Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

fluid flow Related Abstracts

15 Bifurcations of the Rotations in the Thermocapillary Flows

Authors: V. Batishchev, V. Getman

Abstract:

We study the self-similar fluid flows in the Marangoni layers with the axial symmetry. Such flows are induced by the radial gradients of the temperatures whose distributions along the free boundary obey some power law. The self-similar solutions describe thermo-capillar flows both in the thin layers and in the case of infinite thickness. We consider both positive and negative temperature gradients. In the former case the cooling of free boundary nearby the axis of symmetry gives rise to the rotation of fluid. The rotating flow concentrates itself inside the Marangoni layer while outside of it the fluid does not revolve. In the latter case we observe no rotating flows at all. In the layers of infinite thickness the separation of the rotating flow creates two zones where the flows are directed oppositely. Both the longitudinal velocity and the temperature have exactly one critical point inside the boundary layer. It is worth to note that the profiles are monotonic in the case of non-swirling flows. We describe the flow outside the boundary layer with the use of self-similar solution of the Euler equations. This flow is slow and non-swirling. The introducing of an outer flow gives rise to the branching of swirling flows from the non-swirling ones. There is such the critical velocity of the outer flow that a non-swirling flow exists for supercritical velocities and cannot be extended to the sub-critical velocities. For the positive temperature gradients there are two non-swirling flows. For the negative temperature gradients the non-swirling flow is unique. We determine the critical velocity of the outer flow for which the branching of the swirling flows happens. In the case of a thin layer confined within free boundaries we show that the cooling of the free boundaries near the axis of symmetry leads to the separating of the layer and creates two sub-layers with opposite rotations inside. This makes sharp contrast with the case of infinite thickness. We show that such rotation arises provided the thickness of the layer exceed some critical value. In the case of a thin layer confined within free and rigid boundaries we construct the branching equation and the asymptotic approximation for the secondary swirling flows near the bifurcation point. It turns out that the bifurcation gives rise to one pair of the secondary swirling flows with different directions of swirl.

Keywords: fluid flow, Rotation, bifurcation, free surface, boundary layer, Marangoni layer

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14 Convective Interactions and Heat Transfer in a Czochralski Melt with a Model Phase Boundary of Two Different Shapes

Authors: R. Faiez, M. Mashhoudi, F. Najafi

Abstract:

Implicit in most large-scale numerical analyses of the crystal growth from the melt is the assumption that the shape and position of the phase boundary are determined by the transport phenomena coupled strongly to the melt hydrodynamics. In the present numerical study, the interface shape-effect on the convective interactions in a Czochralski oxide melt is described. It was demonstrated that thermos-capillary flow affects inversely the phase boundaries of distinct shapes. The in homogenity of heat flux and the location of the stagnation point at the crystallization front were investigated. The forced convection effect on the point displacement at the boundary found to be much stronger for the flat plate interface compared to the cone-shaped one with and without the Marangoni flow.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, fluid flow, interface shape, thermos-capillary effect

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13 Numerical Simulation of Transient 3D Temperature and Kerf Formation in Laser Fusion Cutting

Authors: Karim Kheloufi, El Hachemi Amara

Abstract:

In the present study, a three-dimensional transient numerical model was developed to study the temperature field and cutting kerf shape during laser fusion cutting. The finite volume model has been constructed, based on the Navier–Stokes equations and energy conservation equation for the description of momentum and heat transport phenomena, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for free surface tracking. The Fresnel absorption model is used to handle the absorption of the incident wave by the surface of the liquid metal and the enthalpy-porosity technique is employed to account for the latent heat during melting and solidification of the material. To model the physical phenomena occurring at the liquid film/gas interface, including momentum/heat transfer, a new approach is proposed which consists of treating friction force, pressure force applied by the gas jet and the heat absorbed by the cutting front surface as source terms incorporated into the governing equations. All these physics are coupled and solved simultaneously in Fluent CFD®. The main objective of using a transient phase change model in the current case is to simulate the dynamics and geometry of a growing laser-cutting generated kerf until it becomes fully developed. The model is used to investigate the effect of some process parameters on temperature fields and the formed kerf geometry.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Simulation, fluid flow, Laser Cutting

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12 Impact of Air Flow Structure on Distinct Shape of Differential Pressure Devices

Authors: A. Bertašienė

Abstract:

Energy harvesting from any structure makes a challenge. Different structure of air/wind flows in industrial, environmental and residential applications emerge the real flow investigation in detail. Many of the application fields are hardly achievable to the detailed description due to the lack of up-to-date statistical data analysis. In situ measurements aim crucial investments thus the simulation methods come to implement structural analysis of the flows. Different configurations of testing environment give an overview how important is the simple structure of field in limited area on efficiency of the system operation and the energy output. Several configurations of modeled working sections in air flow test facility was implemented in CFD ANSYS environment to compare experimentally and numerically air flow development stages and forms that make effects on efficiency of devices and processes. Effective form and amount of these flows under different geometry cases define the manner of instruments/devices that measure fluid flow parameters for effective operation of any system and emission flows to define. Different fluid flow regimes were examined to show the impact of fluctuations on the development of the whole volume of the flow in specific environment. The obtained results rise the discussion on how these simulated flow fields are similar to real application ones. Experimental results have some discrepancies from simulation ones due to the models implemented to fluid flow analysis in initial stage, not developed one and due to the difficulties of models to cover transitional regimes. Recommendations are essential for energy harvesting systems in both, indoor and outdoor cases. Further investigations aim to be shifted to experimental analysis of flow under laboratory conditions using state-of-the-art techniques as flow visualization tool and later on to in situ situations that is complicated, cost and time consuming study.

Keywords: fluid flow, initial region, tube coefficient, distinct shape

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11 ELectromagnetic-Thermal Coupled Analysis of PMSM with Cooling Channel

Authors: Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee, Tae-Chul Jeong, Hyun-Woo Jun

Abstract:

The paper presents the electromagnetic-thermal flow coupled analysis of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which has cooling channel in stator core for forced air cooling. Unlike the general PMSM design, to achieve ohmic loss reduction for high efficiency, cooling channel actively used in the stator core. Equivalent thermal network model was made to analyze the effect of the formation of the additional flow path in the core. According to the shape and position changing of the channel design, electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis results were reviewed.

Keywords: fluid flow, Coupled problems, Thermal analysis, Electric Motors, Equivalent Circuits

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10 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Spongy-Porous Media

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada, H. Salwa El-Deeb

Abstract:

Numerical study of fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal energy storing or released in/from spongy-porous media to predict the thermal performance and characteristics of the porous media as packed bed system is presented in this work. This system is cylindrical channel filled with porous media (carbon foam). The system consists of working fluid (air) and spongy-porous medium; they act as the heat exchanger (heating or cooling modes) where thermal interaction occurs between the working fluid and the porous medium. The spongy-porous media are defined by the different type of porous medium employed in the storing or cooling modes. Two different porous media are considered in this study: Carbon foam, and Silicon rubber. The flow of the working fluid (air) is one dimensional in the axial direction from the top to downward and steady state conditions. The numerical results of transient temperature distribution for both working fluid and the spongy-porous medium phases and the amount of stored/realized heat inside/from the porous medium for each case with respect to the operating parameters and the spongy-porous media characteristics are illustrated.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Analysis, fluid flow, Thermal Performance, spongy-porous media, transient conditions

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9 Numerical Investigation of Blood Flow around a Leaflet Valve through a Perforating Vein

Authors: Zohreh Sheidaei, Farhad Sadegh Moghanlou, Rahim Vesal

Abstract:

Diseases related to leg venous system are common worldwide. An incompetent vein with deformed wall and insufficient valves affects flow field of blood and disrupts the process of blood circulating system. Having enough knowledge about the flow field through veins will help find new ways to cure the related diseases. In the present study, blood flow around a leaflet valve of a perforating vein is investigated numerically by Finite Element Method. Flow behavior and vortexes, generated around the leaflet valves, are studied considering valve opening percentage. Obtained velocity and pressure fields show mechanical stresses on vein wall and these valves and consequently introduce the regions susceptible to deformation.

Keywords: fluid flow, numerical investigation, leaflet valve, perforating vein

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8 Robust Numerical Solution for Flow Problems

Authors: Gregor Kosec

Abstract:

Simple and robust numerical approach for solving flow problems is presented, where involved physical fields are represented through the local approximation functions, i.e., the considered field is approximated over a local support domain. The approximation functions are then used to evaluate the partial differential operators. The type of approximation, the size of support domain, and the type and number of basis function can be general. The solution procedure is formulated completely through local computational operations. Besides local numerical method also the pressure velocity is performed locally with retaining the correct temporal transient. The complete locality of the introduced numerical scheme has several beneficial effects. One of the most attractive is the simplicity since it could be understood as a generalized Finite Differences Method, however, much more powerful. Presented methodology offers many possibilities for treating challenging cases, e.g. nodal adaptivity to address regions with sharp discontinuities or p-adaptivity to treat obscure anomalies in physical field. The stability versus computation complexity and accuracy can be regulated by changing number of support nodes, etc. All these features can be controlled on the fly during the simulation. The presented methodology is relatively simple to understand and implement, which makes it potentially powerful tool for engineering simulations. Besides simplicity and straightforward implementation, there are many opportunities to fully exploit modern computer architectures through different parallel computing strategies. The performance of the method is presented on the lid driven cavity problem, backward facing step problem, de Vahl Davis natural convection test, extended also to low Prandtl fluid and Darcy porous flow. Results are presented in terms of velocity profiles, convergence plots, and stability analyses. Results of all cases are also compared against published data.

Keywords: fluid flow, Meshless, natural convection, low Pr problem

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7 Sand Production Modelled with Darcy Fluid Flow Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: M. N. Nwodo, Y. P. Cheng, N. H. Minh

Abstract:

In the process of recovering oil in weak sandstone formations, the strength of sandstones around the wellbore is weakened due to the increase of effective stress/load from the completion activities around the cavity. The weakened and de-bonded sandstone may be eroded away by the produced fluid, which is termed sand production. It is one of the major trending subjects in the petroleum industry because of its significant negative impacts, as well as some observed positive impacts. For efficient sand management therefore, there has been need for a reliable study tool to understand the mechanism of sanding. One method of studying sand production is the use of the widely recognized Discrete Element Method (DEM), Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) which represents sands as granular individual elements bonded together at contact points. However, there is limited knowledge of the particle-scale behavior of the weak sandstone, and the parameters that affect sanding. This paper aims to investigate the reliability of using PFC3D and a simple Darcy flow in understanding the sand production behavior of a weak sandstone. An isotropic tri-axial test on a weak oil sandstone sample was first simulated at a confining stress of 1MPa to calibrate and validate the parallel bond models of PFC3D using a 10m height and 10m diameter solid cylindrical model. The effect of the confining stress on the number of bonds failure was studied using this cylindrical model. With the calibrated data and sample material properties obtained from the tri-axial test, simulations without and with fluid flow were carried out to check on the effect of Darcy flow on bonds failure using the same model geometry. The fluid flow network comprised of every four particles connected with tetrahedral flow pipes with a central pore or flow domain. Parametric studies included the effects of confining stress, and fluid pressure; as well as validating flow rate – permeability relationship to verify Darcy’s fluid flow law. The effect of model size scaling on sanding was also investigated using 4m height, 2m diameter model. The parallel bond model successfully calibrated the sample’s strength of 4.4MPa, showing a sharp peak strength before strain-softening, similar to the behavior of real cemented sandstones. There seems to be an exponential increasing relationship for the bigger model, but a curvilinear shape for the smaller model. The presence of the Darcy flow induced tensile forces and increased the number of broken bonds. For the parametric studies, flow rate has a linear relationship with permeability at constant pressure head. The higher the fluid flow pressure, the higher the number of broken bonds/sanding. The DEM PFC3D is a promising tool to studying the micromechanical behavior of cemented sandstones.

Keywords: fluid flow, parametric study, discrete element method, sand production/bonds failure

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6 Finite Volume Method for Flow Prediction Using Unstructured Meshes

Authors: Juhee LEE, Yongjun Lee

Abstract:

In designing a low-energy-consuming buildings, the heat transfer through a large glass or wall becomes critical. Multiple layers of the window glasses and walls are employed for the high insulation. The gravity driven air flow between window glasses or wall layers is a natural heat convection phenomenon being a key of the heat transfer. For the first step of the natural heat transfer analysis, in this study the development and application of a finite volume method for the numerical computation of viscous incompressible flows is presented. It will become a part of the natural convection analysis with high-order scheme, multi-grid method, and dual-time step in the future. A finite volume method based on a fully-implicit second-order is used to discretize and solve the fluid flow on unstructured grids composed of arbitrary-shaped cells. The integrations of the governing equation are discretised in the finite volume manner using a collocated arrangement of variables. The convergence of the SIMPLE segregated algorithm for the solution of the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is accelerated by using a sparse matrix solver such as BiCGSTAB. The method used in the present study is verified by applying it to some flows for which either the numerical solution is known or the solution can be obtained using another numerical technique available in the other researches. The accuracy of the method is assessed through the grid refinement.

Keywords: fluid flow, laminar flow, finite volume method, unstructured grid

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5 Fluid Flow in Roughened Square Tube for Internal Blade Cooling

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Hamad M. Alhajeri, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Ayedh Alajmi

Abstract:

A computational investigation has been undertaken to study fluid flow through roughened tube with turbulators. Such flows are of particular interest in cooling internally high pressure turbine blades. Turbulators are fixed in each side of the passage (tube) to promote turbulence and enhance heat transfer. The tube had an aspect ratio of 1 and the position of the ribs closest to the bend are at 0.45d from the entrance and exit of the bend. The aim of this study is to examine the tube roughened by turbulator by studying some flow parameters upstream and downstream of the turbulator. It is cleared that the eddies sizes are decreased downstream in the first two turbulators and increased after the turbulators increases the turbulence in the tube and enhanced the heat transfer in the blade.

Keywords: Computation, fluid flow, blade, turbulator

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4 Fluid Structure Interaction Study between Ahead and Angled Impact of AGM 88 Missile Entering Relatively High Viscous Fluid for K-Omega Turbulence Model

Authors: Abu Afree Andalib, Rafiur Rahman, Md Mezbah Uddin

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to anatomize on the various parameters of AGM 88 missile anatomized using FSI module in Ansys. Computational fluid dynamics is used for the study of fluid flow pattern and fluidic phenomenon such as drag, pressure force, energy dissipation and shockwave distribution in water. Using finite element analysis module of Ansys, structural parameters such as stress and stress density, localization point, deflection, force propagation is determined. Separate analysis on structural parameters is done on Abacus. State of the art coupling module is used for FSI analysis. Fine mesh is considered in every case for better result during simulation according to computational machine power. The result of the above-mentioned parameters is analyzed and compared for two phases using graphical representation. The result of Ansys and Abaqus are also showed. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Finite Element analyses and subsequently the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) technique is being considered. Finite volume method and finite element method are being considered for modelling fluid flow and structural parameters analysis. Feasible boundary conditions are also utilized in the research. Significant change in the interaction and interference pattern while the impact was found. Theoretically as well as according to simulation angled condition was found with higher impact.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, fluid flow, Impact, Missile, ANSYS, turbulence model, ABAQUS, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), FSI (Fluid Surface Interaction), high viscous fluid, FEM (Finite Element Analysis), FVM (Finite Volume Method), fluid pattern, AGM-88, meshing, k-omega

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3 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Ayedh Alajmi, Hamad Alhajeri

Abstract:

The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: CFD, fluid flow, Filtration, porous cylinders

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2 Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations

Authors: S. Zare, M. Mazraehli, F. Mehrabani

Abstract:

In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.

Keywords: fluid flow, Underground Excavations, distinct element method, hydro-mechanical coupling, jointed rock mass

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1 Computational Investigation of Gas-Solid Flow in High Pressure High Temperature Filter

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Hamad M. Alhajeri

Abstract:

This paper reports a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation for a high-temperature high-pressure filtration (ceramic candle filter). However, parallel flow to the filter is considered in this study. Different face (filtration) velocities are examined using the CFD code, FLUENT. Different sizes of particles are tracked through the domain to find the height at which the particles will impinge on the filter surface. Furthermore, particle distribution around the filter (or filter cake) is studied to design efficient cleaning mechanisms. Gravity effect to the particles with various inlet velocities and pressure drop are both considered. In the CFD study, it is found that the gravity influence should not be ignored if the particle sizes exceed 1 micron.

Keywords: CFD, fluid flow, Filtration, HTHP

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