Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Focus Related Abstracts

4 Negativization: A Focus Strategy in Basà Language

Authors: Imoh Philip


Basà language is classified as belonging to Kainji family, under the sub-phylum Western-Kainji known as Rubasa (Basa Benue) (Croizier & Blench, 1992:32). Basà is an under-described language spoken in the North-Central Nigeria. The language is characterized by subject-verb-object (henceforth SVO) as its canonical word order. Data for this work is sourced from the researcher’s native intuition of the language corroborated with a careful observation of native speakers. This paper investigates the syntactic derivational strategy of information-structure encoding in Basà language. It emphasizes on a negative operator, as a strategy for focusing a constituent or clause that follows it and negativizes a whole proposition. For items that are not nouns, they have to undergo an obligatory nominalization process, either by affixation, modification or conversion before they are moved to the pre verbal position for these operations. The study discovers and provides evidence of the fact showing that deferent constituents in the sentence such as the subject, direct, indirect object, genitive, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, clause and idiophone, etc. can be focused with the same negativizing operator. The process is characterized by focusing the pre verbal NP constituent alone, whereas the whole proposition is negated. The study can stimulate similar study or be replicated in other languages.

Keywords: Focus, Basà, negation, nominalization

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3 EEG Signal Processing Methods to Differentiate Mental States

Authors: Gilwon Yoon, Sun H. Hwang, Young E. Lee, Yunhan Ga


EEG is a very complex signal with noises and other bio-potential interferences. EOG is the most distinct interfering signal when EEG signals are measured and analyzed. It is very important how to process raw EEG signals in order to obtain useful information. In this study, the EEG signal processing techniques such as EOG filtering and outlier removal were examined to minimize unwanted EOG signals and other noises. The two different mental states of resting and focusing were examined through EEG analysis. A focused state was induced by letting subjects to watch a red dot on the white screen. EEG data for 32 healthy subjects were measured. EEG data after 60-Hz notch filtering were processed by a commercially available EOG filtering and our presented algorithm based on the removal of outliers. The ratio of beta wave to theta wave was used as a parameter for determining the degree of focusing. The results show that our algorithm was more appropriate than the existing EOG filtering.

Keywords: Signal Processing, eeg, Focus, outlier, mental state

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2 MRI Compatible Fresnel Zone Plates made of Polylactic Acid

Authors: Sergio Pérez-López, Daniel Tarrazó-Serrano, Pilar Candelas, Constanza Rubio, Sergio Castiñeira-Ibáñez


Zone Plates (ZPs) are used in many areas of physics where planar fabrication is advantageous in comparison with conventional curved lenses. There are several types of ZPs, such as the well-known Fresnel ZPs or the more recent Fractal ZPs and Fibonacci ZPs. The material selection of the lens plays a very important role in the beam modulation control. This work presents a comparison between two Fresnel ZP made from different materials in the ultrasound domain: Polylactic Acid (PLA) and brass. PLA is the most common material used in commercial 3D-printers due to its high design flexibility and low cost. Numerical simulations based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and experimental results are shown, and they prove that the focusing capabilities of brass ZPs and PLA ZPs are similar. For this reason, PLA is proposed as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible material with great potential for therapeutic ultrasound focusing applications.

Keywords: Ultrasound, MRI, Focus, PLA, FZP

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1 The Negative Use of the Concept of Agape Love in the New Testament

Authors: Marny S. Menkes Lemmel


Upon hearing or reading the term agape love in a Christian context, one typically thinks of God's love for people and the type of love people should have for God and others. While C.S. Lewis, a significant propagator of this view, and others with a similar opinion are correct in their knowledge of agape in the New Testament in most occurrences, nonetheless, examples of this term appear in the New Testament having quite a different sense. The New World Encyclopedia, regarding the verb form of agape, 'agapao,' comments that it is occasionally used also in a negative sense, but here and elsewhere, there is no elaboration on the significance of these negative instances. If intensity and sacrifice are the crucial constituents of God's agape love and that of his followers, who are commanded to love as God does, the negative instances of this term in the New Testament conceivably indicate that a person's love for improper recipients is likewise intense and sacrificial. This is significant because one who has chosen to direct such love neither to God nor his "neighbors," but to inanimate things or status, clearly shows his priorities, having decided to put all his energy and resources into them while demeaning those for whom God has required such love, including God himself. It is not merely a matter of a person dividing his agape love among several proper objects of that love, but of directing it toward improper targets. Not to heed God's commands regarding whom to love is to break God's entire law, and not to love whom one should, but to love what one should not, is not merely a matter of indifference, but is disloyalty and loathing. An example of such use of the term agape occurs in Luke 11:43 where the Pharisees do not and cannot love God at the same time as loving a place of honor in the synagogues and greetings in the public arena. The exclamation of their dire peril because of their love for the latter reveals that the previously mentioned love objects are not in God's gamut of proper recipients. Furthermore, it appears to be a logical conclusion that since the Pharisees love the latter, they likewise despise God and those whom God requires his people to love. Conversely, the objects of the Pharisees' love in this verse should be what followers of God ought to despise and avoid. In short, appearances of the use of the verb agapao in a negative context are blatant antitheses to what God expects and should alert the reader or listener to take notice. These negative uses are worthy of further discussion than a brief aside by scholars of their existence without additional comment.

Keywords: Focus, agape love, divine commands, new testament context, sacrificial

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