Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

flushing Related Abstracts

2 Investigating Reservior Sedimentation Control in the Conservation of Water

Authors: Mosupi Ratshaa

Abstract:

Despite years of diligent study, sedimentation is still undoubtedly the most severe technical problem faced by the dam industry. The problem of sedimentation build-up and its removal should be the focus as an approach to remedy this. The world's reservoirs lose about 1% of their storage capacity yearly to sedimentation, what this means is that 1% of water that could be stored is lost the world-over. The increase in population means that the need for water also increases and, therefore, the loss due to sedimentation is of great concern especially to the conservation of water. When it comes to reservoir sedimentation, the thought of water conservation comes with soil conservation since this increasing sediment that takes the volume meant for water is being lost from dry land. For this reason, reservoir sediment control is focused on reducing sediment entering the reservoir and reducing sediment within the reservoir. There are many problems with sediment control such as the difficulty to predict settling patterns, inability to greatly reduce the sediment volume entering the river flow which increases the reservoirs trap efficiency just to mention a few. Notably reservoirs are habitats for flora and fauna, the process of removing sediment from these reservoirs damages this ecosystem so there is an ethical point to be considered in this section. This paper looks at the methods used to control the sedimentation of reservoirs and their effects to the ecosystem in the aim of reducing water losses due to sedimentation. Various control measures which reduce sediment entering the reservoir such as Sabo dams or Check dams along with measures which emphasize the reduction in built-up settled sediment such as flushing will be reviewed all with the prospect of conservation.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Conservation, Sedimentation, flushing

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1 Numerical Methodology to Support the Development of a Double Chamber Syringe

Authors: Lourenço Bastos, Filipa Carneiro, Bruno Vale, Rita Marques Joana Silva, Ricardo Freitas, Ângelo Marques, Sara Cortez, Alberta Coelho, Pedro Parreira, Liliana Sousa, Anabela Salgueiro, Bruno Silva

Abstract:

The process of flushing is considered to be an adequate technique to reduce the risk of infection during the clinical practice of venous catheterization. Nonetheless, there is still a lack of adhesion to this method, in part due to the complexity of this procedure. The project SeringaDuo aimed to develop an innovative double-chamber syringe for intravenous sequential administration of drugs and serums. This device served the purpose of improving the adherence to the practice, through the reduction of manipulations needed, which also improves patient safety, and though the promotion of flushing practice by health professionals, by simplifying this task. To assist on the development of this innovative syringe, a numerical methodology was developed and validated in order to predict the syringe’s mechanical and flow behavior during the fluids’ loading and administration phases, as well as to allow the material behavior evaluation during its production. For this, three commercial numerical simulation software was used, namely ABAQUS, ANSYS/FLUENT, and MOLDFLOW. This methodology aimed to evaluate the concepts feasibility and to optimize the geometries of the syringe’s components, creating this way an iterative process for product development based on numerical simulations, validated by the production of prototypes. Through this methodology, it was possible to achieve a final design that fulfils all the characteristics and specifications defined. This iterative process based on numerical simulations is a powerful tool for product development that allows obtaining fast and accurate results without the strict need for prototypes. An iterative process can be implemented, consisting of consecutive constructions and evaluations of new concepts, to obtain an optimized solution, which fulfils all the predefined specifications and requirements.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, flushing, Venous catheterization, syringe

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