit from a solid team, in which the skills of the various profiles are all properly developed and well represented.

Keywords: training, Teachers, Skills, framework

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12 Comparison of Web Development Using Framework over Library

Authors: Syamsul Syafiq, Maslina Daud, Hafizah Hasan, Ahmad Zairi, Shazil Imri, Ezaini Akmar, Norbazilah Rahim


Over recent years, web development has changed significantly. Driven largely by the rise of trends like mobiles, the world of development is rapidly evolving. The rise of the Internet makes web applications crucial nowadays. The web application has been an interface for a company and one of the ways they present their portfolio to the client. On the other hand, the web has become part of the file management system which takes over the role of paper. Due to high demand in web applications, developers are required to develop a web application that are cost-effective, secure and well coded. A framework has been proposed to develop an application rather than using library style development. The framework is helping the developer in creating the structure of a web automatically. This paper will compare the advantages and disadvantages of web development using framework against library-style development. This comparison is based on a previous research paper focusing on two main indicators, which are the impact to management and impact to the developer.

Keywords: framework, library style development, web application development, traditional web, static web, dynamic web

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11 A Suggestive Framework for Measuring the Effectiveness of Social Media: An Irish Tourism Study

Authors: Colm Barcoe, Garvan Whelan


Over the past five years, visitations of American holidaymakers to Ireland have grown exponentially owing to the online strategies of Tourism Ireland, a Destination Marketer (DMO) with a meagre budget which is extended by their understanding of best practices to maximise their monetary allowance. This suggested framework incorporates a range of Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) such as financial, marketing, and operational that offer a scale of measurement from which the Irish DMO can monitor the success of each promotional campaign when targeting the US and Canada. These are presented not as final solutions but rather as suggestions based on empirical evidence obtained from both primary and secondary sources. This research combines the wisdom extracted through qualitative methodologies with the objective of understanding the processes that drive both emergent and agile strategies. The Study extends the work relative to performance and examines the role of social media in the context of promoting Ireland to North America. There are two main themes that are identified and analysed in this investigation, these are the approach of the DMO when advocating Ireland as a brand and the benefits of digital platforms set against a proposed scale of KPIs, such as destination marketing, brand positioning, and identity development. The key narrative of this analysis is to focus on the power of social media when capitalising upon marketing opportunities, operating on a relatively small budget. This will always be a relevant theme of discussion due to the responsibility of an organisation like Tourism Ireland operating under the restraints imposed by government funding. The overall conclusions of this research may help inform those concerned with the implementing of social media strategies develop clearer models of measurement when promoting a destination to North America. The suggestions of this study will benefit small and medium enterprises particularly.

Keywords: Performance, Destination Marketing, framework, measure

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10 Prevention of Road Accidents by Computerized Drowsiness Detection System

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, P. C. Dasbebartta, S. Bhuyan


This paper aims to propose a method to detect the action of the driver’s eyes, using the concept of face detection. There are three major key contributing methods which can rapidly process the framework of the facial image and hence produce results which further can program the reactions of the vehicles as pre-programmed for the traffic safety. This paper compares and analyses the methods on the basis of their reaction time and their ability to deal with fluctuating images of the driver. The program used in this study is simple and efficient, built using the AdaBoost learning algorithm. Through this program, the system would be able to discard background regions and focus on the face-like regions. The results are analyzed on a common computer which makes it feasible for the end users. The application domain of this experiment is quite wide, such as detection of drowsiness or influence of alcohols in drivers or detection for the case of identification.

Keywords: Traffic Safety, Face Detection, framework, AdaBoost learning algorithm

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9 Metamodel for Artefacts in Service Engineering Analysis and Design

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss


As a process of developing a service system, the term ‘service engineering’ evolves in scope and definition. To achieve an integrated understanding of the process, a general framework and an ontology are required. This paper extends a previously built service engineering framework by exploring metamodels for the framework artefacts based on a foundational ontology and a metamodel landscape. The first part of this paper presents a correlation map between the proposed framework with the ontology as a form of evaluation for the conceptual coverage of the framework. The mapping also serves to characterize the artefacts to be produced for each activity in the framework. The second part describes potential metamodels to be used, from the metamodel landscape, as alternative formats of the framework artefacts. The results suggest that the framework sufficiently covers the ontological concepts, both from general service context and software service context. The metamodel exploration enriches the suggested artefact format from the original eighteen formats to thirty metamodel alternatives.

Keywords: Service, framework, metamodel, artefact

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