Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Food Safety Related Abstracts

45 Microbial Quality Assessment of Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus Indicus from Southwest Bangladesh

Authors: Mahmudur Rahman Khan, Saima Sharif Nilla, Anisur Rahman Khan, Ghulam Mustafa1

Abstract:

The microbial quality of Indian white shrimp (Peneaus indicus) from Bagerhat, Khulna and Satkhira of southwest Bangladesh was assessed where the parameters varied with different sources and the quality was found to be poor for Satkhira shrimp samples. Shrimp samples in fresh condition were collected to perform the microbial assessment and 10 pathogenic isolates for antibiotic sensitivity test to 12 antibiotics. The results show that total bacterial count of all the samples were beyond the acceptable limit 105 cfu/g. In case of total coliform and E. coli density, no substantial difference (p<0.5) was found between the different shrimp samples from different districts and also high quantity of TC exceeding the limit (>102 cfu/g) proves the poor quality of shrimp. The FC abundance found in shrimps of Bagerhat and Satkhira was similar and significantly higher (p<0.5) than that of Khulna samples. No significant difference (p<0.5) was found among the high density of Salmonella-Shigella, Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp. of the shrimp samples from the source places. In case of antibiotic sensitivity patterns, all of them were resistant to ampicillin, Penicillin and sensitive to kanamycin. Most of the isolates were frequently sensitive to ciprofloxacin and streptomycin in the sensitivity test. In case of nutritional composition, no significant difference (t-test, p<0.05) was found among protein, lipid, moisture and ash contents of shrimp samples. The findings prove that shrimp under this study was more or less contaminated and samples from Satkhira were highly privileged with food borne pathogens which confirmed the unhygienic condition of the shrimp farms as well as the presence of antibiotic resistance bacteria in shrimp fish supposed to threat food safety and deteriorate the export quality.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Borne Pathogens, satkhira, penaeus indicus, antibiotic sensitivity, southwest Bangladesh

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44 Computational Chemical-Composition of Carbohydrates in the Context of Healthcare Informatics

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, S. Nandita, M. Shivathmika, Srikrishnan Shivakumar

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The objective of the research work is to analyze the computational chemical-composition of carbohydrates in the context of healthcare informatics. The computation involves the representation of complex chemical molecular structure of carbohydrate using graph theory and in a deployable Chemical Markup Language (CML). The parallel molecular structure of the chemical molecules with or without other adulterants for the sake of business profit can be analyzed in terms of robustness and derivatization measures. The rural healthcare program should create awareness in malnutrition to reduce ill-effect of decomposition and help the consumers to know the level of such energy storage mixtures in a quantitative way. The earlier works were based on the empirical and wet data which can vary from time to time but cannot be made to reuse the results of mining. The work is carried out on the quantitative computational chemistry on carbohydrates to provide a safe and secure right to food act and its regulations.

Keywords: Food Safety, Robustness, Carbohydrates, chemical-composition, chemical markup

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43 Insurance of Agricultural Activities as the Basis for Food Security

Authors: G. T. Aigarinova, J. B. Akshataeva, A. Amankulova, D. S. Kalkanova

Abstract:

This article examines some aspects of the insurance of agricultural activities, strategic documents on deepening investment opportunities. Insurance market development is before the society and the state. It also examines problems of agricultural insurance development in the market economy of Kazakhstan as the basis for food security.

Keywords: Food Safety, Agriculture, Insurance, Privacy issues

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42 Food Safety and Quality Assurance and Skills Development among Farmers in Georgia

Authors: Kakha Nadiardze, Nana Phirosmanashvili

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The goal of this paper is to present the problems of lack of information among farmers in food safety. Global food supply chains are becoming more and more diverse, making traceability systems much harder to implement across different food markets. In this abstract, we will present our work for analyzing the key developments in Georgian food market from regulatory controls to administrative procedures to traceability technologies. Food safety and quality assurance are most problematic issues in Georgia as food trade networks become more and more complex, food businesses are under more and more pressure to ensure that their products are safe and authentic. The theme follow-up principles from farm to table must be top-of-mind for all food manufacturers, farmers and retailers. Following the E. coli breakout last year, as well as more recent cases of food mislabeling, developments in food traceability systems is essential to food businesses if they are to present a credible brand image. Alongside this are the ever-developing technologies in food traceability networks, technologies that manufacturers and retailers need to be aware of if they are to keep up with food safety regulations and avoid recall. How to examine best practice in food management is the main question in order to protect company brand through safe and authenticated food. We are working with our farmers to work with our food safety experts and technology developers throughout the food supply chain. We provide time by time food analyses on heavy metals, pesticide residues and different pollutants. We are disseminating information among farmers how the latest food safety regulations will impact the methods to use to identify risks within their products.

Keywords: Food Safety, Quality, E. coli, GMO, LMO

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41 Counter-Current Extraction of Fish Oil and Toxic Elements from Fish Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Parvaneh Hajeb, Shahram Shakibazadeh, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

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High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to develop a method to extract oil from fish wastes with the least toxic elements contamination. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to detoxify fish oils from toxic elements. The SFE unit used consisted of an intelligent HPLC pump equipped with a cooling jacket to deliver CO2. The freeze-dried fish waste sample was extracted by heating in a column oven. Under supercritical conditions, the oil dissolved in CO2 was separated from the supercritical phase using pressure reduction. The SFE parameters (pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to extract the highest levels of toxic elements. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil can be reduced using supercritical CO2 at optimum pressure 40 MPa, temperature 61 ºC, CO2 flow rate 3.8 MPa, and extraction time 4.25 hr. There were significant reductions in the mercury (98.2%), cadmium (98.9%), arsenic (96%), and lead contents (99.2%) of the fish oil. The fish oil extracted using this method contained elements at levels that were much lower than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g. The reduction of toxic elements using the SFE method was more efficient than that of the conventional methods due to the high selectivity of supercritical CO2 for non-polar compounds.

Keywords: Food Safety, Toxic Elements, fish oil, supercritical carbon dioxide

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40 The Influence of Production Hygiene Training on Farming Practices Employed by Rural Small-Scale Organic Farmers - South Africa

Authors: Mdluli Fezile, Schmidt Stefan, Thamaga-Chitja Joyce

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In view of the frequently reported foodborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, consumers have a preference for foods that meet requisite hygiene standards to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. Producing good quality fresh produce then becomes critical in improving market access and food security, especially for small-scale farmers. Questions of hygiene and subsequent microbiological quality in the rural small-scale farming sector of South Africa are even more crucial, given the policy drive to develop small-scale farming as a measure for reinforcement of household food security and reduction of poverty. Farming practices and methods, throughout the fresh produce value chain, influence the quality of the final product, which in turn determines its success in the market. This study’s aim was to therefore determine the extent to which training on organic farming methods, including modules such as Importance of Production Hygiene, influenced the hygienic farming practices employed by eTholeni small-scale organic farmers in uMbumbulu, KwaZulu-Natal- South Africa. Questionnaires were administered to 73 uncertified organic farmers and analysis showed that a total of 33 farmers were trained and supplied the local Agri-Hub while 40 had not received training. The questionnaire probed respondents’ attitudes, knowledge of hygiene and composting practices. Data analysis included descriptive statistics such as the Chi-square test and a logistic regression model. Descriptive analysis indicated that a majority of the farmers (60%) were female, most of which (73%) were above the age of 40. The logistic regression indicated that factors such as farmer training and prior experience in the farming sector had a significant influence on hygiene practices both at 5% significance levels. These results emphasize the importance of training, education and farming experience in implementing good hygiene practices in small-scale farming. It is therefore recommended that South African policies should advocate for small-scale farmer training, not only for subsistence purposes, but also with an aim of supplying produce markets with high fresh produce.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Security, small-scale farmers, leafy salad vegetables, organic produce, hygienic practices

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39 Food for Health: Understanding the Importance of Food Safety in the Context of Food Security

Authors: Carmen J. Savelli, Romy Conzade

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Background: Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is a basic human necessity, required to sustain life and promote good health. Food safety and food security are therefore inextricably linked, yet the importance of food safety in this relationship is often overlooked. Methodologies: A literature review and desk study were conducted to examine existing frameworks for discussing food security, especially from an international perspective, to determine the entry points for enhancing considerations for food safety in national and international policies. Major Findings: Food security is commonly understood as the state when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Conceptually, food security is built upon four pillars including food availability, access, utilization and stability. Within this framework, the safety of food is often wrongly assumed as a given. However, in places where food supplies are insufficient, coping mechanisms for food insecurity are primarily focused on access to food without considerations for ensuring safety. Under such conditions, hygiene and nutrition are often ignored as people shift to less nutritious diets and consume more potentially unsafe foods, in which chemical, microbiological, zoonotic and other hazards can pose serious, acute and chronic health risks. While food supplies might be safe and nutritious, if consumed in quantities insufficient to support normal growth, health and activity, the result is hunger and famine. Recent estimates indicate that at least 842 million people, or roughly one in eight, still suffer from chronic hunger. Even if people eat enough food that is safe, they will become malnourished if the food does not provide the proper amounts of micronutrients and/or macronutrients to meet daily nutritional requirements, resulting in under- or over-nutrition. Two billion people suffer from one or more micronutrient deficiencies and over half a billion adults are obese. Access to sufficient amounts of nutritious food is not enough. If food is unsafe, whether arising from poor quality supplies or inadequate treatment and preparation, it increases the risk of foodborne infections such as diarrhoea. 70% of diarrhoea episodes occurring annually in children under five are due to biologically contaminated food. Conclusions: An integrated approach is needed where food safety and nutrition are systematically introduced into mainstream food system policies and interventions worldwide in order to achieve health and development goals. A new framework, “Food for Health” is proposed to guide policy development and requires all three aspects of food security to be addressed in balance: sufficiency, nutrition and safety.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Security, Nutrition, Policy

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38 Comparative Characteristics of Bacteriocins from Endemic Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: K. Karapetyan, F. Tkhruni, A. Aghajanyan, T. S. Balabekyan, L. Arstamyan

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Introduction: Globalization of the food supply has created the conditions favorable for the emergence and spread of food-borne and especially dangerous pathogens (EDP) in developing countries. The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry is searching for alternatives to replace chemical treatments with biopreservative approaches that ensure the safety of the processed foods product. Antimicrobial compounds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) possess bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against intestinal pathogens, spoilage organisms and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella. Endemic strains of LAB were isolated. The strains, showing broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against food spoiling microorganisms, were selected. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing, GS-PCR, RAPD PCR methods showed that they were presented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus109, L.plantarum 65, L.plantarum 66 and Enterococcus faecium 64 species. LAB are deposited in "Microbial Depository Center" (MDC) SPC "Armbiotechnology". Methods: LAB strains were isolated from different dairy products from rural households from the highland regions of Armenia. Serially diluted samples were spread on MRS (Merck, Germany) and hydrolyzed milk agar (1,2 % w/v). Single colonies from each LAB were individually inoculated in liquid MRS medium and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Culture broth with biomass was centrifuged at 10,000 g during 20 min for obtaining of cell free culture broth (CFC). The antimicrobial substances from CFC broth were purified by the combination of adsorption-desorption and ion-exchange chromatography methods. Separation of bacteriocins was performed using a HPLC method on "Avex ODS" C18 column. Mass analysis of peptides recorded on the device API 4000 in the electron ionization mode. The spot-on-lawn method on the test culture plated in the solid medium was applied. The antimicrobial activity is expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). Results. Purification of CFC broth of LAB allowed to obtain partially purified antimicrobial preparations which contains bacteriocins with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Investigation of their main biochemical properties shown, that inhibitory activity of preparations is partially reduced after treatment with proteinase K, trypsin, pepsin, suggesting a proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin-like substances containing in CFC broth. Preparations preserved their activity after heat treatment (50-121 oC, 20 min) and were stable in the pH range 3–8. The results of SDS PAAG electrophoresis show that L.plantarum 66 and Ent.faecium 64 strains have one bacteriocin (BCN) with maximal antimicrobial activity with approximate molecular weight 2.0-3.0 kDa. From L.rhamnosus 109 two BCNs were obtained. Mass spectral analysis indicates that these bacteriocins have peptide bonds and molecular weight of BCN 1 and BCN 2 are approximately 1.5 kDa and 700 Da. Discussion: Thus, our experimental data shown, that isolated endemic strains of LAB are able to produce bacteriocins with high and different inhibitory activity against broad spectrum of microorganisms of different taxonomic group, such as Salmonella sp., Esherichia coli, Bacillus sp., L.monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Staph. aureus, Ps. aeruginosa. Obtained results proved the perspectives for use of endemic strains in the preservation of foodstuffs. Acknowledgments: This work was realized with financial support of the Project Global Initiatives for Preliferation Prevention (GIPP) T2- 298, ISTC A-1866.

Keywords: Food Safety, Antimicrobial activity, bacteriocins, endemic strains

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37 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan

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Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: Food Safety, packaging, Antimicrobial, food losses

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36 The Role of Gender and Socio-Demographics Variables on Food Safety Perceptions of Lebanese University Students

Authors: Lara Hanna-Wakim, Carine El Sokhn

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The perception of the consumer in food safety plays an important role in reducing the incidence of foodborne diseases. Studies show that young adults aged between 18 and 25 years are more prone to foodborne illnesses than adults because of their lack of food safety knowledge. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of university students' awareness in food safety, as well as to explore whether there is a relationship or not between the demographic characteristics of university students and their knowledge and practices. A valid questionnaire divided into three parts was distributed to 938 university students, aged between 18-25 years, living alone or with their parents, from different majors and years of study. The data collected was analyzed using the SPSS program. The total scores of the students surveyed were 47.95% on their food safety knowledge and 56.45% on their practices in the matter. The final score of the food safety perception of university students in both genders was 52.2%. Female students scored higher (63.14%) than male students (39.69%), and students majoring in health related fields (67.45%) scored higher than those majoring in areas not related to public health (49.21%). These results showed an overall low level of food safety perception of university students. Educational interventions are needed to improve their food safety knowledge and practices as they will be responsible for their own family one day.

Keywords: Food Safety, Gender, Perception, Knowledge, Practices, lebanese university students

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35 Food Safety in Wine: Removal of Ochratoxin a in Contaminated White Wine Using Commercial Fining Agents

Authors: Luís Abrunhosa, António Inês, Davide Silva, Filipa Carvalho, Luís Filipe-Riberiro, Fernando M. Nunes, Fernanda Cosme

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The presence of mycotoxins in foodstuff is a matter of concern for food safety. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds, being ochratoxin A (OTA) one of the most relevant. Wines can also be contaminated with these toxicants. Several authors have demonstrated the presence of mycotoxins in wine, especially ochratoxin A. Its chemical structure is a dihydro-isocoumarin connected at the 7-carboxy group to a molecule of L-β-phenylalanine via an amide bond. As these toxicants can never be completely removed from the food chain, many countries have defined levels in food in order to attend health concerns. OTA contamination of wines might be a risk to consumer health, thus requiring treatments to achieve acceptable standards for human consumption. The maximum acceptable level of OTA in wines is 2.0 μg/kg according to the Commission regulation No. 1881/2006. Therefore, the aim of this work was to reduce OTA to safer levels using different fining agents, as well as their impact on white wine physicochemical characteristics. To evaluate their efficiency, 11 commercial fining agents (mineral, synthetic, animal and vegetable proteins) were used to get new approaches on OTA removal from white wine. Trials (including a control without addition of a fining agent) were performed in white wine artificially supplemented with OTA (10 µg/L). OTA analyses were performed after wine fining. Wine was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 min and 1 mL of the supernatant was collected and added of an equal volume of acetonitrile/methanol/acetic acid (78:20:2 v/v/v). Also, the solid fractions obtained after fining, were centrifuged (4000 rpm, 15 min), the resulting supernatant discarded, and the pellet extracted with 1 mL of the above solution and 1 mL of H2O. OTA analysis was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The most effective fining agent in removing OTA (80%) from white wine was a commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon. Removals between 10-30% were obtained with potassium caseinate, yeast cell walls and pea protein. With bentonites, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and chitosan no considerable OTA removal was verified. Following, the effectiveness of seven commercial activated carbons was also evaluated and compared with the commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon. The different activated carbons were applied at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer in order to evaluate their efficiency in reducing OTA levels. Trial and OTA analysis were performed as explained previously. The results showed that in white wine all activated carbons except one reduced 100% of OTA. The commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon reduced only 73% of OTA concentration. These results may provide useful information for winemakers, namely for the selection of the most appropriate oenological product for OTA removal, reducing wine toxicity and simultaneously enhancing food safety and wine quality.

Keywords: Food Safety, Wine, ota removal, fining

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34 Toward an Integrated Safe and Sustainable Food System: A General Overview

Authors: Hasan Vural, Şule Turhan, Erkan Rehber

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It is a fact that food is a vital need of human beings. As a consumer, everyone has the right to access adequate and safe food. There are considerable development to establish quality standards and schemes to have safe foods and sustainable agriculture alternatives to protect natural resources and environment to reach this target. Recently, there is also a remarkable development in integration and combination of these efforts. Food Safety and Sustainable Agriculture Forum organized in 2014, Beijing shows that it is a global awareness more than being an individual view. Eventually, quality standards, assurance systems applied to conventional agriculture has to be applied to sustainable agriculture alternatives to have a holistic sustainable food chain from seed to fork. All actors of the whole food system from farmer to ultimate consumers, along with the state, have to work together meeting this big challenge.

Keywords: Food Safety, Consumer, integrated safe, sustainable food system

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33 The Application of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security: A Review

Authors: Behzad Sani, Gholamreza Farrokhi

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The goals of sustainable agricultural are development, improved nutrition, and food security. Sustainable agriculture must be developed that will meet today’s needs for food and other products, as well as preserving the vital natural resource base that will allow future generations to meet their needs. Sustainable development requires international cooperation and the effective use of technology. Access to sustainable sources of food will remain a preeminent challenge in the decades to come. Based upon current practice and consumption, agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% by 2050 to meet demand. Nuclear techniques are used in developing countries to increase production sustainably by breeding improved crops, enhancing livestock reproduction and nutrition, as well as controlling animal and plant pests and diseases. Post-harvest losses can be reduced and safety increased with nuclear technology. Soil can be evaluated with nuclear techniques to conserve and improve soil productivity and water management.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture, Nuclear Techniques, sustainable future

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32 Consumer’ Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Food Safety Issues Related to Pesticide Residues in Cabbage

Authors: Siegfried Berhimpon, Dekie Rawung, Abdul L. Abadi, Toto Himawan

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A case study on consumer' knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issue related to pesticide residues in cabbage was conducted in the area of Manado and Tomohon city, North Sulawesi. A sample of 150 consumers were selected randomly on location (open market and supermarket) while they were purchasing vegetables. The data on consumers’ perception, knowledge, attitude and behavior on food safety issue regarding pesticide residues were collected using a 5-point, two-section Likert-Scale questionnaire, and the relationship of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issues were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). It was found that, among many food safety issues, the illegal, non-food chemical preservatives were considered the most important one (by more than 35% respondents), followed by high cholesterol content and textile coloring chemical (> 27% respondents). The pesticide residues issue was only in the 4th place. The same results were seen on the issue of quality factors that determine the product selection during purchasing. The pesticide-free and organic products labels were considered much less important quality factors as compared with freshness and nutrition value which were considered the most and the second most important quality factors (almost 65% of respondents). SEM analysis showed that only knowledge and attitude on food safety that had the significant relation (coefficient value of 0.38), whereas those with behaviors were not significant.

Keywords: Food Safety, Consumer, pesticide residues, cabbage

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31 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Şule Turhan, Özlem Turan

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About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: Food, Food Safety, Sustainability, Food Systems

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30 Liability Aspects Related to Genetically Modified Food under the Food Safety Legislation in India

Authors: S. K. Balashanmugam, Padmavati Manchikanti, S. R. Subramanian

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The question of legal liability over injury arising out of the import and the introduction of GM food emerges as a crucial issue confronting to promote GM food and its derivatives. There is a greater possibility of commercialized GM food from the exporting country to enter importing country where status of approval shall not be same. This necessitates the importance of fixing a liability mechanism to discuss the damage, if any, occurs at the level of transboundary movement or at the market. There was a widespread consensus to develop the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and to give for a dedicated regime on liability and redress in the form of Nagoya Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on the Liability and Redress (‘N-KL Protocol’) at the international context. The national legal frameworks based on this protocol are not adequately established in the prevailing food legislations of the developing countries. The developing economy like India is willing to import GM food and its derivatives after the successful commercialization of Bt Cotton in 2002. As a party to the N-KL Protocol, it is indispensable for India to formulate a legal framework and to discuss safety, liability, and regulatory issues surrounding GM foods in conformity to the provisions of the Protocol. The liability mechanism is also important in the case where the risk assessment and risk management is still in implementing stage. Moreover, the country is facing GM infiltration issues with its neighbors Bangladesh. As a precautionary approach, there is a need to formulate rules and procedure of legal liability to discuss any kind of damage occurs at transboundary trade. In this context, the proposed work will attempt to analyze the liability regime in the existing Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 from the applicability and domestic compliance and to suggest legal and policy options for regulatory authorities.

Keywords: Food Safety, Liability, Commercialization, Genetically modified foods, India, FSSAI

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29 An Extended Model for Sustainable Food and Nutrition Security in the Agrifood Sector

Authors: Ioannis Manikas

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The increased consumer demand for environmentally friendly production and distribution practices and the stricter environmental regulations turned environmental aspects into important criteria in business decision-making. On the other hand, Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has evolved dramatically during the last decades in theory and practice serving as a reference point for exchanging experiences among all agents involved in programs and projects to fostering policy and strategy development. Global pressures make it more important than ever to gain a better understanding of the contribution that agrifood businesses make to FNS and to examine ways to make them more resilient in an increasingly globalized and uncertain world. This study extends the standard three-dimensional model of sustainability to include two more dimensions: A technological dimension and a policy/political dimension. Apart from the economic, environmental and social dimensions regularly used in sustainability literature, the extended model will accurately represent the measures and policies addressing food and nutrition security.

Keywords: Food Safety, Sustainability, Resilience, Food and Nutrition Security

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28 Challenges in Developing a World Class Sustainable Food Organization

Authors: Baskar Kotte

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Many organizations are constantly striving to implement numerous techniques for long-term sustainability, for food related organizations it is imperative to conceptualize the critical concepts which constitute food safety sustainability. This presentation provides three critical pillars to develop a sustainable organization. Financial sustainability, regulatory sustainability and excellence standards sustainability are the three components which practiced and implemented effectively with process performance metrics defined objectives and targets lead to sustainable and safe food organizations. The participants take away a well-developed concept diagram with all elements impacting sustainability. Proven disciplined path which worked to achieve desired results is presented for effective implementation. Effective implementation of this proven disciplined path positions organizations to achieve world class status with bottomline improvement. Additionally, this presentation highlights critical terms, principles and implementation difficulties related to using the proven disciplined path. This presentation is beneficial for business leaders, food safety compliance managers, food safety practitioners, financial managers, Lean & Six sigma continual improvement managers, BRC/SQF/ IFS / FSSC 22000 practitioners and food manufacturing personnel.

Keywords: Food Safety, Regulatory, Sustainability, Six Sigma, Lean, bottom-line improvement disciplined path

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27 Determining Food Habits in Süleymanpasa Town of Tekirdag City, Turkey

Authors: Ismail Yilmaz, Emine Yilmaz, Harun Uran

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Food-borne problems have been placed among the most leading problems of the society especially in recent years. This state arises as a problem which affects the society wholly such as the supply of food stuffs that are necessary for an individual to perform his physiological and biological functions, their amount, compound, their effects on health and distribution by individuals. This study was conducted in order to determine the sensitivities and criteria of people, who have different socio-economic backgrounds and live in Süleymanpasa Town of Tekirdag City, in their preference of food stuffs. The research data were collected by means of Interview Technique with individuals within the scope of the study (300) and applying surveys with convenience sampling. According to the research results, quality appears in the first rank among the factors by which consumers are affected while buying food stuffs. Consumers stated that they try to be careful with not buying food sold outdoors. The most preferred food among the ones being sold outdoor were found to be breakfast food. Also, food stuff which consumers become the most selective for while buying was determined to be meat and meat products. Due to general knowledge about the food stuff consumed in human nutrition may affect their health negatively; consumers expressed that they are very relevant with their diets and this circumstances affects their purchase preferences.  

Keywords: Food Safety, Consumer behaviour, consumption, purchase preferences

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26 Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts against Microbes for Food Safety

Authors: Manami Masuda, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita, Yui Okuno, Aya Tanaka

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Objectives— Fungi and bacteria are present in a wide range of natural environments. They are breed in the foods such as vegetables and fruit, causing corruption and deterioration of these foods in some cases. Furthermore, some species of fungi and bacteria are known to cause food intoxication or allergic reactions in some individuals. To prevent fungal and bacterial contamination, various fungicides and bactericidal have been developed that inhibit fungal and bacterial growth. Fungicides and bactericides must show high antifungal and antibacterial activity, sustainable activity, and a high degree of safety. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. We focused on especially C10K and C12K. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt as antimicrobial agents for food safety. Materials and Methods— Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314, Penicillium pinophilum NBRC 6345, Aspergillus oryzae (Akita Konno store), Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4716, Fusarium oxysporum NBRC 31631, Escherichia coli NBRC 3972, Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335, Staphylococcus aureus NBRC 12732, Pseudomonas aenuginosa NBRC 13275 and Serratia marcescens NBRC 102204 were chosen as tested fungi and bacteria. Hartmannella vermiformis NBRC 50599 and Acanthamoeba castellanii NBRC 30010 were chosen as tested amoeba. Nine fatty acid salts including potassium caprate (C10K) and laurate (C12K) at 350 mM and pH 10.5 were used as antifungal activity. The spore suspension of each fungus (3.0×10⁴ spores/mL) or the bacterial suspension (3.0×10⁵ or 3.0×10⁶ or 3.0×10⁷ CFU/mL) was mixed with each of the fatty acid salts (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, and 180 min by plating (100 µL) on potato dextrose agar or nutrient agar. Fungal and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation for 1 or 2 days at 30 °C. Results— C10K was antifungal activity of 4 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against fungi other than A. oryzae. C12K was antifungal activity of 4 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against fungi other than P. pinophilum and A. oryzae. C10K and C12K did not show high anti-yeast activity. C10K was antibacterial activity of 6 or 7 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against bacteria other than B. subtilis. C12K was antibacterial activity of 5 to 7 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against bacteria other than S. marcescens. C12K was anti-amoeba activity of 4 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against H. vermiformis. These results suggest C10K and C12K have potential in the field of food safety.

Keywords: Food Safety, Antimicrobial, Microbes, Fatty acid salts

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25 Challenges to Ensure Food Safety through Sanitation and Hygiene Coverage in Bangladesh

Authors: Moshiur Rahman, Tahmida Jakia

Abstract:

Bangladesh, a densely populated South Asian country is home to more than 160 million people. In two decades ago, the people of this developing nation drank heavily contaminated surface water. Over the past thirty years, the country, and its development partners, has undertaken extensive efforts to provide microbiologically safe groundwater based drinking water through the use of tube-wells. About 85% of the people now drink tube-well water from about 11 million tube-wells/hand pumps. However, diarrhoeal and other water-related diseases are still reported among the major causes of morbidity and mortality among Bangladeshi children. This implies that the mode of transmission of pathogens through water and/or other modes continue. In addition, massive scale arsenic contamination has been recently reported in the ground water. Thirty five million people may be at risk of consuming arsenic contaminated water exceeding 0.05 mg/l in Bangladesh. Drinking of arsenic contaminated water has been linked with skin problems, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, eye problems, cancer of the internal organs, and other diseases. In the study area, Narail district, recent investigations about existing water quality situations indicated presence of low to high levels of arsenic, salinity, iron, manganese and bacteriological contamination risks. As challenges for safe water exist; it is likely that sanitation and food hygiene practices are poor which lead threat to ensure food security.The main attempt of this study is to find out the challenges to ensure food security andprovide probable solutions to ensure food safety towards 0.7 million of people in study area. A survey has been conducted at Lohagara and Kalia sub district of Narail district with a pretested questionnaire. Primary data are collected through a questionnaire, while secondary data are collected from pertinent offices as well as academic journals. FGD has also been done to know the knowledge regarding water, sanitation as well as food preparation and consumption practice of community people in study area. The major focus of this study is to assess the state of sanitation and food hygiene condition of rural people. It is found that most of the villagers have lack of knowledge about food safety. Open defecation rate is high which lead threat to ensure food security.

Keywords: Challenges, Food Safety, Hygiene, Bangladesh

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24 Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Food and Increasing Food Safety Among Thai Children

Authors: Mayurachat Kanyamee, Srisuda Rassameepong, Narunest Chulakarn

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This experimental pretest-posttest control group design aimed to examine the effects of a family-based intervention on increasing fruit and vegetable intake and reduce fat and sugar intake and nutritional status among school-age children. Children were randomized to experimental 68 children and control 68 children. The experimental group received the intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. The control group received the school’s usual educational program regarding healthy eating behavior. Data were collected via three questionnaires including: demographic characteristics; fruit and vegetable intake; and fat and sugar intake at baseline, sixteen weeks after baseline. Analysis of the data included the use of descriptive statistic and independent t-test. Results revealed the significant differences between the experimental and control group, regarding: fruit and vegetable intake, fat and sugar intake and nutritional status at sixteenth week after baseline. The findings suggest a family-based intervention, based on SCT, appears to be effective to improve eating behavior, and nutritional status of school -age children. So, the intervention can be applied to improve eating behavior among other groups of children.

Keywords: Food Safety, Children, family-based intervention, unhealthy food

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23 Evaluation of Real Time PCR Methods for Food Safety

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Kubra Bilgic

Abstract:

In the last decades, real-time PCR has become a reliable tool preferred to use in many laboratories for pathogen detection. This technique allows for monitoring target amplification via fluorescent molecules besides admit of quantitative analysis by enabling of convert outcomes of thermal cycling to digital data. Sensitivity and traceability of real-time PCR are based on measuring of fluorescence that appears only when fluorescent reporter dye bound to specific target DNA.The fluorescent reporter systems developed for this purpose are divided into two groups. The first group consists of intercalator fluorescence dyes such as SYBR Green, EvaGreen which binds to double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, the second group includes fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotide probes that are separated into three subgroups due to differences in mechanism of action; initial primer-probes such as Cyclicons, Angler®, Amplifluor®, LUX™, Scorpions, and the second one hydrolysis probes like TaqMan, Snake assay, finally hybridization probes, for instance, Molecular Beacons, Hybprobe/FRET, HyBeacon™, MGB-Eclipse, ResonSense®, Yin-Yang, MGB-Pleiades. In addition nucleic acid analogues, an increase of probe affinity to target site is also employed with fluorescence-labeled probes. Consequently, abundant real-time PCR detection chemistries are chosen by researcher according to the field of application, mechanism of action, advantages, and proper structures of primer/probes.

Keywords: Food Safety, fluorescent dye, molecular probes, nucleic acid analogues

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22 [Keynote Talk]: Surveillance of Food Safety Compliance of Hong Kong Street Food

Authors: Mabel Y. C. Yau, Roy C. F. Lai, Hugo Y. H. Or

Abstract:

This study is a pilot surveillance of hygiene compliance and food microbial safety of both licensed and mobile vendors selling Chinese ready–to-eat snack foods in Hong Kong. The study reflects similar situations in running mobile food vending business on trucks. Hong Kong is about to launch the Food Truck Pilot Scheme by the end of 2016 or early 2017. Technically, selling food on the vehicle is no different from hawking food on the street or vending food on the street. Each type of business bears similar food safety issues and cast the same impact on public health. Present findings demonstrate exemplarily situations that also apply to food trucks. 9 types of Cantonese style snacks of 32 samples in total were selected for microbial screening. A total of 16 vending sites including supermarkets, street markets, and snack stores were visited. The study finally focused on a traditional snack, the steamed rice cake with red beans called Put Chai Ko (PCK). PCK is a type of classical Cantonese pastry sold on push carts on the street. It used to be sold at room temperature and served with bamboo sticks in the old days. Some shops would have them sold steam fresh. Microbial examinations on aerobic counts, yeast, and mould, coliform, salmonella as well as Staphylococcus aureus detections were carried out. Salmonella was not detected in all samples. Since PCK does not contain ingredients of beef, poultry, eggs or dairy products, the risk of the presence of Salmonella in PCK was relatively lower although other source of contamination might be possible. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus was found in 6 of the 14 samples sold at room temperature. Among these 6 samples, 3 were PCK. One of the samples was in an unacceptable range of total colony forming units higher than 105. The rest were only satisfactory. Observational evaluations were made with checklists on personal hygiene, premises hygiene, food safety control, food storage, cleaning and sanitization as well as waste disposals. The maximum score was 25 if total compliance were obtained. The highest score among vendors was 20. Three stores were below average, and two of these stores were selling PCK. Most of the non-compliances were on food processing facilities, sanitization conditions and waste disposal. In conclusion, although no food poisoning outbreaks happened during the time of the investigation, the risk of food hazard existed in these stores, especially among street vendors. Attention is needed in the traditional practice of food selling, and that food handlers might not have sufficient knowledge to properly handle food products. Variations in food qualities existed among supply chains or franchise eateries or shops. It was commonly observed that packaging and storage conditions are not properly enforced in the retails. The same situation could be reflected across the food business. It did indicate need of food safety training in the industry and loopholes in quality control among business.

Keywords: Food Safety, Microbial, Hygiene, cantonese snacks, street food

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21 Safety, Healthy, Intact, and Halal as New Indonesia Policy on Food Security and Safety to Support SDG'S: Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Ramadhan Febriansyah, Sarah Novianti, Santi Agustini

Abstract:

Indonesia is a big country with Moslem population. The government must fulfill all needs of the people. However, we do not have a good policy yet especially on healthy, safety and halal food. We try to offer a new solution to overcome this with ASUH (Aman, Sehat, Utuh, Halal) or in English is SHIH (Safe, Healthy, Intact, Halal) as alternative Indonesian policy on food security. This policy is Indonesian Government’s commitment to support Sustainability Development Goals program for the zero hunger (end hunger, to achieve food security and improved nutrition for Indonesian people, of course, to promote sustainable agriculture). Hopefully, it not only can increasing quality on food especially on livestock goods (meat, egg, milk) but also to guarantee the halal food. However, this policy can be an example to others country especially Moslem countries to support SDG’s programs. This research conducted means of the descriptive method; the authors find compare the secondary data obtained from journals, textbook and scientific articles in order to determine the factors that influence food safety and food security. Relevant data used and contain a description of SDG’s as well as about the system food safety and food security that SHIH (Safe, Healthy, Intact and Halal) so these ideas can be implemented.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Security, Food Sovereignty, halal SDG's

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20 Evaulation of Food Safety Management in Central Elementary School Canteens in Tuguegarao City, Philippines

Authors: Lea B. Milan

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This descriptive study evaluated the existing Food Safety Management in Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3. It made used of survey questionnaires, interview guide questions and validated knowledge test on food for data gathering. Results of the study revealed that school principals and canteen managers shared responsibilities in food safety management of school canteen. It also showed that the schools applied different methods of communication, monitoring and evaluation of food safety management. The study further revealed that implementation of monitoring and evaluation of food safety compliance are not being practiced in all elementary schools in the region. The study also showed that school canteens in the Region 3 do not have the thermometers and timers to use to conduct proper monitoring of foods during storage, preparation and serving. It was also found out from the study that canteen personnel lacks the basic knowledge and trainings on food safety. Potential source of physical, chemical and biological hazards that could contaminate foods were also found present in the canteen facilities of the elementary schools in the region. Moreover, evaluation showed that the existing implementation of food safety management in the Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3 were below the expected level and the need to strengthen the appreciation and advocacy on food safety management in school canteens of Region 3 is still wanting.

Keywords: Food Safety, food safety management, food safety school catering, school food safety management

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19 Nutrition and Food Safety as Strategic Assets

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, W. Y. Tan

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The world is facing a growing food crisis. The concerns of food nutritional value, food safety and food security are becoming increasingly real. There is also a direct relationship to the risk of diseases, particularly chronic diseases, to the food we consume. So, there are increasing concerns about the modern day food ecosystem creating foods that can provide the nutritional components for organ function sustenance, as well as, taking a serious view on diet-related diseases. This paper addresses some of the above concerns and gives an overview of the current global situation relating to food nutrition and safety. The paper reviews nutritional aspects of food today compared to those of the last century, compares whole foods found in supermarkets versus those organically grown, as well as population behaviour towards food choices. It provides scientific insights into the effects of some of the global trends such as climate change and other changes environmental changes, and presents what individuals and corporations are doing to use the latest nutritional technologies as strategic assets. Finally, it briefly highlights some of the innovative solutions that are being applied to address several of the above concerns.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Crisis, Nutritional Aspects, global trends

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18 Assessment of Food Safety Culture in Select Restaurants and a Produce Market in Doha, Qatar

Authors: Hao Feng, Ipek Goktepe, Israa Elnemr, Hammad Asim, Mosbah Kushad, Hee Park, Sheikha Alzeyara, Mohammad Alhajri

Abstract:

Food safety management in Qatar is under the shared oversight of multiple agencies in two government ministries (Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Municipality and Environment). Despite the increasing number and diversity of the food service establishments, no systematic food surveillance system is in place in the country, which creates a gap in terms of determining the food safety attitudes and practices applied in the food service operations. Therefore, this study seeks to partially address this gap through determination of food safety knowledge among food handlers, specifically with respect to food preparation and handling practices, and sanitation methods applied in food service providers (FSPs) and a major market in Doha, Qatar. The study covered a sample of 53 FSPs randomly selected out of 200 FSPs. Face-to-face interviews with managers at participating FSPs were conducted using a 40-questions survey. Additionally, 120 produce handlers who are in direct contact with fresh produce at the major produce market in Doha were surveyed using a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A written informed consent was obtained from each survey participant. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test and correlation test. The significance was evaluated at p ˂ 0.05. The results from the FSPs surveys indicated that the average age of FSPs was 11 years, with the oldest and newest being established in 1982 and 2015, respectively. Most managers (66%) had college degree and 68% of them were trained on the food safety management system known as HACCP. These surveys revealed that FSP managers’ training and education level were highly correlated with the probability of their employees receiving food safety training while managers with lower education level had no formal training on food safety for themselves nor for their employees. Casual sit-in and fine dine-in restaurants consistently kept records (100%), followed by fast food (36%), and catering establishments (14%). The produce handlers’ survey results showed that none of the workers had any training on safe produce handling practices. The majority of the workers were in the age range of 31-40 years (37%) and only 38% of them had high-school degree. Over 64% of produce handlers claimed to wash their hands 4-5 times per day but field observations pointed limited handwashing as there was soap in the settings. This observation suggests potential food safety risks since a significant correlation (p ˂ 0.01) between the educational level and the hand-washing practices was determined. This assessment on food safety culture through determination of food and produce handlers' level of knowledge and practices, the first of its kind in Qatar, demonstrated that training and education are important factors which directly impact the food safety culture in FSPs and produce markets. These findings should help in identifying the need for on-site training of food handlers for effective food safety practices in food establishments in Qatar.

Keywords: Food Safety, food handlers, food safety culture, food service providers

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17 Determining the Awareness Level of Chefs and Students on Food Safety and Allergens in Kano State, Nigeria and Ankara City in Turkey

Authors: Balarabe Bilyaminu Ismail, Osman Cavus, Fügen Durlu Özkaya

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This study is aimed at determining the level of awareness of chefs and students of food science and technology on food safety in general and allergens in particular. To get appropriate data, a questionnaire comprising of 19 questions covering many food safety issues and allergens in foods were used to collect information for the study through face to face interviews. Interviews were conducted for 284 people in Nigeria and Turkey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents from Turkey; 31.3% were students and 68.7% were chefs. Thirty-one percent of respondents from Nigeria include 33.7% students and 66.3% chefs. The result of the study indicated that most of the findings of scientific studies on food safety issues have not been directly applied by the people working in the food sector. Additionally, the knowledge level of the gastronomy and culinary arts students on food safety and allergens are significantly higher than the restaurant chefs that prepare the food and serve it to the public. The study, therefore, concluded that proper training of food business operators is critical to ensuring the safety of foods and control of allergens.

Keywords: Food Safety, Allergens, training, questionnaire survey

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16 Food Safety Management in Riyadh’s Ministry of Health Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton

Abstract:

Providing patients with safe meals on a daily basis is one of the challenges in the healthcare sector. In Saudi Arabia matters related to food safety and hygiene have been the heart of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The aim of this study is to examine the causes of inadequate implementation of food safety management systems such as HACCP in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. By the law, food safety must be managed using a documented, HACCP based approach, and food handlers must be appropriately trained in food safety. Food handlers in Saudi Arabia are not required to provide a certificate or attend a food handling training course even in healthcare sectors. Since food safety and hygiene issues are of increasing importance for Saudi Arabian health decision makers, the SFDA has been established to apply food hygiene requirements in all food operations. It should be pointed out that the implications of food outbreaks on the whole society may potentially go beyond individual health impacts but also impact on the Nation’s health and bring about economic repercussions.

Keywords: Food Safety, hospital, Patient, HACCP

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