Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Forest Related Abstracts

16 Estimating Tree Height and Forest Classification from Multi Temporal Risat-1 HH and HV Polarized Satellite Aperture Radar Interferometric Phase Data

Authors: Saurav Kumar Suman, P. Karthigayani


In this paper the height of the tree is estimated and forest types is classified from the multi temporal RISAT-1 Horizontal-Horizontal (HH) and Horizontal-Vertical (HV) Polarised Satellite Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The novelty of the proposed project is combined use of the Back-scattering Coefficients (Sigma Naught) and the Coherence. It uses Water Cloud Model (WCM). The approaches use two main steps. (a) Extraction of the different forest parameter data from the Product.xml, BAND-META file and from Grid-xxx.txt file come with the HH & HV polarized data from the ISRO (Indian Space Research Centre). These file contains the required parameter during height estimation. (b) Calculation of the Vegetation and Ground Backscattering, Coherence and other Forest Parameters. (c) Classification of Forest Types using the ENVI 5.0 Tool and ROI (Region of Interest) calculation.

Keywords: classification, Forest, RISAT-1, SAR data

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15 On Differential Growth Equation to Stochastic Growth Model Using Hyperbolic Sine Function in Height/Diameter Modeling of Pines

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu


Richard's growth equation being a generalized logistic growth equation was improved upon by introducing an allometric parameter using the hyperbolic sine function. The integral solution to this was called hyperbolic Richard's growth model having transformed the solution from deterministic to a stochastic growth model. Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical Richard's growth model an approach which mimicked the natural variability of heights/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using the coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Square Error (MSE) results. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the behavior of the error term for possible violations. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic Richard's nonlinear growth models better than the classical Richard's growth model.

Keywords: stochastic, Forest, height, Dbh, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, Richard's

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14 On Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM)

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu


We proposed a Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM), which was developed by introducing a stabilizing parameter called θ using hyperbolic sine function into the classical gompertz growth equation. The resulting integral solution obtained deterministically was reprogrammed into a statistical model and used in modeling the height and diameter of Pines (Pinus caribaea). Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical gompertz growth model, an approach which mimicked the natural variability of height/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using goodness of fit tests and model selection criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the compliance of the error term to normality assumptions while using testing the independence of the error term using the runs test. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic gompertz growth models better than the source model (classical gompertz growth model) while the results of R2, Adj. R2, MSE, and AIC confirmed the predictive power of the Hyperbolic Monomolecular growth models over its source model.

Keywords: Forest, height, Dbh, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, gompertz

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13 The Use of Remote Sensing in the Study of Vegetation Jebel Boutaleb, Setif, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Missaoui, Amina Beldjazia, Rachid Gharzouli, Yamna Djellouli


Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Different materials reflect and absorb differently at different wavelengths. Thus, the targets can be differentiated by their spectral reflectance signatures in the remotely sensed images. In this work, we are interested to study the distribution of vegetation in the massif forest of Boutaleb (North East of Algeria) which suffered between 1998 and 1999 very large fires. In this case, we use remote sensing with Landsat images from two dates (1984 and 2000) to see the results of these fires. Vegetation has a unique spectral signature which enables it to be distinguished readily from other types of land cover in an optical/near-infrared image. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated with ENVI 4.7 from Band 3 and 4. The results showed a very important floristic diversity in this forest. The comparison of NDVI from the two dates confirms that there is a decrease of the density of vegetation in this area due to repeated fires.

Keywords: Diversity, Remote Sensing, Forest, boutaleb

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12 Mite Soil as Biological Indicators the Quality of the Soil in the Forested Area of the Coast of Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Fekkoun, Djelloul Ghezali, Doumandji Salaheddine


The majority of the mite soil contributes to decompose the organic matter in the soil, the richness or poverty is a way of knowing the quality of the soil, in this regard we studied the ecological side of the soil mite in a forest park «coast of Algeria». 6 by taking soil samples every month for the year 2010/2011 .The samples are collected and extracted using the technique of Berlese Tullgren. It was obtained 604 individuals. These riches can indicate the fertility of soil and knead the high proportion of organic material in it. The largest number observed in the spring, followed by the separation of the 252 individuals fall 222 individuals and then the summer with 106 individuals and winter 80 individuals. Among the 18 families obtained. Scheloribatidae is the most dominant with 30.6% followed by Ceratozetidae with 16%, then Euphthiracaridae 14%. The families remain involved with low percentages. the diversity index Schanonweaver varied between 2.3 bits in the summer and 3.83 bits in the spring. As the results of the analysis statistic confirm the existence of a clear difference between the four seasons and the richness of soil mite and diversity.

Keywords: Diversity, Forest, soil mite, coast of Algeria

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11 Pricing Effects on Equitable Distribution of Forest Products and Livelihood Improvement in Nepalese Community Forestry

Authors: Laxuman Thakuri


Despite the large number of in-depth case studies focused on policy analysis, institutional arrangement, and collective action of common property resource management; how the local institutions take the pricing decision of forest products in community forest management and what kinds of effects produce it, the answers of these questions are largely silent among the policy-makers and researchers alike. The study examined how the local institutions take the pricing decision of forest products in the lowland community forestry of Nepal and how the decisions affect to equitable distribution of benefits and livelihood improvement which are also objectives of Nepalese community forestry. The study assumes that forest products pricing decisions have multiple effects on equitable distribution and livelihood improvement in the areas having heterogeneous socio-economic conditions. The dissertation was carried out at four community forests of lowland, Nepal that has characteristics of high value species, matured-experience of community forest management and better record-keeping system of forest products production, pricing and distribution. The questionnaire survey, individual to group discussions and direct field observation were applied for data collection from the field, and Lorenz curve, gini-coefficient, χ²-text, and SWOT (Strong, Weak, Opportunity, and Threat) analysis were performed for data analysis and results interpretation. The dissertation demonstrates that the low pricing strategy of high-value forest products was supposed crucial to increase the access of socio-economically weak households, and to and control over the important forest products such as timber, but found counter productive as the strategy increased the access of socio-economically better-off households at higher rate. In addition, the strategy contradicts to collect a large-scale community fund and carry out livelihood improvement activities as per the community forestry objectives. The crucial part of the study is despite the fact of low pricing strategy; the timber alone contributed large part of community fund collection. The results revealed close relation between pricing decisions and livelihood objectives. The action research result shows that positive price discrimination can slightly reduce the prevailing inequality and increase the fund. However, it lacks to harness the full price of forest products and collects a large-scale community fund. For broader outcomes of common property resource management in terms of resource sustainability, equity, and livelihood opportunity, the study suggests local institutions to harness the full price of resource products with respect to the local market.

Keywords: Community, Forest, livelihood, Nepal, socioeconomic, equitable

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10 Modelling Forest Fire Risk in the Goaso Forest Area of Ghana: Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Approach

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Issaka Yakubu


Forest fire, which is, an uncontrolled fire occurring in nature has become a major concern for the Forestry Commission of Ghana (FCG). The forest fires in Ghana usually result in massive destruction and take a long time for the firefighting crews to gain control over the situation. In order to assess the effect of forest fire at local scale, it is important to consider the role fire plays in vegetation composition, biodiversity, soil erosion, and the hydrological cycle. The occurrence, frequency and behaviour of forest fires vary over time and space, primarily as a result of the complicated influences of changes in land use, vegetation composition, fire suppression efforts, and other indigenous factors. One of the forest zones in Ghana with a high level of vegetation stress is the Goaso forest area. The area has experienced changes in its traditional land use such as hunting, charcoal production, inefficient logging practices and rural abandonment patterns. These factors which were identified as major causes of forest fire, have recently modified the incidence of fire in the Goaso area. In spite of the incidence of forest fires in the Goaso forest area, most of the forest services do not provide a cartographic representation of the burned areas. This has resulted in significant amount of information being required by the firefighting unit of the FCG to understand fire risk factors and its spatial effects. This study uses Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop a fire risk hazard model using the Goaso Forest Area (GFA) as a case study. From the results of the study, natural forest, agricultural lands and plantation cover types were identified as the major fuel contributing loads. However, water bodies, roads and settlements were identified as minor fuel contributing loads. Based on the major and minor fuel contributing loads, a forest fire risk hazard model with a reasonable accuracy has been developed for the GFA to assist decision making.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Forest, GIS, Goaso

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9 Monitoring Three-Dimensional Models of Tree and Forest by Using Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry

Authors: S. Y. Cicekli


In this study, tree-dimensional model of tree was created by using terrestrial close range photogrammetry. For this close range photos were taken. Photomodeler Pro 5 software was used for camera calibration and create three-dimensional model of trees. In first test, three-dimensional model of a tree was created, in the second test three-dimensional model of three trees were created. This study aim is creating three-dimensional model of trees and indicate the use of close-range photogrammetry in forestry. At the end of the study, three-dimensional model of tree and three trees were created. This study showed that usability of close-range photogrammetry for monitoring tree and forests three-dimensional model.

Keywords: Forest, tree, close- range photogrammetry, three-dimensional model

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8 Balance of Natural Resources to Manage Land Use Changes in Subosukawonosraten Area

Authors: Sri E. Wati, D. Roswidyatmoko, N. Maslahatun, Gunawan, Andhika B. Taji


Natural resource is the main sources to fulfill human needs. Its utilization must consider not only human prosperity but also sustainability. Balance of natural resources is a tool to manage natural wealth and to control land use change. This tool is needed to organize land use planning as stated on spatial plan in a certain region. Balance of natural resources can be calculated by comparing two-series of natural resource data obtained at different year. In this case, four years data period of land and forest were used (2010 and 2014). Land use data were acquired through satellite image interpretation and field checking. By means of GIS analysis, its result was then assessed with land use plan. It is intended to evaluate whether existing land use is suitable with land use plan. If it is improper, what kind of efforts and policies must be done to overcome the situation. Subosukawonosraten is rapid developed areas in Central Java Province. This region consists of seven regencies/cities which are Sukoharjo Regency, Boyolali Regency, Surakarta City, Karanganyar Regency, Wonogiri Regency, Sragen Regency, and Klaten Regency. This region is regarding to several former areas under Karasidenan Surakarta and their location is adjacent to Surakarta. Balance of forest resources show that width of forest area is not significantly changed. Some land uses within the area are slightly changed. Some rice field areas are converted into settlement (0.03%) whereas water bodies become vacant areas (0.09%). On the other hand, balance of land resources state that there are many land use changes in this region. Width area of rice field decreases 428 hectares and more than 50% of them have been transformed into settlement area and 11.21% is converted into buildings such as factories, hotels, and other infrastructures. It occurs mostly in Sragen, Sukoharjo, and Karanganyar Regency. The results illustrate that land use change in this region is mostly influenced by increasing of population number. Some agricultural lands have been converted into built-up area since demand of settlement, industrial area, and other infrastructures also increases. Unfortunately, recent utilization of more than a half of total area is not appropriate with land use plan declared in spatial planning document. It means, local government shall develop a strict regulation and law enforcement related to any violation in land use management.

Keywords: land, Forest, Balance, spatial plan

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7 Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biodiversity and Comparision with Their Preferred Tree Species around the Şeker Canyon, Karabük, Turkey

Authors: Hatice Esra Akgül, Celaleddin Öztürk


Lichen biodiversity in forests is controlled by environmental conditions. Epiphytic lichens have some degree of substrate specificity. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens are affected by humidity, light, altitude, temperature, bark pH of the trees.This study describes the epiphytic lichen communities with comparing their preferred tree species. 34 epiphytic lichen taxa are reported on Pinus sp. L., Quercus sp. L., Fagus sp. L., Carpinus sp. L., Abies sp. Mill., Fraxinus sp. Tourn. ex L. from different altitudes around the Şeker Canyon (Karabük, Turkey). 11 of these taxa are growing on Quercus sp., 10 of them are growing on Fagus sp., 7 of them are growing on Pinus sp., 4 of them are on Carpinus sp., 2 of them are on Abies sp. and one of them is on Fraxinus sp. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. is growing on both of Fagus sp. and Quercus sp. Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. is growing on both of Abies sp. and Quercus sp.

Keywords: Turkey, Biodiversity, Forest, epiphytic lichen

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6 Livelihood and Sustainability: Anthropological Insight from the Juang Tribe

Authors: Sampriti Panda


Earning one’s own livelihood is the most basic and inseparable activity for survival and existence of humankind. In any kind of situation and in every type of geographical terrain, human does adopt various strategies and ways of earning their own livelihood. Since time immemorial, anthropocentrism has been the saga of livelihood where environment is out casted and exploited to any limit so that mankind can survive. With the passage of time, humans regained their consciousness and realized that the time has arrived now to shift to sustainable livelihood and stop being self centered. This paper tries to focus on the very central issue and the hotpot of discussion in the present era which revolves around sustainable livelihood. The aim of the paper is to find out how the tribal communities which are primarily forest based are the best example of sustainable livelihood since their existence. The paper also tries to throw light on the burning issue of the so-called term ‘development’ affecting the traditional ways of livelihood opted by the forest based tribal communities. The data presented in the paper are primary and have been collected using various techniques and methodology like observation, interviews, life histories, case studies and other techniques used in a self conducted fieldwork among the Juangs, who are one of the PVTGs of Odisha.

Keywords: Sustainability, Forest, livelihood, tribe

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5 Using Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Detecting Forest Degradation in Benslimane Forest, Morocco

Authors: Hassan Rhinane, Loubna Khalile, Hicham Lahlaoi, A. Kaoukaya, S. Fal


Green spaces is an essential element, they contribute to improving the quality of lives of the towns around them. They are a place of relaxation, walk and rest a playground for sport and youths. According to United Nations Organization Forests cover 31% of the land. In Morocco in 2013 that cover 12.65 % of the total land area, still, a small proportion compared to the natural needs of forests as a green lung of our planet. The Benslimane Forest is a large green area It belongs to Chaouia-Ouardigha Region and Greater Casablanca Region, it is located geographically between Casablanca is considered the economic and business Capital of Morocco and Rabat the national political capital, with an area of 12261.80 Hectares. The essential problem usually encountered in suburban forests, is visitation and tourism pressure it is anthropogenic actions, as well as other ecological and environmental factors. In recent decades, Morocco has experienced a drought year that has influenced the forest with increasing human pressure and every day it suffers heavy losses, as well as over-exploitation. The Moroccan forest ecosystems are weak with intense ecological variation, domanial and imposed usage rights granted to the population; forests are experiencing a significant deterioration due to forgetfulness and immoderate use of forest resources which can influence the destruction of animal habitats, vegetation, water cycle and climate. The purpose of this study is to make a model of the degree of degradation of the forest and know the causes for prevention by using remote sensing and geographic information systems by introducing climate and ancillary data. Analytic hierarchy process was used to find out the degree of influence and the weight of each parameter, in this case, it is found that anthropogenic activities have a fairly significant impact has thus influenced the climate.

Keywords: Forest, Geographic Information System, degradation, analytic hierarchy process

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4 Forest Risk and Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study from East Bokaro Coal Mining Area in India

Authors: Sujata Upgupta, Prasoon Kumar Singh


The expansion of large scale coal mining into forest areas is a potential hazard for the local biodiversity and wildlife. The objective of this study is to provide a picture of the threat that coal mining poses to the forests of the East Bokaro landscape. The vulnerable forest areas at risk have been assessed and the priority areas for conservation have been presented. The forested areas at risk in the current scenario have been assessed and compared with the past conditions using classification and buffer based overlay approach. Forest vulnerability has been assessed using an analytical framework based on systematic indicators and composite vulnerability index values. The results indicate that more than 4 km2 of forests have been lost from 1973 to 2016. Large patches of forests have been diverted for coal mining projects. Forests in the northern part of the coal field within 1-3 km radius around the coal mines are at immediate risk. The original contiguous forests have been converted into fragmented and degraded forest patches. Most of the collieries are located within or very close to the forests thus threatening the biodiversity and hydrology of the surrounding regions. Based on the vulnerability values estimated, it was concluded that more than 90% of the forested grids in East Bokaro are highly vulnerable to mining. The forests in the sub-districts of Bermo and Chandrapura have been identified as the most vulnerable to coal mining activities. This case study would add to the capacity of the forest managers and mine managers to address the risk and vulnerability of forests at a small landscape level in order to achieve sustainable development.

Keywords: Forest, Vulnerability, indicators, Coal Mining

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3 Forest Soil Greenhouse Gas Real-Time Analysis Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Timothy L. Porter, T. Randy Dillingham


Vegetation growth and decomposition, along with soil microbial activity play a complex role in the production of greenhouse gases originating in forest soils. The absorption or emission (respiration) of these gases is a function of many factors relating to the soils themselves, the plants, and the environment in which the plants are growing. For this study, we have constructed a battery-powered, portable field mass spectrometer for use in analyzing gases in the soils surrounding trees, plants, and other areas. We have used the instrument to sample in real-time the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in soils where plant life may be contributing to the production of gases such as methane. Gases such as isoprene, which may help correlate gas respiration to microbial activity have also been measured. The instrument is composed of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with part per billion or better sensitivity, coupled to battery-powered turbo and diaphragm pumps. A unique ambient air pressure differentially pumped intake apparatus allows for the real-time sampling of gases in the soils from the surface to several inches below the surface. Results show that this instrument is capable of instant, part-per-billion sensitivity measurement of carbon dioxide and methane in the near surface region of various forest soils. We have measured differences in soil respiration resulting from forest thinning, forest burning, and forest logging as compared to pristine, untouched forests. Further studies will include measurements of greenhouse gas respiration as a function of temperature, microbial activity as measured by isoprene production, and forest restoration after fire.

Keywords: Soil, Forest, Greenhouse, quadrupole

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2 Silviculture for Climate Change: Future Scenarios for Nigeria Forests

Authors: Azeez O. Ganiyu


Climate change is expected to lead to substantial changes in rainfall patterns in southwest Nigeria, and this may have substantial consequence for forest management and for conservation outcomes throughout the region. We examine three different forest types across an environmental spectrum from semi-arid to humid subtropical and consider their response to water shortages and other environmental stresses; we also explore the potential consequence for conservation and timber production by considering impacts on forest structure and limiting stand density. Analysis of a series of scenarios provides the basis for a critique of existing management practices and suggests practical alternatives to develop resilient forests with minimal diminution of production and environmental services. We specifically discuss practical silviculture interventions that are feasible at the landscape-scale, that are economically viable, and that have the potential to enhance resilience of forest stands. We also discuss incentives to encourage adoption of these approaches by private forest owners. We draw on these case studies in southwestern Nigeria to offer generic principle to assist forest researchers and managers faced with similar challenges elsewhere.

Keywords: Climate Change, Forest, Silviculture, Nigeria, future

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1 Assessing the High Rate of Deforestation Caused by the Operations of Timber Industries in Ghana

Authors: Obed Asamoah


Forests are very vital for human survival and our well-being. During the past years, the world has taken an increasingly significant role in the modification of the global environment. The high rate of deforestation in Ghana is of primary national concern as the forests provide many ecosystem services and functions that support the country’s predominantly agrarian economy and foreign earnings. Ghana forest is currently major source of carbon sink that helps to mitigate climate change. Ghana forests, both the reserves and off-reserves, are under pressure of deforestation. The causes of deforestation are varied but can broadly be categorized into anthropogenic and natural factors. For the anthropogenic factors, increased wood fuel collection, clearing of forests for agriculture, illegal and poorly regulated timber extraction, social and environmental conflicts, increasing urbanization and industrialization are the primary known causes for the loss of forests and woodlands. Mineral exploitation in the forest areas is considered as one of the major causes of deforestation in Ghana. Mining activities especially mining of gold by both the licensed mining companies and illegal mining groups who are locally known as "gallantly mining" also cause damage to the nation's forest reserves. Several works have been conducted regarding the causes of the high rate of deforestation in Ghana, major attention has been placed on illegal logging and using forest lands for illegal farming and mining activities. Less emphasis has been placed on the timber production companies on their harvesting methods in the forests in Ghana and other activities that are carried out in the forest. The main objective of the work is to find out the harvesting methods and the activities of the timber production companies and their effects on the forests in Ghana. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were engaged in the research work. The study population comprised of 20 Timber industries (Sawmills) forest areas of Ghana. These companies were selected randomly. The cluster sampling technique was engaged in selecting the respondents. Both primary and secondary data were employed. In the study, it was observed that most of the timber production companies do not know the age, the weight, the distance covered from the harvesting to the loading site in the forest. It was also observed that old and heavy machines are used by timber production companies in their operations in the forest, which makes the soil compact prevents regeneration and enhances soil erosion. It was observed that timber production companies do not abide by the rules and regulations governing their operations in the forest. The high rate of corruption on the side of the officials of the Ghana forestry commission makes the officials relax and do not embark on proper monitoring on the operations of the timber production companies which makes the timber companies to cause more harm to the forest. In other to curb this situation the Ghana forestry commission with the ministry of lands and natural resources should monitor the activities of the timber production companies and sanction all the companies that make foul play in their activities in the forest. The commission should also pay more attention to the policy “fell one plant 10” to enhance regeneration in both reserves and off-reserves forest.

Keywords: Forest, Deforestation, Timber, Companies, Ghana

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