Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

formaldehyde Related Abstracts

7 Prophylactic and Curative Effect of Selenium on Infertility Induced by Formaldehyde Using Male Albino Mice

Authors: Suhera M. Aburawi, Habiba A. El Jaafari, Soad A. Treesh, Abdulssalam M. Abu-Aisha, Faisal S. Alwaer, Reda A. Eltubuly, Medeha Elghedamsi


Introduction: Infertility is a source of psychological, and sometimes social, stress on parents who desire to have children. Formaldehyde is used chiefly as disinfectant, preservative and in the chemical synthesis. The medical uses of formaldehyde are limited, but focused especially on laboratory use. Selenium is an essential trace mineral element for human; it is essential for sperm function and male fertility. Selenium deficiency has been linked to reproductive problems in animals. Objectives: To investigate the prophylactic and curative effect of selenium on male infertility induced by formaldehyde using male albino mice. Method: Forty male albino mice were used, weight 25-30 gm. Five groups of male mice (n=8) were used. Group 1 was daily administered water for injection (5ml/kg) for five days, group 2 was daily administered selenium (100 μg/kg) for five days, group 3 was daily administered formaldehyde (30mg/kg) for five days, group 4 (prophylaxis) was daily administered a combination of formaldehyde and selenium for five days, while group 5 (curative) was daily administered formaldehyde for five days followed by daily administration of selenium for the next five days. Intraperitoneal administration was adopted. At the end of the administration, seminal fluid was collected from vas deferens. Sperm count, morphology and motility were scored; histopathological screening of genital system was carried out. SPSS was applied for comparing groups. Results and conclusion: It was found that formaldehyde toxicity did not change the sperm count and percentage of motile sperm; unhealthy sperm was increased, while healthy sperm was decreased. Formaldehyde produces degeneration/damage to the male mice genital system. Selenium alone produce an increase in sperm count, volume of seminal fluid and the percentage of motile sperm. Selenium has prophylactic and curative effects against formaldehyde-induce genital system toxicity. Future work is recommended to find out if selenium protective effect is through antioxidant or other mechanisms.

Keywords: infertility, Selenium, formaldehyde, male mice

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6 Monitoring of Formaldehyde over Punjab Pakistan Using Car Max-Doas and Satellite Observation

Authors: Waqas Ahmed Khan, Faheem Khokhaar


Air pollution is one of the main perpetrators of climate change. GHGs cause melting of glaciers and cause change in temperature and heavy rain fall many gasses like Formaldehyde is not direct precursor that damage ozone like CO2 or Methane but Formaldehyde (HCHO) form glyoxal (CHOCHO) that has effect on ozone. Countries around the globe have unique air quality monitoring protocols to describe local air pollution. Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is used in building materials and to produce many household products and medical preservatives. Formaldehyde also occurs naturally in the environment. It is produced in small amounts by most living organisms as part of normal metabolic processes. Pakistan lacks the monitoring facilities on larger scale to measure the atmospheric gasses on regular bases. Formaldehyde is formed from Glyoxal and effect mountain biodiversity and livelihood. So its monitoring is necessary in order to maintain and preserve biodiversity. Objective: Present study is aimed to measure atmospheric HCHO vertical column densities (VCDs) obtained from ground-base and compute HCHO data in Punjab and elevated areas (Rawalpindi & Islamabad) by satellite observation during the time period of 2014-2015. Methodology: In order to explore the spatial distributing of H2CO, various fields campaigns including international scientist by using car Max-Doas. Major focus was on the cities along national highways and industrial region of Punjab Pakistan. Level 2 data product of satellite instruments OMI retrieved by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique are used. Spatio-temporal distribution of HCHO column densities over main cities and region of Pakistan has been discussed. Results: Results show the High HCHO column densities exceeding permissible limit over the main cities of Pakistan particularly the areas with rapid urbanization and enhanced economic growth. The VCDs value over elevated areas of Pakistan like Islamabad, Rawalpindi is around 1.0×1016 to 34.01×1016 Molecules’/cm2. While Punjab has values revolving around the figure 34.01×1016. Similarly areas with major industrial activity showed high amount of HCHO concentrations. Tropospheric glyoxal VCDs were found to be 4.75 × 1015 molecules/cm2. Conclusion: Results shows that monitoring site surrounded by Margalla hills (Islamabad) have higher concentrations of Formaldehyde. Wind data shows that industrial areas and areas having high economic growth have high values as they provide pathways for transmission of HCHO. Results obtained from this study would help EPA, WHO and air protection departments in order to monitor air quality and further preservation and restoration of mountain biodiversity.

Keywords: Climate Change, Air quality, formaldehyde, Max-Doas, vertical column densities (VCDs), satellite instrument

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5 Oxalate Method for Assessing the Electrochemical Surface Area for Ni-Based Nanoelectrodes Used in Formaldehyde Sensing Applications

Authors: S. Trafela, X. Xua, K. Zuzek Rozmana


In this study, we used an accurate and precise method to measure the electrochemically active surface areas (Aecsa) of nickel electrodes. Calculated Aecsa is really important for the evaluation of an electro-catalyst’s activity in electrochemical reaction of different organic compounds. The method involves the electrochemical formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH in the presence of adsorbed oxalate in alkaline media. The studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry with polycrystalline nickel as a reference material and electrodeposited nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films. From cyclic voltammograms, the charge (Q) values for the formation of Ni(OH)₂ and NiOOH surface oxides were calculated under various conditions. At sufficiently fast potential scan rates (200 mV s⁻¹), the adsorbed oxalate limits the growth of the surface hydroxides to a monolayer. Although the Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH oxidation peak overlaps with the oxygen evolution reaction, in the reverse scan, the NiOOH/ Ni(OH)₂ reduction peak is well-separated from other electrochemical processes and can be easily integrated. The values of these integrals were used to correlate experimentally measured charge density with an electrochemically active surface layer. The Aecsa of the nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were calculated to be Aecsa-NiNWs = 4.2066 ± 0.0472 cm², Aecsa-homNi = 1.7175 ± 0.0503 cm² and Aecsa-hetNi = 2.1862 ± 0.0154 cm². These valuable results were expanded and used in electrochemical studies of formaldehyde oxidation. As mentioned nickel nanowires, heterogeneous and homogeneous nickel films were used as simple and efficient sensor for formaldehyde detection. For this purpose, electrodeposited nickel electrodes were modified in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ solution of KOH in order to expect electrochemical activity towards formaldehyde. The investigation of the electrochemical behavior of formaldehyde oxidation in 0.1 mol L⁻¹ NaOH solution at the surface of modified nickel nanowires, homogeneous and heterogeneous nickel films were carried out by means of electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric methods. From investigations of effect of different formaldehyde concentrations (from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L⁻¹) on electrochemical signal - current we provided catalysis mechanism of formaldehyde oxidation, detection limit and sensitivity of nickel electrodes. The results indicated that nickel electrodes participate directly in the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde. In the overall reaction, formaldehyde in alkaline aqueous solution exists predominantly in form of CH₂(OH)O⁻, which is oxidized to CH₂(O)O⁻. Taking into account the determined (Aecsa) values we have been able to calculate the sensitivities: 7 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for nickel nanowires, 3.5 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film and 2 mA mol L⁻¹ cm⁻² for heterogeneous nickel film. The detection limit was 0.2 mM for nickel nanowires, 0.5 mM for porous Ni film and 0.8 mM for homogeneous Ni film. All of these results make nickel electrodes capable for further applications.

Keywords: formaldehyde, electrochemically active surface areas, nickel electrodes, electrocatalytic oxidation

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4 First Formaldehyde Retrieval Using the Raw Data Obtained from Pandora in Seoul: Investigation of the Temporal Characteristics and Comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument Measurement

Authors: H. Lee, J. Park


In this present study, for the first time, we retrieved the Formaldehyde (HCHO) Vertical Column Density (HCHOVCD) using Pandora instruments in Seoul, a megacity in northeast Asia, for the period between 2012 and 2014 and investigated the temporal characteristics of HCHOVCD. HCHO Slant Column Density (HCHOSCD) was obtained using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. HCHOSCD was converted to HCHOVCD using geometric Air Mass Factor (AMFG) as Pandora is the direct-sun measurement. The HCHOVCDs is low at 12:00 Local Time (LT) and is high in the morning (10:00 LT) and late afternoon (16:00 LT) except for winter. The maximum (minimum) values of Pandora HCHOVCD are 2.68×1016 (1.63×10¹⁶), 3.19×10¹⁶ (2.23×10¹⁶), 2.00×10¹⁶ (1.26×10¹⁶), and 1.63×10¹⁶ (0.82×10¹⁶) molecules cm⁻² in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In terms of seasonal variations, HCHOVCD was high in summer and low in winter which implies that photo-oxidation plays an important role in HCHO production in Seoul. In comparison with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements, the HCHOVCDs from the OMI are lower than those from Pandora. The correlation coefficient (R) between monthly HCHOVCDs values from Pandora and OMI is 0.61, with slop of 0.35. Furthermore, to understand HCHO mixing ratio within Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) in Seoul, we converted Pandora HCHOVCDs to HCHO mixing ratio in the PBL using several meteorological input data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). Seasonal HCHO mixing ratio in PBL converted from Pandora (OMI) HCHOVCDs are estimated to be 6.57 (5.17), 7.08 (6.68), 7.60 (4.70), and 5.00 (4.76) ppbv in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, formaldehyde, OMI, Pandora

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3 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So


Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: Indoor Air Quality, Sorption, formaldehyde, removal efficiency, passive panel

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2 Formaldehyde Degradation from Indoor Air by Encapsulated Microbial Cells

Authors: C. C. Castro, D. Lahem, T. Senechal, A. L. Hantson


Formaldehyde is one of the most representative volatile organic compounds present in the indoor air of residential units and workplaces. Increased attention has been given to this toxic compound because of its carcinogenic effect in health. Biological or enzymatic transformation is being explored to degrade this pollutant. Pseudomonas putida is a bacteria able to synthesize formaldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme known to use formaldehyde as a substrate and transform it into less toxic compounds. The immobilization of bacterial cells in the surface of different supports through spraying or dip-coating is herein proposed. The determination of the enzymatic activity on the coated surfaces was performed as well as the study of its effect on formaldehyde degradation in an isolated chamber. Results show that the incorporation of microbial cells able to synthesize depolluting enzymes can be an innovative, low-cost, effective and environmentally friendly solution for indoor air depollution.

Keywords: formaldehyde, cells encapsulation, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, indoor air depollution

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1 The Concentration of Formaldehyde in Rainwater and Typhoon Rainwater at Sakai City, Japan

Authors: Chinh Nguyen Nhu Bao, Hien To Thi, Norimichi Takenaka


Formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in rainwater including in tropical storms in Sakai City, Osaka, Japan have been measured continuously during rain event by developed chemiluminescence method. The level of formaldehyde was ranged from 15 µg/L to 500 µg/L. The high concentration of HCHO in rainwater is related to the wind direction from the south and west sides of Sakai City where manufactures related to chemicals, oil-refinery, and steel. The in-situ irradiated experiment on rainwater sample was conducted to prove the aqueous phase photo-production of HCHO and the degradation of HCHO. In the daytime, the aqueous phase photolysis is the source of HCHO in rainwater (4.52 ± 5.74 µg/L/h for UV light source in-situ condition, 2.84-8.96 µg/L/h under sunlight). However, in the night time, the degradation is the function of microorganism.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence, Rainwater, formaldehyde, typhoon

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