Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

fluidized bed Related Abstracts

11 New Coating Materials Based on Mixtures of Shellac and Pectin for Pharmaceutical Products

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, M. Tabatabaeifar, M. Helmis

Abstract:

Shellac is a natural polyester resin secreted by insects. Pectins are natural, non-toxic and water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the peels of citrus fruits or the leftovers of apples. Both polymers are allowed for the use in the pharmaceutical industry and as a food additive. SSB Aquagold® is the aqueous solution of shellac and can be used for a coating process as an enteric or controlled drug release polymer. In this study, tablets containing 10 mg methylene blue as a model drug were prepared with a rotary press. Those tablets were coated with mixtures of shellac and one of the pectin different types (i.e. CU 201, CU 501, CU 701 and CU 020) mostly in a 2:1 ratio or with pure shellac in a small scale fluidized bed apparatus. A stable, simple and reproducible three-stage coating process was successfully developed. The drug contents of the coated tablets were determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The characterization of the surface and the film thickness were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the light microscopy. Release studies were performed in a dissolution apparatus with a basket. Most of the formulations were enteric coated. The dissolution profiles showed a delayed or sustained release with a lagtime of at least 4 h. Dissolution profiles of coated tablets with pure shellac had a very long lagtime ranging from 13 to 17.5 h and the slopes were quite high. The duration of the lagtime and the slope of the dissolution profiles could be adjusted by adding the proper type of pectin to the shellac formulation and by variation of the coating amount. In order to apply a coating formulation as a colon delivery system, the prepared film should be resistant against gastric fluid for at least 2 h and against intestinal fluid for 4-6 h. The required delay time was gained with most of the shellac-pectin polymer mixtures. The release profiles were fitted with the modified model of the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and the Hixson-Crowell model. A correlation coefficient (R²) > 0.99 was obtained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

Keywords: Coating, SEM, shellac, pectin, fluidized bed, release, colon delivery system, kinetic, methylene blue

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10 Assessment of Fluid Flow Hydrodynamics for Cylindrical and Conical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: A. B. Deoghare, N. G. Thangan, P. M. Padole

Abstract:

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aids in modeling the prototype of a real world processes. CFD approach is useful in predicting the fluid flow, heat transfer mass transfer and other flow related phenomenon. In present study, hydrodynamic characteristics of gas-solid cylindrical fluidized bed is compared with conical fluidized beds. A 2D fluidized bed consists of different configurations of particle size of iron oxide, bed height and superficial velocities of nitrogen. Simulations are performed to capture the complex physics associated with it. The Eulerian multiphase model is prepared in ANSYS FLUENT v.14 which is used to simulate fluidization process. It is analyzed with nitrogen as primary phase and iron oxide as secondary phase. The bed hydrodynamics is assessed prominently to examine effect on fluidization time, pressure drop, minimum fluidization velocity, and gas holdup in the system.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fluidized bed, bed hydrodynamics, Eulerian multiphase approach

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9 Performance Investigation of Silica Gel Fluidized Bed

Authors: Sih-Li Chen, Chih-Hao Chen, Chi-Tong Chan

Abstract:

Poor ventilation and high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations lead to the formation of sick buildings. This problem cannot simply be resolved by introducing fresh air from outdoor environments because this creates extra loads on indoor air-conditioning systems. Desiccants are widely used in air conditioning systems in tropical and subtropical regions with high humidity to reduce the latent heat load from fresh air. Desiccants are usually used as a packed-bed type, which is low cost, to combine with air-conditioning systems. Nevertheless, the pressure drop of a packed bed is too high, and the heat of adsorption caused by the adsorption process lets the temperature of the outlet air increase, bringing about an extra heat load, so the high pressure drop and the increased temperature of the outlet air are energy consumption sources needing to be resolved. For this reason, the gas-solid fluidised beds that have high heat and mass transfer rates, uniform properties and low pressure drops are very suitable for use in air-conditioning systems.This study experimentally investigates the performance of silica gel fluidized bed device which applying to an air conditioning system. In the experiments, commercial silica gel particles were filled in the two beds and to form a fixed packed bed and a fluidized bed. The results indicated that compared to the fixed packed bed device, the total adsorption and desorption by amounts of fluidized bed for 40 minutes increased 20.6% and 19.9% respectively when the bed height was 10 cm and superficial velocity was set to 2 m/s. In addition, under this condition, the pressure drop and outlet air temperature raise were reduced by 36.0% and 30.0%. Given the above results, application of the silica gel fluidized bed to air conditioning systems has great energy-saving potential.

Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, pressure drop, fluidized bed, packed bed, silica gel

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8 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Single Horizontal Bare Tube and Bare Tube Bundles (Staggered) of Large Particles: Heat Transfer Prediction

Authors: G. Ravindranath, S. Savitha

Abstract:

This paper presents heat transfer analysis of single horizontal bare tube and heat transfer analysis of staggered arrangement of bare tube bundles bare tube bundles in gas-solid (air-solid) fluidized bed and predictions are done by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on experimental data. Fluidized bed provide nearly isothermal environment with high heat transfer rate to submerged objects i.e. due to through mixing and large contact area between the gas and the particle, a fully fluidized bed has little temperature variation and gas leaves at a temperature which is close to that of the bed. Measurement of average heat transfer coefficient was made by local thermal simulation technique in a cold bubbling air-fluidized bed of size 0.305 m. x 0.305 m. Studies were conducted for single horizontal Bare Tube of length 305mm and 28.6mm outer diameter and for bare tube bundles of staggered arrangement using beds of large (average particle diameter greater than 1 mm) particle (raagi and mustard). Within the range of experimental conditions influence of bed particle diameter ( Dp), Fluidizing Velocity (U) were studied, which are significant parameters affecting heat transfer. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been receiving an increasing attention for simulating engineering systems due to some interesting characteristics such as learning capability, fault tolerance, and non-linearity. Here, feed-forward architecture and trained by back-propagation technique is adopted to predict heat transfer analysis found from experimental results. The ANN is designed to suit the present system which has 3 inputs and 2 out puts. The network predictions are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental observed values of bare heat transfer coefficient (hb) and nusselt number of bare tube (Nub).

Keywords: ANN, fluidized bed, large particles, particle diameter

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7 Numerical Simulation on Two Components Particles Flow in Fluidized Bed

Authors: wang jia, Wang Heng, Zhong Zhaoping, Guo Feihong, Wang Xiaoyi

Abstract:

Flow of gas and particles in fluidized beds is complex and chaotic, which is difficult to measure and analyze by experiments. Some bed materials with bad fluidized performance always fluidize with fluidized medium. The material and the fluidized medium are different in many properties such as density, size and shape. These factors make the dynamic process more complex and the experiment research more limited. Numerical simulation is an efficient way to describe the process of gas-solid flow in fluidized bed. One of the most popular numerical simulation methods is CFD-DEM, i.e., computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method. The shapes of particles are always simplified as sphere in most researches. Although sphere-shaped particles make the calculation of particle uncomplicated, the effects of different shapes are disregarded. However, in practical applications, the two-component systems in fluidized bed also contain sphere particles and non-sphere particles. Therefore, it is needed to study the two component flow of sphere particles and non-sphere particles. In this paper, the flows of mixing were simulated as the flow of molding biomass particles and quartz in fluidized bad. The integrated model was built on an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach which was improved to suit the non-sphere particles. The constructed methods of cylinder-shaped particles were different when it came to different numerical methods. Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed as an agglomerate of fictitious small particles in CFD part, which means the small fictitious particles gathered but not combined with each other. The diameter of a fictitious particle d_fic and its solid volume fraction inside a cylinder-shaped particle α_fic, which is called the fictitious volume fraction, are introduced to modify the drag coefficient β by introducing the volume fraction of the cylinder-shaped particles α_cld and sphere-shaped particles α_sph. In a computational cell, the void ε, can be expressed as ε=1-〖α_cld α〗_fic-α_sph. The Ergun equation and the Wen and Yu equation were used to calculate β. While in DEM method, cylinder-shaped particles were built by multi-sphere method, in which small sphere element merged with each other. Soft sphere model was using to get the connect force between particles. The total connect force of cylinder-shaped particle was calculated as the sum of the small sphere particles’ forces. The model (size=1×0.15×0.032 mm3) contained 420000 sphere-shaped particles (diameter=0.8 mm, density=1350 kg/m3) and 60 cylinder-shaped particles (diameter=10 mm, length=10 mm, density=2650 kg/m3). Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed by 2072 small sphere-shaped particles (d=0.8 mm) in CFD mesh and 768 sphere-shaped particles (d=3 mm) in DEM mesh. The length of CFD and DEM cells are 1 mm and 2 mm. Superficial gas velocity was changed in different models as 1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2.0m/s. The results of simulation were compared with the experimental results. The movements of particles were regularly as fountain. The effect of superficial gas velocity on cylinder-shaped particles was stronger than that of sphere-shaped particles. The result proved this present work provided a effective approach to simulation the flow of two component particles.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase Flow, fluidized bed, discrete element method

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6 Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Product Quality in Processing of Lithium Bearing Ores by Applying Fluidized-Bed Calcination Systems

Authors: Edgar Gasafi, Robert Pardemann, Linus Perander

Abstract:

For the production of lithium carbonate or hydroxide out of lithium bearing ores, a thermal activation (calcination/decrepitation) is required for the phase transition in the mineral to enable an acid respectively soda leaching in the downstream hydrometallurgical section. In this paper, traditional processing in Lithium industry is reviewed, and opportunities to reduce energy consumption and improve product quality and recovery rate will be discussed. The conventional process approach is still based on rotary kiln calcination, a technology in use since the early days of lithium ore processing, albeit not significantly further developed since. A new technology, at least for the Lithium industry, is fluidized bed calcination. Decrepitation of lithium ore was investigated at Outotec’s Frankfurt Research Centre. Focusing on fluidized bed technology, a study of major process parameters (temperature and residence time) was performed at laboratory and larger bench scale aiming for optimal product quality for subsequent processing. The technical feasibility was confirmed for optimal process conditions on pilot scale (400 kg/h feed input) providing the basis for industrial process design. Based on experimental results, a comprehensive Aspen Plus flow sheet simulation was developed to quantify mass and energy flow for the rotary kiln and fluidized bed system. Results show a significant reduction in energy consumption and improved process performance in terms of temperature profile, product quality and plant footprint. The major conclusion is that a substantial reduction of energy consumption can be achieved in processing Lithium bearing ores by using fluidized bed based systems. At the same time and different from rotary kiln process, an accurate temperature and residence time control is ensured in fluidized-bed systems leading to a homogenous temperature profile in the reactor which prevents overheating and sintering of the solids and results in uniform product quality.

Keywords: Lithium, fluidized bed, calcination, decrepitation, spodumene

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5 Thermal Pre-Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Fluidized Bed for Enhancing Its Solid Fuel Properties

Authors: Sujeeta Karki, Jeeban Poudel, Ja Hyung Choi, Sea Cheon Oh

Abstract:

A lab-scale fluidized bed was used for the study of sewage sludge, a non-lignocellulosic biomass, torrefaction. The influence of torrefaction temperature ranging from 200–350 °C and residence time of 0–50 minutes on the physical and chemical properties of the torrefied product was investigated. Properties of the torrefied product were analyzed on the basis of degree of torrefaction, ultimate and proximate analysis, gas analysis and chemical exergy. The degree of torrefaction and chemical exergy had a positive influence on increasing the torrefaction temperature. Moreover, the effect of torrefaction temperature and residence time on the elemental variation of sewage sludge exhibited an increase in the weight percentage of carbon while the content of H/C and O/C molar ratios decreased. The product gas emitted during torrefaction was analyzed to study the pathway of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing compounds. The compounds with oxygen were emitted at higher temperatures in contrast to hydrocarbon gases. An attempt was made to obtain the chemical exergy of sewage sludge. In addition, the study of various correlations for predicting the calorific value of torrefied sewage sludge was made.

Keywords: Sewage Sludge, fluidized bed, chemical exergy, degree of torrefaction, higher heating value (HHV), O/C and H/C molar ratios

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4 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

Abstract:

In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: fluidized bed, solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, beam-down solar concentrating system

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3 Reaction Rate of Olive Stone during Combustion in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, N. García-Hernando, M. Rubio-Rubio, J. Arrieta

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Combustion of biomass is a promising alternative to reduce the high pollutant emission levels associated to the combustion of fossil flues due to the net null emission of CO2 attributed to biomass. However, the biomass selected should also have low contents of nitrogen and sulfur to limit the NOx and SOx emissions derived from its combustion. In this sense, olive stone is an excellent fuel to power combustion reactors with reduced levels of pollutant emissions. In this work, the combustion of olive stone particles is analyzed experimentally in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (BFB). The bubbling fluidized bed reactor was installed over a scale, conforming a macro-TGA. In both equipment, the evolution of the mass of the samples was registered as the combustion process progressed. The results show a much faster combustion process in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor compared to the thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, due to the higher heat transfer coefficient and the abrasion of the fuel particles by the bed material in the BFB reactor.

Keywords: Combustion, Reaction Rate, fluidized bed, olive stone

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2 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang

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Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, fluidized bed, slip flow, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, minimum fluidization velocity

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1 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov

Abstract:

We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: Biochar, fluidized bed, fixed bed, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction

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