Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Food Science Related Abstracts

10 Use RP-HPLC To Investigate Factors Influencing Sorghum Protein Extraction

Authors: Khaled Khaladi, Rafika Bibi, Hind Mokrane, Boubekeur Nadjemi


Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important cereal crop grown in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia due to its drought tolerance. Sorghum grain has protein content varying from 6 to 18%, with an average of 11%, Sorghum proteins can be broadly classified into prolamin and non-prolamin proteins. Kafirins, the major storage proteins, are classified as prolamins, and as such, they contain high levels of proline and glutamine and are soluble in non-polar solvents such as aqueous alcohols. Kafirins account for 77 to 82% of the protein in the endosperm, whereas non-prolamin proteins (namely, albumins, globulins, and glutelins) make up about 30% of the proteins. To optimize the extraction of sorghum proteins, several variables were examined: detergent type and concentration, reducing agent type and concentration, and buffer pH and concentration. Samples were quantified and characterized by RP-HPLC.

Keywords: Food Science, sorghum, protein extraction, detergent

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9 An Antidiabetic Dietary Defence Weapon: Oats and Milk Based Probiotic Fermented Product

Authors: Rameshwar Singh Seema


In today’s world where diabetes has become an epidemic, our aim was to potentiate the effect of probiotics by integrating probiotics with cereals to formulate composite foods using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 against type 2 diabetes. After optimizing the product by Response Surface Methodology, it was studied for their effect on induction and progression of type 2 diabetes in HFD-fed Wistar rats. After 9 weeks study, best results were shown by the group fed with oat and milk based product fermented with LGG and L. casei NCDC19 which resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, HBA1c, improved OGTT, oxidative stress, cholesterol and triglycerides level during progression study of type 2 diabetes. During induction study also, there was significant reduction in blood glucose level, oxidative stress, cholesterol level and triglycerides level but slightly less as compared to progression study. Real time PCR gene expression studies were done for 5 genes (GLUT-4, IRS-2, ppar-γ, TNF-α, IL-6) whose expression is directly related to type 2 diabetes. The relative fold change expression was increased in case of GLUT-4, IRS-2, ppar-γ and decreased in case of TNF-α and IL-6 during both induction and progression study of diabetes but more significantly during progression study. Hence it was concluded that oat and milk based probiotic fermented product showed the synergistic effect of probiotics and oats especially in case of progression of type 2 diabetes. The benefits of these probiotic formulations may be further validated by clinical trials.

Keywords: Food Science, Type 2 diabetes, LGG, L.casei NCDC19

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8 Broccoli Sprouts Powder Could Improve Metabolic and Liver Disorder-Induced by High-Fructose Corn Syrup

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi


Background and Aim: Broccoli sprouts, rich source of bioactive compounds specially sulforaphane (SFN), have unique functional properties. This study was conducted to investigate the possible treatment effects of high-SFN broccoli sprouts powder on metabolic and liver disorders in rats fed with high-fructose corn syrup. Methods: Thirty-two male wistar rats, pretreated with an eight-week high-fructose diet (water containing 30% fructose), were randomly allocated into three groups: Baseline control (BC), control (C) (normal diet), and BSP-diet (normal diet+5% BSP). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. Biochemical measurements, liver weight and triglyceride content were evaluated and histopathological examination of liver was performed. Results: After 6-weeks, the liver weight was significantly lower in BSP group compared to controls (13.4 g vs. 11.4 g, P<0.05). After 6 weeks, a significant decrease was observed in fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both experimental groups (P<0.05). Compared to controls, serum levels of HDL-C were significantly higher in BSP group. The liver TG content in BSP compared to control group was lower (14.6 vs. 16.4 mg/mg tissue). The hepatic levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase had not considerable changes in the groups after the intervention period but the level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased in BSP group (P<0.05). The histopathological examination of liver confirmed a decrease lobular and portal inflammation and ballooning in BSP group compared to control. Conclusion: High-SFN broccoli sprouts powder has beneficials effect on metabolic and liver changes-induced by high fructose corn syrup.

Keywords: Food Science, Metabolic Disorders, broccoli sprouts, fatty liver

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7 Dietary Intake and the Risk of Hypertriglyceridemia in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Sahar Mirzae, Fereidoun Azizi


Background and aim: Lifestyle factors, especially dietary intakes play an important role in metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In this study, we assessed the association between dietary factors and 3-year changes of serum triglycerides (TG), HDL-C and the atherogenic index of plasma among Iranian adults. This longitudinal study was conducted on 1938 subjects, aged 19-70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measurements including serum TG were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) and after a 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). Dietary data were collected by using a 168-food item, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the quartiles of dietary factors was evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and energy intakes. Results: Mean age of the participants at baseline was 41.0±13.0 y. Mean TG and HDL-C at baseline was 143±86 and 42.2±10.0 mg/dl, respectively. Three-year change of serum TG were inversely related energy intake from phytochemical rich foods, whole grains, and legumes (P<0.05). Higher intakes compared to lower ones of dietary fiber and phytochemical-rich foods had similar impact on decreased risk of hyper-triglyceridemia (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.34-1.00). Higher- compared to lower-dietary sodium to potassium ratios (Na/K ratio) increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia by 63% (OR=0.1.63, 95% CI= 0.34-1.00). Conclusion: Findings showed that higher intakes of fiber and phytochemical rich foods especially whole grain and legumes could have protective effects against lipid disorders; in contrast higher sodium to potassium ratio had undesirable effect on triglycerides.

Keywords: Food Science, diet, lipid disorders, hypertriglyceridemia

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6 Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi


Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity.

Keywords: Food Science, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, abdominal obesity, white rice

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5 Development of a Dairy Drink Made of Cocoa, Coffee and Orange By-Products with Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Gianella Franco, Karen Suarez, María Quijano, Patricia Manzano


Agro-industries generate large amounts of waste, which are mostly untapped. This research was carried out to use cocoa, coffee and orange industrial by-products to develop a dairy drink. The product was prepared by making a 10% aqueous extract of the mixture of cocoa and coffee beans shells and orange peel. Extreme Vertices Mixture Design was applied to vary the proportions of the ingredients of the aqueous extract, getting 13 formulations. Each formulation was mixed with skim milk and pasteurized. The attributes of taste, smell, color and appearance were evaluated by a semi-trained panel by multiple comparisons test, comparing the formulations against a standard marked as "R", which consisted of a coffee commercial drink. The formulations with the highest scores were selected to maximize the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) through a process of linear optimization resulting in the formulation 80.5%: 18.37%: 1.13% of cocoa bean shell, coffee bean shell and orange peel, respectively. The Total Polyphenol Content was 4.99 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g of drink, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) was 80.14 ± 0.05 and caffeine concentration of 114.78 mg / L, while the coffee commercial drink presented 3.93 ± 0.84 mg GAE / g drink, 55.54 ± 0.03 % and 47.44 mg / L of TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and caffeine content, respectively. The results show that it is possible to prepare an antioxidant - rich drink with good sensorial attributes made of industrial by-products.

Keywords: Food Science, Waste, polyphenols, DPPH

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4 Anti-Obesity Effects of Pteryxin in Peucedanum japonicum Thunb Leaves through Different Pathways of Adipogenesis In-Vitro

Authors: Ruwani N. Nugara, Masashi Inafuku, Kensaku Takara, Hironori Iwasaki, Hirosuke Oku


Pteryxin from the partially purified hexane phase (HP) of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb (PJT) was identified as the active compound related to anti-obesity. Thus, in this study we investigated the mechanisms related to anti-obesity activity in-vitro. The HP was fractionated, and effect on the triglyceride (TG) content was evaluated in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. Comprehensive spectroscopic analyses were used to identify the structure of the active compound. The dose dependent effect of active constituent on the TG content, and the gene expressions related to adipogenesis, fatty acid catabolism, energy expenditure, lipolysis and lipogenesis (20 μg/mL) were examined in-vitro. Furthermore, higher dosage of pteryxin (50μg/mL) was tested against 20μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The mRNA were subjected to SOLiD next generation sequencer and the obtained data were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The active constituent was identified as pteryxin, a known compound in PJT. However, its biological activities against obesity have not been reported previously. Pteryxin dose dependently suppressed TG content in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes (P < 0.05). Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 c), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1) were downregulated in pteryxin-treated adipocytes (by 18.0, 36.1 and 38.2%; P < 0.05, respectively) and hepatocytes (by 72.3, 62.9 and 38.8%, respectively; P < 0.05) indicating its suppressive effects on fatty acid synthesis. The hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a lipid catabolising gene was upregulated (by 15.1%; P < 0.05) in pteryxin-treated adipocytes suggesting improved lipolysis. Concordantly, the adipocyte size marker gene, paternally expressed gene1/mesoderm specific transcript (MEST) was downregulated (by 42.8%; P < 0.05), further accelerating the lipolytic activity. The upregulated trend of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2; by 77.5%; P < 0.05) reflected the improved energy expenditure due to pteryxin. The 50μg/mL dosage of pteryxin completely suppressed PPARγ, MEST, SREBP 1C, HSL, Adiponectin, Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) 4, and UCP’s in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The IPA suggested that pteryxin at 20μg/mL and 50μg/mL suppress obesity in two different pathways, whereas the WNT signaling pathway play a key role in the higher dose of pteryxin in preadipocyte stage. Pteryxin in PJT play the key role in regulating lipid metabolism related gene network and improving energy production in vitro. Thus, the results suggests pteryxin as a new natural compound to be used as an anti-obesity drug in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Food Science, Obesity, peucedanum japonicum thunb, pteryxin

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3 Making Food Science Education and Research Activities More Attractive for University Students and Food Enterprises by Utilizing Open Innovative Space-Approach

Authors: Anna-Maria Saarela


At the Savonia University of Applied Sciences (UAS), curriculum and studies have been improved by applying an Open Innovation Space approach (OIS). It is based on multidisciplinary action learning. The key elements of OIS-ideology are work-life orientation, and student-centric communal learning. In this approach, every participant can learn from each other and innovations will be created. In this social innovation educational approach, all practices are carried out in close collaboration with enterprises in real-life settings, not in classrooms. As an example, in this paper, Savonia UAS’s Future Food RDI hub (FF) shows how OIS practices are implemented by providing food product development and consumer research services for enterprises in close collaboration with academicians, students and consumers. In particular one example of OIS experimentation in the field is provided by a consumer research carried out utilizing verbal analysis protocol combined with audio-visual observation (VAP-WAVO). In this case, all co-learners were acting together in supermarket settings to collect the relevant data for a product development and the marketing department of a company. The company benefitted from the results obtained, students were more satisfied with their studies, educators and academicians were able to obtain good evidence for further collaboration as well as renewing curriculum contents based on the requirements of working life. In addition, society will benefit over time as young university adults find careers more easily through their OIS related food science studies. Also this knowledge interaction model re-news education practices and brings working-life closer to educational research institutes.

Keywords: Education, Food Science, Collaboration, Industry, Student, knowledge transfer, RDI

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2 Multisensory Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Learning: Combined Hands-on and Virtual Science for Distance Learners of Food Chemistry

Authors: Paulomi Polly Burey, Mark Lynch


It has been shown that laboratory activities can help cement understanding of theoretical concepts, but it is difficult to deliver such an activity to an online cohort and issues such as occupational health and safety in the students’ learning environment need to be considered. Chemistry, in particular, is one of the sciences where practical experience is beneficial for learning, however typical university experiments may not be suitable for the learning environment of a distance learner. Food provides an ideal medium for demonstrating chemical concepts, and along with a few simple physical and virtual tools provided by educators, analytical chemistry can be experienced by distance learners. Food chemistry experiments were designed to be carried out in a home-based environment that 1) Had sufficient scientific rigour and skill-building to reinforce theoretical concepts; 2) Were safe for use at home by university students and 3) Had the potential to enhance student learning by linking simple hands-on laboratory activities with high-level virtual science. Two main components of the resources were developed, a home laboratory experiment component, and a virtual laboratory component. For the home laboratory component, students were provided with laboratory kits, as well as a list of supplementary inexpensive chemical items that they could purchase from hardware stores and supermarkets. The experiments used were typical proximate analyses of food, as well as experiments focused on techniques such as spectrophotometry and chromatography. Written instructions for each experiment coupled with video laboratory demonstrations were used to train students on appropriate laboratory technique. Data that students collected in their home laboratory environment was collated across the class through shared documents, so that the group could carry out statistical analysis and experience a full laboratory experience from their own home. For the virtual laboratory component, students were able to view a laboratory safety induction and advised on good characteristics of a home laboratory space prior to carrying out their experiments. Following on from this activity, students observed laboratory demonstrations of the experimental series they would carry out in their learning environment. Finally, students were embedded in a virtual laboratory environment to experience complex chemical analyses with equipment that would be too costly and sensitive to be housed in their learning environment. To investigate the impact of the intervention, students were surveyed before and after the laboratory series to evaluate engagement and satisfaction with the course. Students were also assessed on their understanding of theoretical chemical concepts before and after the laboratory series to determine the impact on their learning. At the end of the intervention, focus groups were run to determine which aspects helped and hindered learning. It was found that the physical experiments helped students to understand laboratory technique, as well as methodology interpretation, particularly if they had not been in such a laboratory environment before. The virtual learning environment aided learning as it could be utilized for longer than a typical physical laboratory class, thus allowing further time on understanding techniques.

Keywords: Chemistry, Food Science, STEM Education, future pedagogy

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1 Animations for Teaching Food Chemistry: A Design Approach for Linking Chemistry Theory to Everyday Food

Authors: Paulomi (Polly) Burey, Zoe Lynch


In STEM education, students often have difficulty linking static images and words from textbooks or online resources, to the underlying mechanisms of the topic of study. This can often dissuade some students from pursuing study in the physical and chemical sciences. A growing movement in current day students demonstrates that the YouTube generation feel they learn best from video or dynamic, interactive learning tools, and will seek these out as alternatives to their textbooks and the classroom learning environment. Chemistry, and in particular visualization of molecular structures in everyday materials, can prove difficult to comprehend without significant interaction with the teacher of the content and concepts, beyond the timeframe of a typical class. This can cause a learning hurdle for distance education students, and so it is necessary to provide strong electronic tools and resources to aid their learning. As one of the electronic resources, an animation design approach to link everyday materials to their underlying chemistry would be beneficial for student learning, with the focus here being on food. These animations were designed and storyboarded with a scaling approach and commence with a focus on the food material itself and its component parts. This is followed by animated transitions to its underlying microstructure and identifying features, and finally showing the molecules responsible for these microstructural features. The animation ends with a reverse transition back through the molecular structure, microstructure, all the way back to the original food material, and also animates some reactions that may occur during food processing to demonstrate the purpose of the underlying chemistry and how it affects the food we eat. Using this cyclical approach of linking students’ existing knowledge of food to help guide them to understanding more complex knowledge, and then reinforcing their learning by linking back to their prior knowledge again, enhances student understanding. Food is also an ideal material system for students to interact with, in a hands-on manner to further reinforce their learning. These animations were launched this year in a 2nd year University Food Chemistry course with improved learning outcomes for the cohort.

Keywords: Chemistry, Food Science, STEM Education, future pedagogy

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