Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

food losses Related Abstracts

5 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan

Abstract:

Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: Food Safety, packaging, Antimicrobial, food losses

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4 Analysis, Evaluation and Optimization of Food Management: Minimization of Food Losses and Food Wastage along the Food Value Chain

Authors: G. Hafner

Abstract:

A method developed at the University of Stuttgart will be presented: ‘Analysis, Evaluation and Optimization of Food Management’. A major focus is represented by quantification of food losses and food waste as well as their classification and evaluation regarding a system optimization through waste prevention. For quantification and accounting of food, food losses and food waste along the food chain, a clear definition of core terms is required at the beginning. This includes their methodological classification and demarcation within sectors of the food value chain. The food chain is divided into agriculture, industry and crafts, trade and consumption (at home and out of home). For adjustment of core terms, the authors have cooperated with relevant stakeholders in Germany for achieving the goal of holistic and agreed definitions for the whole food chain. This includes modeling of sub systems within the food value chain, definition of terms, differentiation between food losses and food wastage as well as methodological approaches. ‘Food Losses’ and ‘Food Wastes’ are assigned to individual sectors of the food chain including a description of the respective methods. The method for analyzing, evaluation and optimization of food management systems consist of the following parts: Part I: Terms and Definitions. Part II: System Modeling. Part III: Procedure for Data Collection and Accounting Part. IV: Methodological Approaches for Classification and Evaluation of Results. Part V: Evaluation Parameters and Benchmarks. Part VI: Measures for Optimization. Part VII: Monitoring of Success The method will be demonstrated at the example of an invesigation of food losses and food wastage in the Federal State of Bavaria including an extrapolation of respective results to quantify food wastage in Germany.

Keywords: Waste Management, Resource Management, Waste minimization, System Analysis, Resource Efficiency, Food Waste, food losses

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3 Reasons for Food Losses and Waste in Basic Production of Meat Sector in Poland

Authors: Krystian Szczepanski, Sylwia Laba, Robert Laba, Mikolaj Niedek, Anna Kaminska-Dworznicka

Abstract:

Meat and its products are considered food products, having the most unfavorable effect on the environment that requires rational management of these products and waste, originating throughout the whole chain of manufacture, processing, transport, and trade of meat. From the economic and environmental viewpoints, it is important to limit the losses and food wastage and the food waste in the whole meat sector. The link to basic production includes obtaining raw meat, i.e., animal breeding, management, and transport of animals to the slaughterhouse. Food is any substance or product, intended to be consumed by humans. It was determined (for the needs of the present studies) when the raw material is considered as a food. It is the moment when the animals are prepared to loading with the aim to be transported to a slaughterhouse and utilized for food purposes. The aim of the studies was to determine the reasons for loss generation in the basic production of the meat sector in Poland during the years 2017 – 2018. The studies on food losses and waste in the meat sector in basic production were carried out in two areas: red meat i.e., pork and beef and poultry meat. The studies of basic production were conducted in the period of March-May 2019 at the territory of the whole country on a representative trial of 278 farms, including 102 pork production, 55–beef production, and 121 poultry meat production. The surveys were carried out with the utilization of questionnaires by the PAPI (Paper & Pen Personal Interview) method; the pollsters conducted direct questionnaire interviews. Research results indicate that it is followed that any losses were not recorded during the preparation, loading, and transport of the animals to the slaughterhouse in 33% of the visited farms. In the farms where the losses were indicated, the crushing and suffocations, occurring during the production of pigs, beef cattle and poultry, were the main reasons for these losses. They constituted ca. 40% of the reported reasons. The stress generated by loading and transport caused 16 – 17% (depending on the season of the year) of the loss reasons. In the case of poultry production, in 2017, additionally, 10.7% of losses were caused by inappropriate conditions of loading and transportation, while in 2018 – 11.8%. The diseases were one of the reasons for the losses in pork and beef production (7% of the losses). The losses and waste, generated during livestock production and in meat processing and trade cannot be managed or recovered. They have to be disposed of. It is, therefore, important to prevent and minimize the losses throughout the whole production chain. It is possible to introduce the appropriate measures, connected mainly with the appropriate conditions and methods of animal loading and transport.

Keywords: Livestock production, Food Waste, food losses, meat sector

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2 Research on Reducing Food Losses by Extending the Date of Minimum Durability on the Example of Cereal Products

Authors: Dorota Zielińska, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocinska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Beata Bilska, Monika Trzaskowska, Anna Lepecka, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Microbiological quality and food safety are important food characteristics. Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers introduces the obligation to provide information on the 'use-by' date or the date of minimum durability (DMD). The second term is the date until which the properly stored or transported foodstuff retains its physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The date should be preceded by 'best before'. It is used for durable products, e.g., pasta. In relation to reducing food losses, the question may be asked whether products with the date of minimum durability currently declared retain quality and safety beyond this. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected cereal products, i.e., pasta and millet after DMD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and the number of yeast and mold (TYMC) on the last day of DMD and after 1 and 3 months of storage. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of DMD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of 14 differentiators and overall quality were defined and determined. In the tested samples of millet and pasta, no pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were found. The value of the distinguishing features of selected quality and microbiological safety indicators on the last DMD day was in the range of about 3-1 log cfu/g. This demonstrates the good microbiological quality of the tested food. Comparing the products, a higher number of microorganisms was found in the samples of millet. After 3 months of storage, TVC decreased in millet, while in pasta, it was found to increase in value. In both products, the number of bacteria from the Enterobacretiaceae family decreased. In contrast, the number of TYMCs increased in samples of millet, and in pasta decreased. The intensity of sensory characteristic in the studied period varied. It remained at a similar level or increased. Millet was found to increase the intensity and flavor of 'cooked porridge' 3 months after DMD. Similarly, in the pasta, the smell and taste of 'cooked pasta' was more intense. To sum up, the researched products on the last day of the minimum durability date were characterized by very good microbiological and sensory quality, which was maintained for 3 months after this date. Based on these results, the date of minimum durability of tested products could be extended. The publication was financed on the basis of an agreement with the National Center for Research and Development No. Gospostrateg 1/385753/1/NCBR/2018 for the implementation and financing of the project under the strategic research and development program 'social and economic development of Poland in the conditions of globalizing markets – GOSPOSTRATEG - acronym PROM'.

Keywords: Food quality and safety, pasta, food losses, millet, date of minimum durability

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1 The Reasons for Food Losses and Waste and the Trends of Their Management in Basic Vegetal Production in Poland

Authors: Krystian Szczepanski, Sylwia Łaba

Abstract:

Production of fruit and vegetables, food cereals or oilseeds affects the natural environment via intake of nutrients being contained in the soil, use of the resources of water, fertilizers and food protection products, and energy. The limitation of the mentioned effects requires the introduction of techniques and methods for cultivation being friendly to the environment and counteracting losses and waste of agricultural raw materials as well as the appropriate management of food waste in every stage of the agri-food supply chain. The link to basic production includes obtaining a vegetal raw material and its storage in agricultural farm and transport to a collecting point. When the plants are ready to be harvested is the initial point; the stage before harvesting is not considered in the system of measuring and monitoring the food losses. The moment at which the raw material enters the stage of processing, i.e., its receipt at the gate of the processing plant, is considered as a final point of basic production. According to the Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002, Art. 2, “food” means any substance or product, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be consumed by humans. For the needs of the studies and their analysis, it was determined when raw material is considered as food – the plants (fruit, vegetables, cereals, oilseeds), after being harvested, arrive at storehouses. The aim of the studies was to determine the reasons for loss generation and to analyze the directions of their management in basic vegetal production in Poland in the years 2017 and 2018. The studies on food losses and waste in basic vegetal production were carried out in three sectors – fruit and vegetables, cereals and oilseeds. The studies of the basic production were conducted during the period of March-May 2019 at the territory of the whole country on a representative trail of 250 farms in each sector. The surveys were carried out using the questionnaires by the PAP method; the pollsters conducted the direct questionnaire interviews. From the conducted studies, it is followed that in 19% of the examined farms, any losses were not recorded during preparation, loading, and transport of the raw material to the manufacturing plant. In the farms, where the losses were indicated, the main reason in production of fruit and vegetables was rotting and it constituted more than 20% of the reported reasons, while in the case of cereals and oilseeds’ production, the respondents identified damages, moisture and pests as the most frequent reason. The losses and waste, generated in vegetal production as well as in processing and trade of fruit and vegetables, or cereal products should be appropriately managed or recovered. The respondents indicated composting (more than 60%) as the main direction of waste management in all categories. Animal feed and landfill sites were the other indicated directions of management. Prevention and minimization of loss generation are important in every stage of production as well as in basic production. When possessing the knowledge on the reasons for loss generation, we may introduce the preventive measures, mainly connected with the appropriate conditions and methods of the storage. Production of fruit and vegetables, food cereals or oilseeds affects the natural environment via intake of nutrients being contained in the soil, use of the resources of water, fertilizers and food protection products, and energy. The limitation of the mentioned effects requires the introduction of techniques and methods for cultivation being friendly to the environment and counteracting losses and waste of agricultural raw materials as well as the appropriate management of food waste in every stage of the agri-food supply chain. The link to basic production includes obtaining a vegetal raw material and its storage in agricultural farm and transport to a collecting point. The starting point is when the plants are ready to be harvested; the stage before harvesting is not considered in the system of measuring and monitoring the food losses. The successive stage is the transport of the collected crops to the collecting point or its storage and transport. The moment, at which the raw material enters the stage of processing, i.e. its receipt at the gate of the processing plant, is considered as a final point of basic production. Processing is understood as the change of the raw material into food products. According to the Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002, Art. 2, “food” means any substance or product, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be consumed by humans. It was determined (for the needs of the present studies) when raw material is considered as a food; it is the moment when the plants (fruit, vegetables, cereals, oilseeds), after being harvested, arrive at storehouses. The aim of the studies was to determine the reasons for loss generation and to analyze the directions of their management in basic vegetal production in Poland in the years 2017 and 2018. The studies on food losses and waste in basic vegetal production were carried out in three sectors – fruit and vegetables, cereals and oilseeds. The studies of the basic production were conducted during the period of March-May 2019 at the territory of the whole country on a representative trail of 250 farms in each sector. The surveys were carried out using the questionnaires by the PAPI (Paper & Pen Personal Interview) method; the pollsters conducted the direct questionnaire interviews. From the conducted studies, it is followed that in 19% of the examined farms, any losses were not recorded during preparation, loading, and transport of the raw material to the manufacturing plant. In the farms, where the losses were indicated, the main reason in production of fruit and vegetables was rotting and it constituted more than 20% of the reported reasons, while in the case of cereals and oilseeds’ production, the respondents identified damages, moisture, and pests as the most frequent reason. The losses and waste, generated in vegetal production as well as in processing and trade of fruit and vegetables, or cereal products should be appropriately managed or recovered. The respondents indicated composting (more than 60%) as the main direction of waste management in all categories. Animal feed and landfill sites were the other indicated directions of management. Prevention and minimization of loss generation are important in every stage of production as well as in basic production. When possessing the knowledge on the reasons for loss generation, we may introduce the preventive measures, mainly connected with the appropriate conditions and methods of the storage. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The article was prepared within the project: "Development of a waste food monitoring system and an effective program to rationalize losses and reduce food waste", acronym PROM implemented under the STRATEGIC SCIENTIFIC AND LEARNING PROGRAM - GOSPOSTRATEG financed by the National Center for Research and Development in accordance with the provisions of Gospostrateg1 / 385753/1/2018

Keywords: Food Waste, food losses, PAP method, vegetal production

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