Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Food Engineering Related Abstracts

4 A Framework for Vacant City-Owned Land to Be Utilised for Urban Agriculture: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

Authors: P. S. Van Staden, M. M. Campbell


Vacant City of Cape Town-owned land lying un-utilized and -productive could be developed for land uses such as urban agriculture that may improve the livelihoods of low income families. The new City of Cape Town zoning scheme includes an Urban Agriculture zoning for the first time. Unstructured qualitative interviews among town planners revealed their optimism about this inclusion as it will provide low-income residents with opportunities to generate an income. An existing farming community at Philippi, located within the municipal boundary of the city, was approached and empirical data obtained through questionnaires provided proof that urban agriculture could be viable in a coastal metropolitan city such as Cape Town even if farmers only produce for their own households. The lease method proposed for urban agriculture is a usufruct agreement conferring the right to another party, other than the legal owner, to enjoy the use and advantages of the property.

Keywords: Food Engineering, Agriculture, Urban Agriculture, land uses

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3 FT-NIR Method to Determine Moisture in Gluten Free Rice-Based Pasta during Drying

Authors: Aastha Deswal, Navneet Singh Deora, H. N. Mishra


Pasta is one of the most widely consumed food products around the world. Rapid determination of the moisture content in pasta will assist food processors to provide online quality control of pasta during large scale production. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared method (FT-NIR) was developed for determining moisture content in pasta. A calibration set of 150 samples, a validation set of 30 samples and a prediction set of 25 samples of pasta were used. The diffuse reflection spectra of different types of pastas were measured by FT-NIR analyzer in the 4,000-12,000 cm-1 spectral range. Calibration and validation sets were designed for the conception and evaluation of the method adequacy in the range of moisture content 10 to 15 percent (w.b) of the pasta. The prediction models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, were developed in the near-infrared. Conventional criteria such as the R2, the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square errors of estimation (RMSEE) as well as the number of PLS factors were considered for the selection of three pre-processing (vector normalization, minimum-maximum normalization and multiplicative scatter correction) methods. Spectra of pasta sample were treated with different mathematic pre-treatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and moisture content. The moisture content in pasta predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (R2 = 0.983), which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of moisture content in pasta. The best calibration model was developed with min-max normalization (MMN) spectral pre-processing (R2 = 0.9775). The MMN pre-processing method was found most suitable and the maximum coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9875 was obtained for the calibration model developed.

Keywords: Food Engineering, FT-NIR, pasta, moisture determination

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2 Sensory and Microbiological Sustainability of Smoked Meat Products–Smoked Ham in Order to Determine the Shelf-Life under the Changed Conditions at +15°C

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar


The meat is in the group of perishable food which can be spoiled very rapidly if stored at room temperature. Salting in combination with smoke is intended to extend shelf life, and also to form the specific taste, odor and color. The smoke do not affect only on taste and flavor of the product, it has a bactericidal and oxidative effect and that is the reason because smoked products are less susceptible to oxidation and decay processes. According to mentioned the goal of this study was to evaluate shelf life of smoked ham, which is stored in conditions of high temperature (+15 °C). For the purposes of this study analyzes were conducted on eight samples of smoked ham every 7th day from the day of reception until 21st day. During this period, smoked ham is subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, aroma) and bacteriological analyzes (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) according to Serbian state regulation. All analyses were tested according to ISO methodology: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Listeria monocytogenes ISO 11 290-1, Salmonella spp ISO 6579 and yeasts and molds ISO 21527-2. Results of sensory analysis of smoked ham indicating that the samples after the first seven days of storage showed visual changes at the surface in the form of allocations of salt, most likely due to the process of drying out the internal parts of the product. The sample, after fifteen days of storage had intensive exterior changes, but the taste was still acceptable. Between the fifteenth and twenty-first day of storage, there is an unacceptable change on the surface and inside of the product and the occurrence of molds and yeasts but neither one analyzed pathogen was found. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this type of product cannot be stored for more than seven days at an elevated temperature of +15°C because there are a visual changes that would certainly have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: Food Engineering, Sustainability, Agricultural Process Engineering, smoked meat products

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1 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Raw Milk Samples Obtained from Organic and Conventional Dairy Farming in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Milica Karadzic, Denis Kučević


In the present study, the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was applied in order to determine the differences between the milk samples originating from a conventional dairy farm (CF) and an organic dairy farm (OF) in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The clustering was based on the basis of the average values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) content and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) content obtained for every season. Therefore, the HCA included the annual SFA and UFA content values. The clustering procedure was carried out on the basis of Euclidean distances and Single linkage algorithm. The obtained dendrograms indicated that the clustering of UFA in OF was much more uniform compared to clustering of UFA in CF. In OF, spring stands out from the other months of the year. The same case can be noticed for CF, where winter is separated from the other months. The results could be expected because the composition of fatty acids content is greatly influenced by the season and nutrition of dairy cows during the year.

Keywords: Food Engineering, Clustering, Chemometrics, milk quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 100