Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Fracture Energy Related Abstracts

4 An Criterion to Minimize FE Mesh-Dependency in Concrete Plate Subjected to Impact Loading

Authors: Kwak, Hyo-Gyung, Gang, Han Gul


In the context of an increasing need for reliability and safety in concrete structures under blast and impact loading condition, the behavior of concrete under high strain rate condition has been an important issue. Since concrete subjected to impact loading associated with high strain rate shows quite different material behavior from that in the static state, several material models are proposed and used to describe the high strain rate behavior under blast and impact loading. In the process of modelling, in advance, mesh dependency in the used finite element (FE) is the key problem because simulation results under high strain-rate condition are quite sensitive to applied FE mesh size. It means that the accuracy of simulation results may deeply be dependent on FE mesh size in simulations. This paper introduces an improved criterion which can minimize the mesh-dependency of simulation results on the basis of the fracture energy concept, and HJC (Holmquist Johnson Cook), CSC (Continuous Surface Cap) and K&C (Karagozian & Case) models are examined to trace their relative sensitivity to the used FE mesh size. To coincide with the purpose of the penetration test with a concrete plate under a projectile (bullet), the residual velocities of projectile after penetration are compared. The correlation studies between analytical results and the parametric studies associated with them show that the variation of residual velocity with the used FE mesh size is quite reduced by applying a unique failure strain value determined according to the proposed criterion.

Keywords: Fracture Energy, failure strain, high strain rate concrete, penetration simulation, mesh-dependency

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3 Lightweight Concrete Fracture Energy Derived by Inverse Analysis

Authors: Minho Kwon, Seonghyeok Lee, Wooyoung Jung


In recent years, with increase of construction of skyscraper structures, the study of concrete materials to improve their weight and performance has been emerging as a key of research area. Typically, the concrete structures has disadvantage of increasing the weight due to its mass in comparison to the strength of the materials. Therefore, in order to improve such problems, the light-weight aggregate concrete and high strength concrete materials have been studied during the past decades. On the other hand, the study of light-weight aggregate concrete materials has lack of data in comparison to the concrete structure using high strength materials, relatively. Consequently, this study presents the performance characteristics of light-weight aggregate concrete materials due to the material properties and strength. Also, this study conducted the experimental tests with respect to normal and lightweight aggregate materials, in order to indentify the tensile crack failure of the concrete structures. As a result, the Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD) from the experimental tests was constructed and the fracture energy using inverse problem analysis was developed from the force-CMOD relationship in this study, respectively.

Keywords: Fracture Energy, inverse analysis, lightweight aggregate concrete, crack mouth opening displacement

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2 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fracture Behavior of Foamed Concrete Based on Three-Point Bending Test of Beams with Initial Notch

Authors: M. Kozłowski, M. Kadela


Foamed concrete is known for its low self-weight and excellent thermal and acoustic properties. For many years, it has been used worldwide for insulation to foundations and roof tiles, as backfill to retaining walls, sound insulation, etc. However, in the last years it has become a promising material also for structural purposes e.g. for stabilization of weak soils. Due to favorable properties of foamed concrete, many interests and studies were involved to analyze its strength, mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties. However, these studies do not cover the investigation of fracture energy which is the core factor governing the damage and fracture mechanisms. Only limited number of publications can be found in literature. The paper presents the results of experimental investigation and numerical campaign of foamed concrete based on three-point bending test of beams with initial notch. First part of the paper presents the results of a series of static loading tests performed to investigate the fracture properties of foamed concrete of varying density. Beam specimens with dimensions of 100×100×840 mm with a central notch were tested in three-point bending. Subsequently, remaining halves of the specimens with dimensions of 100×100×420 mm were tested again as un-notched beams in the same set-up with reduced distance between supports. The tests were performed in a hydraulic displacement controlled testing machine with a load capacity of 5 kN. Apart from measuring the loading and mid-span displacement, a crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was monitored. Based on the load – displacement curves of notched beams the values of fracture energy and tensile stress at failure were calculated. The flexural tensile strength was obtained on un-notched beams with dimensions of 100×100×420 mm. Moreover, cube specimens 150×150×150 mm were tested in compression to determine the compressive strength. Second part of the paper deals with numerical investigation of the fracture behavior of beams with initial notch presented in the first part of the paper. Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) was used to simulate and analyze the damage and fracture process. The influence of meshing and variation of mechanical properties on results was investigated. Numerical models simulate correctly the behavior of beams observed during three-point bending. The numerical results show that XFEM can be used to simulate different fracture toughness of foamed concrete and fracture types. Using the XFEM and computer simulation technology allow for reliable approximation of load–bearing capacity and damage mechanisms of beams made of foamed concrete, which provides some foundations for realistic structural applications.

Keywords: Fracture Energy, foamed concrete, three-point bending, XFEM

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1 Investigation of the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Modified with Crushed Waste Glass

Authors: Ayman Othman, Tallat Ali


The successive increase of generated waste materials like glass has led to many environmental problems. Using crushed waste glass in hot mix asphalt paving has been though as an alternative to landfill disposal and recycling. This paper discusses the possibility of utilizing crushed waste glass, as a part of fine aggregate in hot mix asphalt in Egypt. This is done through evaluation of the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures mixed with waste glass and determining the appropriate glass content that can be adapted in asphalt pavement. Four asphalt concrete mixtures with various glass contents, namely; 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% by weight of total mixture were studied. Evaluation of the mechanical properties includes performing Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, fracture energy and unconfined compressive strength tests. Laboratory testing had revealed the enhancement in both compressive strength and Marshall stability test parameters when the crushed glass was added to asphalt concrete mixtures. This enhancement was accompanied with a very slight reduction in both indirect tensile strength and fracture energy when glass content up to 8% was used. Adding more than 8% of glass causes a sharp reduction in both indirect tensile strength and fracture energy. Testing results had also shown a reduction in the optimum asphalt content when the waste glass was used. Measurements of the heat loss rate of asphalt concrete mixtures mixed with glass revealed their ability to hold heat longer than conventional mixtures. This can have useful application in asphalt paving during cold whether or when a long period of post-mix transportation is needed.

Keywords: Fracture Energy, compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, mechanical performance, waste glass, hot mix asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 162