Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Fossil Fuel Related Abstracts

7 Maximaxing the Usage of Solar Energy in an Area of Low Peak Sunlight Hours

Authors: Ohabuiro John Uwabunkeonye

Abstract:

Source of green energy is becoming a concern in developing countries where most energy source in use emits high level of carbon (IV) oxide which contributes to global warming. More so, even with the generation of energy from fossil fuel, the electricity supply is still very inadequate. Therefore, this paper examines different ways of designing and installing photovoltaic (PV) system in terms of optimal sizing of PV array and battery storage in an area of very low peak sunlight hours (PSH) and inadequate supply of electricity from utility companies. Different sample of Peak sunlight hour for selected areas in Nigeria are considered and the lowest of it all is taken. Some means of ensuring that the available solar energy is harnessed properly and converted into electrical energy are discussed for usage in such areas as mentioned above.

Keywords: Green Energy, Photovoltaic, Fossil Fuel, peak sunlight hour

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6 The Environmental Challenges of Energy Generation and Usage in Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Mohammed Lawal, Dahiru Ya'u Gital

Abstract:

The problems placed on the environment as a result of energy generation and usage in Nigeria are: Potential damage to the environment health by Co, Co2, Sox and Nox effluent gas emissions and global warming. For instance in the year 2004 in Nigeria energy consumption was 58% oil and 34% natural gas but about 94 million metric tons of Co2 was emitted out of which 64% came from fossil fuels while about 35% came from fuel wood. The findings from this research on how to alleviate these problems are that long term sustainable development solutions should be enhanced globally; energy should be used more rationally renewable energy resources should be exploited and the existing emissions should be controlled to tolerate limits because the increase in energy demand in Nigeria places enormous strain on current energy facilities.

Keywords: Global Warming, Environmental Health, Energy Generation, Fossil Fuel, effluent gas emission

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5 Modelling Vehicle Fuel Consumption Utilising Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Aburrahman Tanira

Abstract:

The main source of energy used in this modern age is fossil fuels. There is a myriad of problems that come with the use of fossil fuels, out of which the issues with the greatest impact are its scarcity and the cost it imposes on the planet. Fossil fuels are the only plausible option for many vital functions and processes; the most important of these is transportation. Thus, using this source of energy wisely and as efficiently as possible is a must. The aim of this work was to explore utilising mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence techniques to enhance fuel consumption in passenger cars by focusing on the speed at which cars are driven. An artificial neural network with an error less than 0.05 was developed to be applied practically as to predict the rate of fuel consumption in vehicles.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Mathematical Modeling, Fuel Consumption, Fossil Fuel

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4 Natural Patterns for Sustainable Cooling in the Architecture of Residential Buildings in Iran (Hot and Dry Climate)

Authors: Elnaz Abbasian, Mohsen Faizi

Abstract:

In its thousand-year development, architecture has gained valuable patterns. Iran’s desert regions possess developed patterns of traditional architecture and outstanding skeletal features. Unfortunately increasing population and urbanization growth in the past decade as well as the lack of harmony with environment’s texture has destroyed such permanent concepts in the building’s skeleton, causing a lot of energy waste in the modern architecture. The important question is how cooling patterns of Iran’s traditional architecture can be used in a new way in the modern architecture of residential buildings? This research is library-based and documental that looks at sustainable development, analyzes the features of Iranian architecture in hot and dry climate in terms of sustainability as well as historical patterns, and makes a model for real environment. By methodological analysis of past, it intends to suggest a new pattern for residential buildings’ cooling in Iran’s hot and dry climate which is in full accordance to the ecology of the design and at the same time possesses the architectural indices of the past. In the process of cities’ physical development, ecological measures, in proportion to desert’s natural background and climate conditions, has kept the natural fences, preventing buildings from facing climate adversities. Designing and construction of buildings with this viewpoint can reduce the energy needed for maintaining and regulating environmental conditions and with the use of appropriate building technology help minimizing the consumption of fossil fuels while having permanent patterns of desert buildings’ architecture.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sustainability Concepts, Fossil Fuel, energy climate architecture, hot and dry climate, patterns of traditional sustainability for residential buildings, modern pattern of cooling

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3 Complex Network Approach to International Trade of Fossil Fuel

Authors: Semanur Soyyigit Kaya, Ercan Eren

Abstract:

Energy has a prominent role for development of nations. Countries which have energy resources also have strategic power in the international trade of energy since it is essential for all stages of production in the economy. Thus, it is important for countries to analyze the weakness and strength of the system. On the other side, it is commonly believed that international trade has complex network properties. Complex network is a tool for the analysis of complex systems with heterogeneous agents and interaction between them. A complex network consists of nodes and the interactions between these nodes. Total properties which emerge as a result of these interactions are distinct from the sum of small parts (more or less) in complex systems. Thus, standard approaches to international trade are superficial to analyze these systems. Network analysis provides a new approach to analyze international trade as a network. In this network countries constitute nodes and trade relations (export or import) constitute edges. It becomes possible to analyze international trade network in terms of high degree indicators which are specific to complex systems such as connectivity, clustering, assortativity/disassortativity, centrality, etc. In this analysis, international trade of crude oil and coal which are types of fossil fuel has been analyzed from 2005 to 2014 via network analysis. First, it has been analyzed in terms of some topological parameters such as density, transitivity, clustering etc. Afterwards, fitness to Pareto distribution has been analyzed. Finally, weighted HITS algorithm has been applied to the data as a centrality measure to determine the real prominence of countries in these trade networks. Weighted HITS algorithm is a strong tool to analyze the network by ranking countries with regards to prominence of their trade partners. We have calculated both an export centrality and an import centrality by applying w-HITS algorithm to data.

Keywords: International Trade, Network Theory, Fossil Fuel, complex network approach

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2 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Power System for House in Newfoundland via HOMER and BEopt Software

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Aisa, Aiman Salam Eisay

Abstract:

Renewable energy-based hybrid energy systems are ideal solutions for reducing environmental pollution. The hybrid energy system (HES) is a collection of various renewable power resources such as hydro, wind, solar, bio, geothermal, hydrokinetic (tidal/wave) and small/micro hydro that use a fossil fuel-powered diesel generator to provide electric power. This paper analyzes wind solar hybrid systems that can be connected to DC and AC via an electrolyzer connected to a hydrogen tank. The optimizations and simulations of the proposed system were performed with Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. In order to determine the optimal combination of the system, different combinations of PV arrays, generators, electrolyzer and hydrogen storage tanks were selected on the basis of the Net Present Cost from the simulation results. The system installed at the house site consists of a load of 3.2 kW peak and 24kWh/d. The results show optimization performance for production at PV array 4,794kWh/yr, wind turbine 11,243kWh/yr and generator 92 kWh/yr.

Keywords: Energy, Design, renewable, Hybrid, Electric Power, Fossil Fuel, electrolyzer

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1 Impact of Zeolite NaY Synthesized from Kaolin on the Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived from Used Tire

Authors: Peter Osifo, Julius Ilawe Osayi

Abstract:

Solid waste disposal, such as used tires is a global challenge as well as energy crisis due to rising energy demand amidst price uncertainty and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Therefore, the effectiveness of pyrolysis as a disposal method that can transform used tires into liquid fuel and other end-products has made the process attractive to researchers. Although used tires have been converted to liquid fuel using pyrolysis, there is the need to improve on the liquid fuel properties. Hence, this paper reports the investigation of zeolite NaY synthesized from kaolin, a locally abundant soil material in the Benin metropolis as a suitable catalyst and its effect on the properties of pyrolytic oil produced from used tires. The pyrolysis process was conducted for a range of 1 to 10 wt.% of catalyst concentration to used tire at a temperature of 600 oC, a heating rate of 15oC/min and particle size of 6mm. Although no significant increase in pyrolytic oil yield was observed compared to the previously investigated non-catalytic pyrolysis of a used tire. However, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization results revealed the pyrolytic oil to possess an improved physicochemical and fuel properties alongside valuable industrial chemical species. This confirms the possibility of transforming kaolin into a catalyst suitable for improved fuel properties of the liquid fraction obtainable from thermal cracking of hydrocarbon materials.

Keywords: Fossil Fuel, Kaolin, catalytic pyrolysis, pyrolytic oil, used tyres, Zeolite NaY

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