Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

football Related Abstracts

13 Small-Sided Games in Football: Effect of Field Sizes on Technical Parameters

Authors: Faruk Guven, Nurtekin Erkmen, Samet Aktas, Cengiz Taskin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine effects of field sizes on technical parameters of small-sided games in football players. Eight amateur football players (27.23±3.08 years, heigth: 171.01±5.36 cm, body weigth: 66.86±4.54 kg, sports experience: 12.88±3.28 years) performed 4-a-side small-sided games (SSG) with different field sizes. In SSGs, field sizes were 30 x 40 m and 26 mx24 m. SSGs was conducted as a series of 3 bouts of 6 min with 5 min recovery durations. All SSGs were video recorded using two digital video camcorder positioned on a tripot. Shoot on taget, passes, succesful passes, unsuccesful passes, dripling, tackle, possession in SSGs were counted by Mathball Match Analysis System. The effects of bouts on technical score were examined separately using a Friedman’s test. Mann Whitney U test was applied to analyse differences between field sizes. There were no significant differences in shoots on target, total pass, successful pass, tackle, interception, possession between bouts in 30x40 m field size (p>0.05). Unsuccessful pass in bout 3 for 30x40 m field size was lower than bout 1 and bout 2 (p<0.05) and dripling in bout 3 was lower than bout 2 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in technical actions between bouts for 26x34 m field size (p>0.05). Shoot on target in SSG with 26 x 34 m field size was higher than SSG with 30x40 m field size (p<0.05). Unsuccessful pass for 26x34 m field size in bout 3 was higher than SSG with 30x40 m field size (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in technical actions between field sizes (p>0.05). In conclusion; in this study demonstrates that technical actions in a-4-side SSG are not influenced by different field sizes (for 30x40 m and 26x34 m field sizes). This consequence is same for both total SSG time and each bout. Dripling and unsuccessful pass decrease in bout 3 during SSG in 30 x 40 m field size.

Keywords: Sport Science, football, small-sided games, technical actions

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12 Comparison of Isokinetic Powers (Flexion and Knee Extension) of Basketball and Football Players (Age 17–20)

Authors: Ugur Senturk, Ibrahım Erdemır, Faruk Guven, Cuma Ece

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The objective of this study is to compare flexion and extension movements in knee-joint group by measuring isokinetic knee power of amateur basketball and football players. For this purpose, total 21 players were included, which consist of football players (n=12) and basketball players (n=9), within the age range of 17–20. After receiving the age, length, body weight, vertical jump, and BMI measurements of all subjects, the measurement of lower extremity knee-joint movement (Flexion-Extension) was made with isokinetic dynamometer (isomed 2000) at 60 o/sec. and 240 o/sec. angular velocity. After arrangement and grouping of collected information forms and knee flexion and extension parameters, all data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analyses of the parameters were made. Non-parametric t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the parameters of football players and basketball players and to find the inter-group differences. The comparisons and relations in the range p<0.05 and p<0.01 between the groups were surveyed. As a conclusion, no statistical differences were found between isokinetic knee flexion and extension parameters of football and basketball players. However, it was found that the football players were older than the basketball players. In addition to this, the average values of the basketball players in the highest torque and the highest torque average curve were found higher than football players in comparisons of left knee extension. However, it was found that fat levels of the basketball players were found to be higher than the football players.

Keywords: football, Basketball, extension, isokinetic contraction, isokinetic dynamometer, peak torque, flexion

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11 Sport and Religion, the Specificity of Polish Stadiums

Authors: Michal Mazurkiewicz

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It would seem at first glance that sport and religion are totally separate spheres. Yet, as a matter of fact, sport exists in religion (for example, In the teachings of John Paul II) and religion exists in sport (not only in religious rituals of players and fans). In this paper, the author examining the specific behaviours of Polish football fans and players analyses the question of religion in sport, mostly football. Like in the case of other countries, football holds a special place in Polish sporting history which constitutes an interesting subject of scientific research. It is a great identity builder and it influences culture which manifests itself in many ways (films, music, literature, etc.). Football is definitely a fascinating and colourful discipline pervaded with miscellaneous phenomena worth analysing. The aim of the paper is to show the "religious" uniqueness of Polish football fandom –namely, religious choreographies, participation in masses and pilgrimages to the Jasna Gora Shrine in Częstochowa. The peculiar combination of sport and religion visible at the stadiums and during the pilgrimages is analysed by the author. This mixture definitely adds colour to Polish sport and makes it intriguing to people from other countries. Religious rituals of the players are also examined here. The methods of the research included: Observations of numerous matches, looking through sports books, newspapers and magazines, interviews with the fans. The conclusions corroborate the thesis that sport may be and often is an important element of sporting contests. The main reasons and justifications are given in this analysis.

Keywords: Sport, Religion, football, newspapers, colourful

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10 Sports Fans and Non-Interested Public Recognition of the Problems of Sports in Egypt through Caricature

Authors: Alaaeldin Hamdy Ahmed Mohammed

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Introduction: This study examines sports’ fans and non-interested public perception and recognition of the problems that have negative impacts upon the Egyptian sports, particularly football, through caricatures. Eight caricature paintings were designed to express eight problems affecting the Egyptian sports and its development. These paintings were distributed on two groups of the fans and the non-interested public. Methods: The study was limited to eight caricatures representing the eight issues which are: the impact of stopping the sports activity on athletes, the effect of clubs’ disagreement, fanaticism between the members of the ultras of different clubs, the negative impact of the mingling of politics into sports, the negative role of the clubs affects the professionalism of the promising players, the conflict between the national organization responsible for sports, the breaking in of the fans to the playgrounds, the impact of the lack of planning on the national team. The Results: The results showed that both sports fans and those who are not interested in sports recognized the problems that the caricatures refer to and criticizes exaggeration although the rate was higher for the fans. These caricatures contributed also in their recognition of the danger of the negative impact of these problems on the Egyptian sports, particularly football which is the most common at the Egyptian sports fans. Discussion: This finding echoes the conclusion that caricatures are distinctive in the adults’ facial stimuli that are either systematically exaggerated recognition of them.

Keywords: Sports, football, Fans, caricature

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9 Effect of Playing Football or Body Building on Measurements of Forward Head Posture

Authors: Mohamed Gomaa Mohamed

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Type of study: Observational cross section study. Background and purpose: Forward head posture (FHP) is a common sagittal faulty posture with anterior head translation relative to vertical posture line. FHP related to temporomandibular joint dysfunctions, neck pain and headache. Sports persons usually overuse one side of the body in training and playing leading to postural imbalance, yet the effect of playing football or bodybuilding on measurements of FHP has never been studied. Participants: Thirty six subjects divided into 3 groups of 12 football players, 12 body builders and 12 students. Method: FHP severity was assessed by measuring the craniovertebral (CVA) and gaze angles, using the photogrammetric method. Photos were taken from right side of subjects while assuming standing position. Analysis of variance was used to assess angles difference between the three groups. Results: No significant differences were found in CVA and gaze angles between the three groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Playing football or body building doesn't impose significant FHP.

Keywords: football, Body building, craniovertebral angle, gaze angle

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8 Risking Injury: Exploring the Relationship between Risk Propensity and Injuries among an Australian Rules Football Team

Authors: Sarah A. Harris, Fleur L. McIntyre, Paola T. Chivers, Benjamin G. Piggott, Fiona H. Farringdon

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Australian Rules Football (ARF) is an invasion based, contact field sport with over one million participants. The contact nature of the game increases exposure to all injuries, including head trauma. Evidence suggests that both concussion and sub-concussive traumas such as head knocks may damage the brain, in particular the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex may not reach full maturity until a person is in their early twenties with males taking longer to mature than females. Repeated trauma to the pre-frontal cortex during maturation may lead to negative social, cognitive and emotional effects. It is also during this period that males exhibit high levels of risk taking behaviours. Risk propensity and the incidence of injury is an unexplored area of research. Little research has considered if the level of player’s (especially younger players) risk propensity in everyday life places them at an increased risk of injury. Hence the current study, investigated if a relationship exists between risk propensity and self-reported injuries including diagnosed concussion and head knocks, among male ARF players aged 18 to 31 years. Method: The study was conducted over 22 weeks with one West Australian Football League (WAFL) club during the 2015 competition. Pre-season risk propensity was measured using the 7-item self-report Risk Propensity Scale. Possible scores ranged from 9 to 63, with higher scores indicating higher risk propensity. Players reported their self-perceived injuries (concussion, head knocks, upper body and lower body injuries) fortnightly using the WAFL Injury Report Survey (WIRS). A unique ID code was used to ensure player anonymity, which also enabled linkage of survey responses and injury data tracking over the season. A General Linear Model (GLM) was used to analyse whether there was a relationship between risk propensity score and total number of injuries for each injury type. Results: Seventy one players (N=71) with an age range of 18.40 to 30.48 years and a mean age of 21.92 years (±2.96 years) participated in the study. Player’s mean risk propensity score was 32.73, SD ±8.38. Four hundred and ninety five (495) injuries were reported. The most frequently reported injury was head knocks representing 39.19% of total reported injuries. The GLM identified a significant relationship between risk propensity and head knocks (F=4.17, p=.046). No other injury types were significantly related to risk propensity. Discussion: A positive relationship between risk propensity and head trauma in contact sports (specifically WAFL) was discovered. Assessing player’s risk propensity therefore, may identify those more at risk of head injuries. Potentially leading to greater monitoring and education of these players throughout the season, regarding self-identification of head knocks and symptoms that may indicate trauma to the brain. This is important because many players involved in WAFL are in their late teens or early 20’s hence, may be at greater risk of negative outcomes if they experience repeated head trauma. Continued education and research into the risks associated with head injuries has the potential to improve player well-being.

Keywords: Risk, football, Head Injuries, Injury Identification

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7 Australian Football Supporters Engagement Patterns; Manchester United vs a-League

Authors: Trevor R. Higgins, Ben Lopez

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Australian football fans have a tendency to indulge in foreign football clubs, often assigning a greater value to foreign clubs, in preference to the Australian National football competition; the A-League. There currently exists a gap in the knowledge available in relation to football fans in Australia, their engagement with foreign football teams and the impact that this may have with their engagement with A-League. The purpose of this study was to compare the engagement of the members of the Manchester United Supporters Club - Australia (MUSC-Aus) with Manchester United and the A-League. An online survey was implemented to gather the relevant data from members of the MUSC-Aus. Results from completed surveys were collected, and analyzed in relation to engagement levels with Manchester United and the A-League. Members of MUSC-Aus who responded to the survey were predominantly male (94%) and born in Australia (46%), England (25%), Ireland (7%), were greatly influenced in their choice of Manchester United by family (43%) and team history (16%), whereas location was the overwhelming influence in supporting the A-League (88%). Importantly, there was a reduced level of engagement in the A-League on two accounts. Firstly, only 64% of MUSC-Aus engaged with the A-League, reporting perceptions of low standard as the major reason (50%). Secondly, MUSC-Aus members who engaged in the A-League reported reduced engagement in the A-League, identified through spending patterns. MUSC-Aus members’ expenditure on Manchester United engagement was 400% greater than expenditure on A-League engagement. Furthermore, additional survey responses indicated that the level of commitment towards the A-League overall was less than Manchester United. The greatest impact on fan engagement in the A-League by MUSC-Aus can be attributed to several primary factors; family support, team history and perceptions to on-field performance and quality of players. Currently, there is little that can be done in regards to enhancing family and history as the A-League is still in its infancy. Therefore, perceptions of on-field performances and player quality should be addressed. Introducing short-term international marquee contracts to A-League rosters, across the entire competition, may provide the platform to raise the perception of the A-League player quality with minimal impact on local player development. In addition, a national marketing campaign promoting the success of A-League clubs in the ACL, as well as promoting the skill on display in the A-League may address the negative association with the standard of the A-League competition.

Keywords: Engagement, football, team, perceptions of performance

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6 A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team

Authors: Alexandra O. Savinkina

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We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.

Keywords: football, Cohesion, soccer, psychodiagnostic, sports team, value-orientation unity

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5 Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation

Authors: Konstantin A. Bochaver, Alexandra O. Savinkina

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The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, football, Compatibility, Homogeneity, soccer, failure avoidance motivation, sport team, success achievement motivation

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4 Video Processing of a Football Game: Detecting Features of a Football Match for Automated Calculation of Statistics

Authors: Rishabh Beri, Sahil Shah

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We have applied a range of filters and processing in order to extract out the various features of the football game, like the field lines of a football field. Another important aspect was the detection of the players in the field and tagging them according to their teams distinguished by their jersey colours. This extracted information combined about the players and field helped us to create a virtual field that consists of the playing field and the players mapped to their locations in it.

Keywords: Virtual, football, detect, Players

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3 Nigerian Football System: Examining Meso-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: I. Derek Kaka’an, P. Smolianov, D. Koh Choon Lian, S. Dion, C. Schoen, J. Norberg

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This study was designed to examine mass participation and elite football performance in Nigeria with reference to advance international football management practices. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of elite football integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following three levels: macro- (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational), meso- (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs) and micro-level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes). The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. The Smolianov and Zakus model has been employed for further understanding of sport systems such as US soccer, US Rugby, swimming, tennis, and volleyball as well as Russian and Dutch swimming. A questionnaire was developed using the above-mentioned model. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts including academicians, executives from sport governing bodies, football coaches, and administrators. To identify best practices and determine areas for improvement of football in Nigeria, 120 coaches completed the questionnaire. Useful exemplars and possible improvements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 Nigerian football administrators and experts. Finally, content analysis of Nigeria Football Federation’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. This paper focuses on the meso-level of Nigerian football delivery, particularly infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs. This includes training centers, competition systems, and intellectual services. Results identified remarkable achievements coupled with great potential to further develop football in different types of public and private organizations in Nigeria. These include: assimilating football competitions with other cultural and educational activities, providing favorable conditions for employees of all possible organizations to partake and help in managing football programs and events, providing football coaching integrated with counseling for prevention of antisocial conduct, and improving cooperation between football programs and organizations for peace-making and advancement of international relations, tourism, and socio-economic development. Accurate reporting of the sports programs from the media should be encouraged through staff training for better awareness of various events. The systematic integration of these meso-level practices into the balanced development of mass and high-performance football will contribute to international sport success as well as national health, education, and social harmony.

Keywords: High Performance, football, Nigeria, sport development, mass participation

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2 Modeling Football Penalty Shootouts: How Improving Individual Performance Affects Team Performance and the Fairness of the ABAB Sequence

Authors: Pablo Enrique Sartor Del Giudice

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Penalty shootouts often decide the outcome of important soccer matches. Although usually referred to as ”lotteries”, there is evidence that some national teams and clubs consistently perform better than others. The outcomes are therefore not explained just by mere luck, and therefore there are ways to improve the average performance of players, naturally at the expense of some sort of effort. In this article we study the payoff of player performance improvements in terms of the performance of the team as a whole. To do so we develop an analytical model with static individual performances, as well as Monte Carlo models that take into account the known influence of partial score and round number on individual performances. We find that within a range of usual values, the team performance improves above 70% faster than individual performances do. Using these models, we also estimate that the new ABBA penalty shootout ordering under test reduces almost all the known bias in favor of the first-shooting team under the current ABAB system.

Keywords: football, Montecarlo Simulation, penalty shootouts, ABBA

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1 The Incident of Concussion across Popular American Youth Sports: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Rami Hashish, Manon Limousis-Gayda, Caitlin H. McCleery

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Introduction: A leading cause of emergency room visits among youth (in the United States), is sports-related traumatic brain injuries. Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs), also called concussions, are caused by linear and/or angular acceleration experienced at the head and represent an increasing societal burden. Due to the developing nature of the brain in youth, there is a great risk for long-term neuropsychological deficiencies following a concussion. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to investigate incidence rates of concussion across gender for the five most common youth sports in the United States. These include basketball, track and field, soccer, baseball (boys), softball (girls), football (boys), and volleyball (girls). Methods: A PubMed search was performed for four search themes combined. The first theme identified the outcomes (concussion, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, etc.). The second theme identified the sport (American football, soccer, basketball, softball, volleyball, track, and field, etc.). The third theme identified the population (adolescence, children, youth, boys, girls). The last theme identified the study design (prevalence, frequency, incidence, prospective). Ultimately, 473 studies were surveyed, with 15 fulfilling the criteria: prospective study presenting original data and incidence of concussion in the relevant youth sport. The following data were extracted from the selected studies: population age, total study population, total athletic exposures (AE) and incidence rate per 1000 athletic exposures (IR/1000). Two One-Way ANOVA and a Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted using SPSS. Results: From the 15 selected studies, statistical analysis revealed the incidence of concussion per 1000 AEs across the considered sports ranged from 0.014 (girl’s track and field) to 0.780 (boy’s football). Average IR/1000 across all sports was 0.483 and 0.268 for boys and girls, respectively; this difference in IR was found to be statistically significant (p=0.013). Tukey’s post hoc test showed that football had significantly higher IR/1000 than boys’ basketball (p=0.022), soccer (p=0.033) and track and field (p=0.026). No statistical difference was found for concussion incidence between girls’ sports. Removal of football was found to lower the IR/1000 for boys without a statistical difference (p=0.101) compared to girls. Discussion: Football was the only sport showing a statistically significant difference in concussion incidence rate relative to other sports (within gender). Males were overall more likely to be concussed than females when football was included (1.8x), whereas concussion was more likely for females when football was excluded. While the significantly higher rate of concussion in football is not surprising because of the nature and rules of the sport, it is concerning that research has shown higher incidence of concussion in practices than games. Interestingly, findings indicate that girls’ sports are more concussive overall when football is removed. This appears to counter the common notion that boys’ sports are more physically taxing and dangerous. Future research should focus on understanding the concussive mechanisms of injury in each sport to enable effective rule changes.

Keywords: Gender, traumatic brain injury, football, soccer

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