Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Food Related Abstracts

25 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas

Abstract:

The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: Food, Health, Functional food, dietary supplements, Colombia

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24 Issues and Challenges of Tribals in India: A Case of Andhra Pradesh

Authors: P. Lalitha

Abstract:

Economic and social empowerment and educational upliftment of socially disadvantaged groups and marginalized sections of society is necessary for achieving faster and more inclusive development. Programmes are being implemented through states, government’s apex corporations, and NGOs for the up-liftment of disadvantaged and marginalized sections of society. As per the primary data collected, a majority of tribal land holdings (60%) are below 2 hectare and only 5% are above 10 hectares. However, the ownership of large holdings does not give a distinct advantage unless the land is of good quality. There are areas in which even large holdings beyond 5 hectares are not sufficient to meet the food necessity of the tribal families all-round the year. Some initiatives e.g. grain-golas, jhum cultivation, wadi project, Joint Forest Management(JFM), enhancing Livelihood and Health through Traditional Knowledge Management, Associating Individual Rural Volunteers (IRVs) in SHG Bank Linkage Programme have been taken in various tribal areas of the country.

Keywords: Food, Health, Unemployment, tribals

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23 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Monika Przeor, Ewa Flaczyk, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: Food, Nutritional Sciences, Functional food, antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials

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22 What Are the Problems in the Case of Analysis of Selenium by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Food and Food Raw Materials?

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Dávid Andrási

Abstract:

For analysis of elements in different food, feed and food raw material samples generally a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GF-AAS), an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) are applied. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing food and food raw material samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays, it is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium (arsenic, germanium, vanadium, and chromium). To elaborate an analytical method for selenium with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) isobaric elemental, 2) isobaric molecular, and 3) physical interferences. Analysing food and food raw material samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food, feed and food raw material samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of selenium. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease the error of selenium analysis. To analyse selenium in food, feed and food raw material samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of Se, which can be corrected using internal standard (arsenic or tellurium).

Keywords: Food, Selenium, ICP-MS, food raw material

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21 Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem Through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of the Carrier Birds

Authors: M.Younus, M. Athar Khan, Asif Adrees

Abstract:

The present research endeavour was made to investigate the Public Health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier’s birds and to see the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat, and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings and causing food poisoning. The ultimate objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses in all the continents of the world. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever in humans. The chain of transmission started from poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end hosts. In this experiment a total number of 200 samples of human stool and blood were collected randomly (100 samples of human stool and 100 samples of human blood) of 100 patients suspected from food poisoning patients from different hospitals of Lahore area for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients from each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the hospitals.

Keywords: Food, Transmission, Zoonosis, eggs, salmonella

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20 Influence of Dairy Cows Food on Uncooked Pressed Dough Cheese "Edam" Quality

Authors: Nougha Meriem, Sadouki Mohammed

Abstract:

Cheese quality is an important manufacturing requirement. It deals with traceability, from the dairy cows feed to the storage location. In this study, we have seen the impact of distributing two different types of green feed (purple clover VS alfalfa), in a ration composed of oat hay, silage of corn and concentrated feed, in equal quantities, on resulting milk destined for an Edam manufacturing. It reveals that alfalfa allows a high production of milk, comparatively to purple clover. However, this latter allows a high quality of milk, in point of view physico-chemical properties, especially regarding proteins and fat yields, two essential factors affecting Edam quality. The obtained results indicated that milk allowed by purple clover shows a best physico-chemical quality beside alfalfa, for it use in Edam manufacturing according to the values recommended by standardized dairies.

Keywords: Food, Quality, dairy cows, Edam

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19 Ireland to US Food Tourism the Diaspora and the Locale

Authors: Catriona Hilliard

Abstract:

Food identity is synonymous with many national tourism destinations and perceptions in tourist source markets – stereotypes could include snails in France; beer in Britain and Germany; paella in Spain - and is an accepted element of national identity that can be incorporated into tourism experiences. Irish transatlantic food connections are culturally strong with diaspora subsequent generations in the US displaying an online interest in traditional Irish food, even with a twist. Back ‘home’, the value of the local indigenous experience was a specific element of the way The Gathering 2013 was promoted to the Irish diaspora, developing community interest and input to tourism. Over the past 20 years, Ireland has realized the value of its food industry to tourism. This has included the establishment of food development programmes for the hospitality industry; food festivals as a possible element of the tourist experience; and a programmes of food ambassadors to market Irish produce and to encourage service providers to understand; utilize and incorporate this into their offerings. Irish produce is being now actively marketed as part of the proposed tourism experience, to particular segment markets including transatlantic visitors. In addition, individual providers are becoming aware of the value of the market, and how to gain from it. Also, networks of food providers have developed collaborative structures of promoting their experiences to audiences, displaying a cluster approach of tourism development towards that sector. A power point presentation will look at how Irish produce contributes to tourism marketing and promotion of Ireland to America; how that may have assisted sustainable development of communities here; and hopes to elicit some discussion relating to longer term identification of Irish food, as part of tourism, for the potential benefit of the ‘locale’.

Keywords: Food, Tourism, USA, Irish

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18 Determination of a Novel Artificial Sweetener Advantame in Food by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Fangyan Li, Lin Min Lee, Hui Zhu Peh, Shoet Harn Chan

Abstract:

Advantame, a derivative of aspartame, is the latest addition to a family of low caloric and high potent dipeptide sweeteners which include aspartame, neotame and alitame. The use of advantame as a high-intensity sweetener in food was first accepted by Food Standards Australia New Zealand in 2011 and subsequently by US and EU food authorities in 2014, with the results from toxicity and exposure studies showing advantame poses no safety concern to the public at regulated levels. To our knowledge, currently there is barely any detailed information on the analytical method of advantame in food matrix, except for one report published in Japanese, stating a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method with a detection limit at ppm level. However, the use of acid in sample preparation and instrumental analysis in the report raised doubt over the reliability of the method, as there is indication that stability of advantame is compromised under acidic conditions. Besides, the method may not be suitable for analyzing food matrices containing advantame at low ppm or sub-ppm level. In this presentation, a simple, specific and sensitive method for the determination of advantame in food is described. The method involved extraction with water and clean-up via solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by detection using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in negative electrospray ionization mode. No acid was used in the entire procedure. Single laboratory validation of the method was performed in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy. A low detection limit at ppb level was achieved. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained using spiked samples at three different concentration levels. This validated method could be used in the routine inspection of the advantame level in food.

Keywords: Food, LC-MS/MS, sweetener, advantame

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17 The Socio-Cultural Aspect of Food in Ceremonial Turkey

Authors: Suheyla Saritas

Abstract:

No matter who we are or where we live, our lives revolve around food, which is much more than a merely sustenance. As a part of the human culture, food carries complex significance and symbolic meanings. Turkish people attribute great value to food and its usage specifically tied to rites of passages of human life. Traditions, especially the ones practiced during rites of passages, such as birth, circumcisions, weddings and funerals, have always been accompanied by food in Turkish culture. Since food celebrates and symbolizes human progress in life in the culture, it also surrounds by aspects of belief, custom, magic, ritual and religion and has always been used in ceremonial context during such rites. Even though that context may be different depending on the religious, economic and social nuances of the various Turkish regions, like wheat, meat and bread, certain kinds of food play key roles during Turkish rites, generally upholding traditions. This paper highlights the sociocultural aspect of food in the rites of passages in the Turkish culture. The importance of this work also is how the ceremonial food represents the identity of Turkish people.

Keywords: Food, Culture, rites of passages, ritual and identity

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16 The Effort of Good Governance in Enhancing Foods Security for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Egboja Simon Oga

Abstract:

One of the most important keys to the success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self-sufficiency and independence. It is therefore in this regard that this paper is designed to identify food security to be crucial to all nations’ effort toward sustainable national development. Nigeria as a case study employed various effort by the successive government towards food security. Emphasis were placed on the extent to which government has boosted food security situation on the basis of the identified limitations, conclusion was drawn, recommendation/suggestions proffered, that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seeds and agrochemical, education of farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of village-based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produces are necessary.

Keywords: Food, Development, Security, Governance

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15 Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine, Obidigbo Chizoba

Abstract:

As a basic physiology need, the threat to sufficient food production is the threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier period of the study. Commercial bank credit to the agricultural sector, foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit available to the smallholder farmer. The government should further control and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by the people.

Keywords: Food, Security, Accessibility, Availability

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14 Challenges of Good Government in Enhancing Food Security for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Agi Sunday, Egboja Simon

Abstract:

One of the most important key to success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self - sufficiency and independence. There have been challenges in food security related issues in many developing nations. The problems may be as a result of rise in food price across the globe diminishing global food reserve and erratic weather patterns among other factors. In Nigeria several Agricultural politics have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the deserved results of increase food production. This paper is designed to identify the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that accounting for these problems. This paper also suggests ways of addressing these challenges and concludes by saying that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seed and agro chemicals education of the farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of villages based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produce should be encouraged.

Keywords: Food, Development, Security, Society, Governance, Sustainability, Conflict, Hunger

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13 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Şule Turhan, Özlem Turan

Abstract:

About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: Food, Food Safety, Sustainability, Food Systems

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12 Android Application on Checking Halal Product Based on Augmented Reality

Authors: Haslina Arshad, Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad Shukri

Abstract:

This study was conducted to develop an application that provides Augmented Reality experience in identifying halal food products and beverages based on Malaysian Islamic Development Department (JAKIM) database for Muslim consumers in Malaysia. The applications is operating on the mobile device using the Android platform. This application aims to provide a new experience to the user how to use the Android application implements Augmentation Reality technology The methodology used is object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD). The programming language used is JAVA programming using the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) and XML. Android operating system is selected, and it is an open source operating system. Results from the study are implemented to further enhance diversity in presentation of information contained in this application and so can bring users using these applications from different angles.

Keywords: Food, Augmented Reality, products, xml, android, Malaysia, halal

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11 Examining the Acceptability of Destination Local Food by Domestic Tourist Visiting Northern Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Jamila Mohammed Waziri

Abstract:

There are challenges faced by tourist in respect of choosing food while in tourism destination. Food is very important in the choice of holiday of tourist. Many tourists choose a destination not only because of physical attraction but they choose destination where they will not encounter challenges in respect to food. The study is aimed at examining the acceptability of northern delicacies by tourists from other parts of Nigeria. Six delicacies were produced and presented to 50 tourists who are randomly picked from the south-east, south-west, south-south and the middle belt of Nigeria. The study found out that Danwake, Masa, and Kwadon zogale were generally accepted by majority of the respondents. Although, the respondents were not comfortable with the appearance of danwake, other aspect of the checklist was accepted. Tuwon shinkafa miyan taushe was accepted in terms of appearance but rejected in terms of taste and texture. ‘Yar Tsame and dindikolo were generally rejected. The study recommended that caterers, attraction owners and hoteliers should include such meals in their menu so that tourist will enjoy the gastronomy of the northern part of Nigeria.

Keywords: Food, Tourism, Examination, acceptability

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10 A Traceability Index for Food

Authors: Hari Pulapaka

Abstract:

This paper defines and develops the notion of a traceability index for food and may be used by any consumer (restaurant, distributor, average consumer etc.). The concept is then extended to a region's food system as a way to measure how well a regional food system utilizes its own bounty or at least, is connected to its food sources. With increasing emphases on the sustainability of aspects of regional and ultimately, the global food system, it is reasonable to accept that if we know how close (in relative terms) an end-user of a set of ingredients (as they traverse through the maze of supply chains) is from the sources, we may be better equipped to evaluate the quality of the set as measured by any number of qualitative and quantitative criteria. We propose a mathematical model which may be adapted to a number of contexts and sizes. Two hypothetical cases of different scope are presented which highlight how the model works as an evaluator of steps between an end-user and the source(s) of the ingredients they consume. The variables in the model are flexible enough to be adapted to other applications beyond food systems.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Food, Traceability, mathematical model

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9 Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: Samwel Boaz Otieno, Fred Were, Ephantus Kabiru, Kaunda Waza

Abstract:

A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p<0.000}, and that most of them (91.2%) had up to college level education {χ2.(1, N=386) p<0.000}, while the number of males and females were not significantly different {χ (1, N=386) p=0.263} and 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000}. The study showed that adults take on average 2.68 meals a day (N=382, SD=0.603), while children take 3.02 meals (N=386, SD=1.031) a day, and that in most households (82.6%) food is prepared by the women {χ2 (1, N=386) p=0.000} and further that 50% of foods eaten in that community are purchased {χ2 (1, N=386)=0.1818, p=0.6698}. The foods eaten by 75.2% of the respondents were Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Sorghum bicolour, 64.1% vegetables and that both children and adults eat same types of food, and further that traditional foods which have become extinct are mainly vegetables (46%). The study established that selenium levels in foods eaten in Pala sub-locations varies with traditional vegetables having higher levels of selenium; for example, Laurnea cornuta (148.5 mg/kg), Cleome gynandra (121.5 mg/kg), Vignia ungulata (21.97 mg/kg), while Rastrineobola argentea (51 mg/kg), Lates niloticus (0), Oreochromis niloticus (0) Sorgum bicolour (19.97 mg/kg), and Sorgum bicolour (0). The study showed that there is an inverse relationship between foods eaten and selenium levels {RR=1.21, p=0.000}, with foods eaten by 75.2% of respondents (Oreochromis niloticus/Lates niloticus) having no detectable selenium. The four soil types identified in the study area had varying selenium levels with pleat loam (13.3 mg/kg), sandy loam (10.7 mg/kg), clay (2.8 mg/kg) and loam (4.8 mg/kg). It was concluded from this study that for the foods eaten by most of the respondents the selenium levels were below Daily Reference Intake.

Keywords: Food, HIV, Fishing, Selenium, determinants

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8 Providing Healthy Food in Primary and Secondary Schools of Saudi Arabia to Significantly Reduce Obesity and Improve Health by Using the Star Rating System for a Healthier Diet

Authors: Emran M. Badghish

Abstract:

Overweight and obesity have now become an epidemic around the globe, both in high-, as well as low-income regions. It is important to use preventive measures that are cost-effective. Schools are the essence of building societies and engaging them in healthy nutrition will offer a way to reach individuals at an early stage in life, with many positive and significant impacts. Aim: Provide healthy food in schools of children aged 5 to 18 years old. Methods: Distributing healthy food to a school and implementation of a star rating system for healthier foods, with five stars for the healthiest option to a half a star for the unhealthiest. The stars system was developed in Australia and should motivate children to consume the healthier nutritional options. Each canteen should be allowed a minimum of 3.5 stars rating for the food provided. Outcome Measurement: Body-mass-index as an indicator of overweight and obesity should be checked at the beginning of the study annually for five years for all children. Another side measurement is the performance by checking the grades and a questionnaire on eating habits at the start of the study and yearly. Expected Outcome: A lower health-risk behaviour and assistance to children in reaching their potentials as they will adapt to eating healthier. Nutrition during childhood has the potential to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, dental diseases, hypertension and, in later life, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and a variety of cancers. In Australia NSW starting from 2016 is expecting a 5% reduction of childhood overweight and obesity by 2025. As for Saudi-Arabia, it is expected to have an, even more, reduction by 2023 as a lot of our children are canteen-dependent. Conclusion: Introducing healthy food in schools is a preventative method that would have significant influence on the reduction of the prevalence of obesity in Saudi-Arabia and improves its general health.

Keywords: Food, Obesity, Children, Healthy, Schools

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7 Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts

Authors: Brian Ceh, Alison Jackson-Holland

Abstract:

Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.

Keywords: Food, Canada, desert, Hamilton, store

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6 Evaluation of Food Safety and Security Practices in Midday Meal Programmes in Rural Areas of Beed District

Authors: Nuzhat Sultana M. B.

Abstract:

Children are high-risk population in terms of food born illnesses. Food safety and security are the most important aspect of the success of midday meal programmes. Improper holding temperatures, cross-contamination and poor personal hygiene of food handlers are the main causes for the prevalence of pathogenic microbes in the food servicing areas. Two hundred and fifty preschool children in the age of 3 to 6 years from urban and rural anganwadies (pre school center) of Beed district were selected. Nutritional status of preschool children were assessed by anthropometrical and clinical measurement. The study assessed the food safety and security with the help of personal hygiene and other safety measures maintained by the food personnel working for midday meal programme, supplying mid meals to children in govt. anganwadies (pre school center). The hygiene level, sanitary condition and microbial quality of food and water, pathological health examination of food handlers were assessed with the help of checklist. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices of food handlers. Results of the study show that the nutritional and health status of rural and urban preschool children was very poor. Many of the food handlers were not aware of general knowledge and hygiene practices to be followed during food preparation areas. An intervention programme of education and importing training at workplaces has shown a positive impact on the outcome of safety and security practices and safe, hygienic practices of food handlers at workplace.

Keywords: Food, Security, Safety, Health, preschool children

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5 A Review on Agricultural Landscapes as a Habitat of Rodents

Authors: Tariq Mahmood, Nadeem Munawar, Paula Rivadeneira, Ali Akhter

Abstract:

In this paper, we review on rodent species which are common inhabitants of agricultural landscapes where they are an important prey source for a wide variety of avian, reptilian, and mammalian predators. Agricultural fields are surrounded by fallow land, which provide suitable sites for shelter and breeding for rodents, while shrubs, grasses, annual weeds and forbs may provide supplementary food. The assemblage of rodent’s fauna in the cropland habitats including cropped fields, meadows and adjacent field structures like hedgerows, woodland and field margins fluctuates seasonally. The mature agricultural crops provides good source of food and shelter to the rodents and these factors along with favorable climatic factors/season facilitate breeding activities of these rodent species. Changes in vegetation height and vegetative cover affect two important aspects of a rodent’s life: food and shelter. In addition, during non-crop period vegetation can be important for building nests above or below ground and it provides thermal protection for rodents from heat and cold. The review revealed that rodents form a very diverse group of mammals, ranging from tiny pigmy mice to big capybaras, from arboreal flying squirrels to subterranean mole rats, from opportunistic omnivores (e.g. Norway rats) to specialist feeders (e.g. the North African fat sand rats that feed on a single family of plants only). It is therefore no surprise that some species thrive well under the conditions that are found in agricultural fields. The review on the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that they are agricultural pests probably due to the heterogeneous landscape and to the high rotativity of vegetable crop cultivation. They also cause damage to various crops, directly and indirectly, by gnawing, spoilage, contamination and hoarding activities, besides this behavior they have also significance importance in agricultural habitat. The burrowing activities of rodents alter the soil properties around their burrows which improve its aeration, infiltration, increase the water holding capacity and thus encourage plant growth. These properties are beneficial for the soil because they affect absorption of phosphorus, absorption zinc, copper, other nutrients and the uptake of water and thus rodents are known as indicator species in agricultural fields. Our review suggests that wide crop field’s borders, particularly those contiguous to various cropland fields, should be understood as priority sites for nesting, feeding, and cover for the rodent’s fauna. The goal of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive synthesis of understanding regarding rodent habitat and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

Keywords: Food, agricultural landscapes, shelter, indicator species

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4 Anti-Proliferative Effect of Chanterelle (Cantharellus) Mushroom Extracts on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Line U87MG

Authors: Konrad Mielcarek, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska, Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka

Abstract:

For centuries, mushrooms have been used in folk medicine; however, knowledge of the composition and properties of fungi comes from the last twenty years. Mushrooms show antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor and immune-stimulating properties; however, there is a lack of reports, on anticancer treatment of brain gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine influence of Chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus Adans. ex Fr.) ethanolic (CHE) and water (CHW) extracts, on glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U87MG). Anti-proliferative activity of CHE and CHW in concentration (50-1000 µg/mL) was determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [³H]-thymidine incorporation after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation with U87MG glioblastoma cell line. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We examined that CHE extracts in all the tested concentrations (50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL) after all hours of incubation significantly decreased cell viability (p < 0.05) on U87MG cell line, which was confirmed by the significant (p < 0.05) reduction of DNA synthesis. Our results suggest that only CHE extract a cytotoxic and anti-proliferation activities on U87MG cell line.

Keywords: Food, mushroom, anticancer, glioblastoma

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3 Quality of Romanian Food Products on Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed Notifications

Authors: Silvius Stanciu

Abstract:

Romanian food products sold on European markets have been accused of several non-conformities of quality and safety. Most products incriminated last period were those of animal origin, especially meat and meat products. The study proposed an analysis of the notifications made by network members through Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed on products originating in Romania. As a source of information, the Rapid Alert System portal and the official communications of the National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority were used. The research results showed that nearly a quarter of network notifications were rejected and were withdrawn by the European Authority. Although national authorities present these issues as success stories of national quality policies, the large number of notifications related to the volume of exported products is worrying. The paper is of practical and applicative importance for both the business environment and the academic environment, laying the basis for a wider research on the quality differences between Romanian and imported products.

Keywords: Food, Quality, Romania, RASFF, Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

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2 The Potential of Potato and Maize Based Snacks as Fire Accelerants

Authors: E. Duffin, L. Brownlow

Abstract:

Arson is a crime which can provide exceptional problems to forensic specialists. Its destructive nature makes evidence much harder to find, especially when used to cover up another crime. There is a consistent potential threat of arsonists seeking new and easier ways to set fires. Existing research in this field primarily focuses on the use of accelerants such as petrol, with less attention to other more accessible and harder to detect materials. This includes the growing speculation of potato and maize-based snacks being used as fire accelerants. It was hypothesized that all ‘crisp-type’ snacks in foil packaging had the potential to act as accelerants and would burn readily in the various experiments. To test this hypothesis, a series of small lab-based experiments were undertaken, igniting samples of the snacks. Factors such as ingredients, shape, packaging and calorific value were all taken into consideration. The time (in seconds) spent on fire by the individual snacks was recorded. It was found that all of the snacks tested burnt for statistically similar amounts of time with a p-value of 0.0157. This was followed with a large mock real-life scenario using packets of crisps on fire and car seats to investigate as to the possibility of these snacks being verifiable tools to the arsonist. Here, three full packets of crisps were selected based on variations in burning during the lab experiments. They were each lit with a lighter to initiate burning, then placed onto a car seat to be timed and observed with video cameras. In all three cases, the fire was significant and sustained by the 200-second mark. On the basis of this data, it was concluded that potato and maize-based snacks were viable accelerants of fire. They remain an effective method of starting fires whilst being cheap, accessible, non-suspicious and non-detectable. The results produced supported the hypothesis that all ‘crisp-type’ snacks in foil packaging (that had been tested) had the potential to act as accelerants and would burn readily in the various experiments. This study serves to raise awareness and provide a basis for research and prevention of arson regarding maize and potato-based snacks as fire accelerants.

Keywords: Food, arson, crisps, fires

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1 Analysis of the Presence of Alkylglycerols by Gas Chromatography in Ostrich Oil

Authors: Luana N. Cardozo, Debora A. S. Coutinho, Fabiola Lagher, Bruno J. G. Silva, Ivonilce Venture, Mainara Tesser, Graciela Venera

Abstract:

Ostrich oil is used as food in Brazil, and it has been the subject of scientific research because it contains essential fatty acids (Omega 3, 6, 7, and 9), which provide benefits to human health. Alkylglycerols are lipid ethers consisted of a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon chain joined by ether-type bonding to one of the glycerol hydroxyls. It is known that supplementation with alkylglycerols can act significantly on the functioning of immune system cells, both in pathological situations and in homeostasis. Objective: Analyze the presence of alkylglycerols in ostrich oil. Methods: The ostrich oil was bought from an industry that manufactures the product for sale as food, located in Mirante da Serra, northern Brazil. The samples were sent for analysis to the chemistry department of the Federal University of Paraná, where they were analyzed by the gas chromatography method. Results: The analysis of the ostrich oil presented alkylglycerols in area 514505154. Comparison, it is possible to observe that shark liver oil contains the area 26190196, and the difference between both is highly significant. Conclusion: The importance of alkylglycerol supplementation for the immune system is known. The analysis of the results made it possible to verify the presence of alkylglycerols in the ostrich oil, which is five times higher than in the shark liver oil, that would be the largest source food, but was surpassed by the ostrich oil until the present time. The present study emphasizes that ostrich oil can be considered a food source of alkylglycerols and may play a promising role in the immune system because it contains such substance, but further studies are needed to prove its performance in the body.

Keywords: Food, ostrich oil, nutritional composition, alkylglycerols

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