Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

foam Related Abstracts

8 Influence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube on Interface Fracture of Sandwich Composite

Authors: Alak Kumar Patra, Nilanjan Mitra


Interface fracture toughness of glass-epoxy (G/E) PVC core sandwich composite with and without MWCNT has been investigated through experimental methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in interface fracture toughness values (GC) of samples with a certain percentages of MWCNT. In addition, dispersion of MWCNT in epoxy resin through sonication followed by mixing of hardener and vacuum assisted resin transfer method (VARTM) used in this study is an easy and cost effective methodology in comparison to previously adopted other methods limited to laminated composites. The study also identifies the optimum weight percentage of MWCNT addition in the resin system for maximum performance gain in interfacial fracture toughness. The results are supported by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis and fracture micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) investigation.

Keywords: interfacial fracture, Carbon Nanotube, foam, glass-epoxy, sandwich composite

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7 Investigations of Thermo Fluid Characteristics of Copper Alloy Porous Heat Sinks by Forced Air Cooling

Authors: Ashish Mahalle, Kishore Borakhade


High porosity metal foams are excellent for heat dissipation. There use has been widened to include heat removal from high density microelectronics circuits. Other important applications have been found in compact heat exchangers for airborne equipment, regenerative and dissipative air cooled condenser towers, and compact heat sinks for power electronic. The low relative density, open porosity and high thermal conductivity of the cell edges, large accessible surface area per unit volume, and the ability to mix the cooling fluid make metal foam heat exchangers efficient, compact and light weight. This paper reports the thermal performance of metal foam for high heat dissipation. In experimentation metal foam samples of different pore diameters i.e. 35 µ, 20 µ, 12 µ, are analyzed for varying velocities and heat inputs. The study investigate the effect of various dimensionless no. like Re,Nu, Pr and heat transfer characteristics of basic flow configuration.

Keywords: Permeability, effective thermal conductivity, foam, pores

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6 Interface Fracture of Sandwich Composite Influenced by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Alak Kumar Patra, Nilanjan Mitra


Higher strength to weight ratio is the main advantage of sandwich composite structures. Interfacial delamination between the face sheet and core is a major problem in these structures. Many research works are devoted to improve the interfacial fracture toughness of composites majorities of which are on nano and laminated composites. Work on influence of multiwalled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNT) dispersed resin system on interface fracture of glass-epoxy PVC core sandwich composite is extremely limited. Finite element study is followed by experimental investigation on interface fracture toughness of glass-epoxy (G/E) PVC core sandwich composite with and without MWCNT. Results demonstrate an improvement in interface fracture toughness values (Gc) of samples with a certain percentages of MWCNT. In addition, dispersion of MWCNT in epoxy resin through sonication followed by mixing of hardener and vacuum resin infusion (VRI) technology used in this study is an easy and cost effective methodology in comparison to previously adopted other methods limited to laminated composites. The study also identifies the optimum weight percentage of MWCNT addition in the resin system for maximum performance gain in interfacial fracture toughness. The results agree with finite element study, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis and fracture micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) investigation. Interface fracture toughness (GC) of the DCB sandwich samples is calculated using the compliance calibration (CC) method considering the modification due to shear. Compliance (C) vs. crack length (a) data of modified sandwich DCB specimen is fitted to a power function of crack length. The calculated mean value of the exponent n from the plots of experimental results is 2.22 and is different from the value (n=3) prescribed in ASTM D5528-01for mode 1 fracture toughness of laminate composites (which is the basis for modified compliance calibration method). Differentiating C with respect to crack length (a) and substituting it in the expression GC provides its value. The research demonstrates improvement of 14.4% in peak load carrying capacity and 34.34% in interface fracture toughness GC for samples with 1.5 wt% MWCNT (weight % being taken with respect to weight of resin) in comparison to samples without MWCNT. The paper focuses on significant improvement in experimentally determined interface fracture toughness of sandwich samples with MWCNT over the samples without MWCNT using much simpler method of sonication. Good dispersion of MWCNT was observed in HRTEM with 1.5 wt% MWCNT addition in comparison to other percentages of MWCNT. FESEM studies have also demonstrated good dispersion and fiber bridging of MWCNT in resin system. Ductility is also observed to be higher for samples with MWCNT in comparison to samples without.

Keywords: Glass Fibers, interfacial fracture, Carbon Nanotube, epoxy resin, foam, sandwich composite

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5 Can We Meet the New Challenges of NonIsocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) towards NIPU Foams?

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Marine Blain, Bernard Boutevin, Sylvain Caillol


Generally, linear polyurethanes (PUs) are obtained by the reaction between an oligomeric diol, a short diol as chain extender and a diisocyanate. However the use of diisocyanate should be avoided since they are generally very harmful for human health. Therefore the synthesis of NIPUs (non isocyanate PUs) from step growth polymerization of dicyclocarbonates and diamines should be favoured. This method is particularly interesting since no hazardous isocyanates are used. Thus, this reaction, extensively studied by Endo et al. is currently gaining a lot of attention as a substitution route for the synthesis of NIPUs, both from industrial and academic community. However, the reactivity of reaction between amine and cyclic carbonate is a major scientific issue, since cyclic carbonates are poorly reactive. Thus, our team developed several synthetic ways for the synthesis of various di-cyclic carbonates based on C5-, C6- and dithio- cyclic carbonates, from different biobased raw materials (glycerin isosorbide, vegetable oils…). These monomers were used to synthesize NIPUs with various mechanical and thermal properties for various applications. We studied the reactivity of reaction with various catalysts and find optimized conditions for room temperature reaction. We also studied the radical copolymerization of cyclic carbonate monomers in styrene-acrylate copolymers for coating applications. We also succeeded in the elaboration of biobased NIPU flexible foams. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in literature on the preparation of non-isocyanate polyurethane foams.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, foam, nonisocyanate polyurethane, cyclic carbonate, blowing agent

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4 Distribution of Micro Silica Powder at a Ready Mixed Concrete

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Dae-Ae Kim, Kyeo-Re Lee, Kyong Namkung, Seung-Yeon Han


Micro silica is collected as a by-product of the silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production in electric arc furnace using highly pure quartz, wood chips, coke and the like. It consists of about 85% of silicon which has spherical particles with an average particle size of 150 μm. The bulk density of micro silica varies from 150 to 700kg/m^3 and the fineness ranges from 150,000 to 300,000cm^2/g. An amorphous structure with a high silicon oxide content of micro silica induces an active reaction with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂) generated by the cement hydrate of a large surface area (about 20 m^² / g), and they are also known to form calcium, silicate, hydrate conjugate (C-S-H). Micro silica tends to act as a filler because of the fine particles and the spherical shape. These particles do not get covered by water and they fit well in the space between the relatively rough cement grains which does not freely fluidize concrete. On the contrary, water demand increases since micro silica particles have a tendency to absorb water because of the large surface area. The overall effect of micro silica depends on the amount of micro silica added with other parameters in the water-(cement + micro silica) ratio, and the availability of superplasticizer. In this research, it was studied on cellular sprayed concrete. This method involves a direct re-production of ready mixed concrete into a high performance at a job site. It could reduce the cost of construction by an adding a cellular and a micro silica into a ready mixed concrete truck in a field. Also, micro silica which is difficult with mixing due to high fineness in the field can be added and dispersed in concrete by increasing the fluidity of ready mixed concrete through the surface activity of cellular. Increased air content is converged to a certain level of air content by spraying and it also produces high-performance concrete by remixing of powders in the process of spraying. As it does not use a field mixing equipment the cost of construction decrease and it can be constructed after installing special spray machine in a commercial pump car. Therefore, use of special equipment is minimized, providing economic feasibility through the utilization of existing equipment. This study was carried out to evaluate a highly reliable method of confirming dispersion through a high performance cellular sprayed concrete. A mixture of 25mm coarse aggregate and river sand was applied to the concrete. In addition, by applying silica fume and foam, silica fume dispersion is confirmed in accordance with foam mixing, and the mean and standard deviation is obtained. Then variation coefficient is calculated to finally evaluate the dispersion. Comparison and analysis of before and after spraying were conducted on the experiment variables of 21L, 35L foam for each 7%, 14% silica fume respectively. Taking foam and silica fume as variables, the experiment proceed. Casting a specimen for each variable, a five-day sample is taken from each specimen for EDS test. In this study, it was examined by an experiment materials, plan and mix design, test methods, and equipment, for the evaluation of dispersion in accordance with micro silica and foam.

Keywords: Distribution, micro silica, foam, ready mixed concrete

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3 A Combined CFD Simulation of Plateau Borders including Films and Transitional Areas of Liquid Foams

Authors: Abdolhamid Anazadehsayed, Jamal Naser


An integrated computational fluid dynamics model is developed for a combined simulation of Plateau borders, films, and transitional areas between the film and the Plateau borders to reduce the simplifications and shortcomings of available models for foam drainage in micro-scale. Additionally, the counter-flow related to the Marangoni effect in the transitional area is investigated. The results of this combined model show the contribution of the films, the exterior Plateau borders, and Marangoni flow in the drainage process more accurately since the inter-influence of foam's elements is included in this study. The exterior Plateau borders flow rate can be four times larger than the interior ones. The exterior bubbles can be more prominent in the drainage process in cases where the number of the exterior Plateau borders increases due to the geometry of container. The ratio of the Marangoni counter-flow to the Plateau border flow increases drastically with an increase in the mobility of air-liquid interface. However, the exterior bubbles follow the same trend with much less intensity since typically, the flow is less dependent on the interface of air-liquid in the exterior bubbles. Moreover, the Marangoni counter-flow in a near-wall transition area is less important than an internal one. The influence of air-liquid interface mobility on the average velocity of interior foams is attained with more accuracy with more realistic boundary condition. Then it has been compared with other numerical and analytical results. The contribution of films in the drainage is significant for the mobile foams as the velocity of flow in the film has the same order of magnitude as the velocity in the Plateau border. Nevertheless, for foams with rigid interfaces, film's contribution in foam drainage is insignificant, particularly for the films near the wall of the container.

Keywords: Film, CFD, foam, plateau border, Marangoni, bubble

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2 Dimensionality and Superconducting Parameters of YBa2Cu3O7 Foams

Authors: Michael Koblischka, Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, XianLin Zeng, Essia Hannachi, Yassine Slimani


Superconducting foams of YBa2Cu3O7 (abbreviated Y-123) were produced using the infiltration growth (IG) technique from Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) foams. The samples were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and electrical resistivity measurements. SEM observations indicated the specific microstructure of the foam struts with numerous tiny Y-211 particles (50-100 nm diameter) embedded in channel-like structures between the Y-123 grains. The investigation of the excess conductivity of different prepared composites was analyzed using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) model. The investigated samples comprised of five distinct fluctuation regimes, namely short-wave (SWF), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and critical (CR) fluctuations regimes. The coherence length along the c-axis at zero-temperature (ξc(0)), lower and upper critical magnetic fields (Bc1 and Bc2), critical current density (Jc) and numerous other superconducting parameters were estimated from the data. The analysis reveals that the presence of the tiny Y-211 particles alters the excess conductivity and the fluctuation behavior observed in standard YBCO samples.

Keywords: Microstructure, foam, Excess conductivity, Superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

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1 Material Research for Sustainable Design: An Exploration Towards the Application of Foam into Textile and Fashion Design

Authors: Jichi Wu


Though fast fashion and consumption do boost the economy and push the progress of the industry, they have also caused a mass of waste, which has led to great pressure on the environment. This project mainly focuses on how to develop new sustainable textile and fashion design through recycling, upcycling, and reusing. Substantial field researches were implemented from the very beginning, including collecting reusable material from recycling centers. Hot-pressed composite materials, hand-cutting, and weaving were finally selected as the core material/method of this project after attempts and experiments. Four pieces of menswear, as well as hats and other decorative products made from wasted foams and fabrics, were successfully manufactured. Results show that foam is not only possible for furniture but also for clothing. It helps people to realize that foam is warm, heatproof, anti-slippery, and crease-resistant. So, all advantages could inspire people that even common materials could have new usage and are worthy of upcycling.

Keywords: Life Cycle, Sustainable Design, Textile design, foam, upcycling

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