Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Flow Related Abstracts

23 Study of the Behavior and Similarities of Flow and Level Transmitters in the Industries

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

In view of the requirements of the current industrial processes, the instrumentation plays a critical role. In this context, this work aims to raise some the operating characteristics of the level and flow transmitters, in addition to observing their similarities and possible limitations for certain configurations.

Keywords: Instrumentation, Flow, level, configurations of meters, method of choice of the meters, instrumentation in the industrial processes

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22 The Pressure Losses in the Model of Human Lungs

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Pavel Niedoba

Abstract:

For the treatment of acute and chronic lung diseases it is preferred to deliver medicaments by inhalation. The drug is delivered directly to tracheobronchial tree. This way allows the given medicament to get directly into the place of action and it makes rapid onset of action and maximum efficiency. The transport of aerosol particles in the particular part of the lung is influenced by their size, anatomy of the lungs, breathing pattern and airway resistance. This article deals with calculation of airway resistance in the lung model of Horsfield. It solves the problem of determination of the pressure losses in bifurcation and thus defines the pressure drop at a given location in the bronchial tree. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for transport of aerosol particles in a central part of bronchial tree realized by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The results obtained from CFD simulation will allow us to provide information on the required particle size and optimal inhalation technique for particle transport into particular part of the lung.

Keywords: Flow, human lungs, bronchial tree, pressure losses, airways resistance, breathing

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21 Gas Flow, Time, Distance Dynamic Modelling

Authors: A. Abdul-Ameer

Abstract:

The equations governing the distance, pressure- volume flow relationships for the pipeline transportation of gaseous mixtures, are considered. A derivation based on differential calculus, for an element of this system model, is addressed. Solutions, yielding the input- output response following pressure changes, are reviewed. The technical problems associated with these analytical results are identified. Procedures resolving these difficulties providing thereby an attractive, simple, analysis route are outlined. Computed responses, validating thereby calculated predictions, are presented.

Keywords: Distance, Models, Flow, Pressure, dissipation

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20 Research on the Aeration Systems’ Efficiency of a Lab-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu, Mihai Necșoiu

Abstract:

In order to obtain efficient pollutants removal in small-scale wastewater treatment plants, uniform water flow has to be achieved. The experimental setup, designed for treating high-load wastewater (leachate), consists of two aerobic biological reactors and a lamellar settler. Both biological tanks were aerated by using three different types of aeration systems - perforated pipes, membrane air diffusers and tube ceramic diffusers. The possibility of homogenizing the water mass with each of the air diffusion systems was evaluated comparatively. The oxygen concentration was determined by optical sensors with data logging. The experimental data was analyzed comparatively for all three different air dispersion systems aiming to identify the oxygen concentration variation during different operational conditions. The Oxygenation Capacity was calculated for each of the three systems and used as performance and selection parameter. The global mass transfer coefficients were also evaluated as important tools in designing the aeration system. Even though using the tubular porous diffusers leads to higher oxygen concentration compared to the perforated pipe system (which provides medium-sized bubbles in the aqueous solution), it doesn’t achieve the threshold limit of 80% oxygen saturation in less than 30 minutes. The study has shown that the optimal solution for the studied configuration was the radial air diffusers which ensure an oxygen saturation of 80% in 20 minutes. An increment of the values was identified when the air flow was increased.

Keywords: bioreactor, Flow, aeration, oxygen concentration

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19 Physical Verification Flow on Multiple Foundries

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Md Hanif Md Nasir, Muhammad Al Baqir Zinal Abidin

Abstract:

This paper will discuss how we optimize our physical verification flow in our IC Design Department having various rule decks from multiple foundries. Our ultimate goal is to achieve faster time to tape-out and avoid schedule delay. Currently the physical verification runtimes and memory usage have drastically increased with the increasing number of design rules, design complexity and the size of the chips to be verified. To manage design violations, we use a number of solutions to reduce the amount of violations needed to be checked by physical verification engineers. The most important functions in physical verifications are DRC (design rule check), LVS (layout vs. schematic) and XRC (extraction). Since we have a multiple number of foundries for our design tape-outs, we need a flow that improve the overall turnaround time and ease of use of the physical verification process. The demand for fast turnaround time is even more critical since the physical design is the last stage before sending the layout to the foundries.

Keywords: Flow, LVS, physical verification, DRC, XRC, foundry, runset

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18 Genetic Algorithm Methods for Determination Over Flow Coefficient of Medium Throat Length Morning Glory Spillway Equipped Crest Vortex Breakers

Authors: Roozbeh Aghamajidi

Abstract:

Shaft spillways are circling spillways used generally for emptying unexpected floods on earth and concrete dams. There are different types of shaft spillways: Stepped and Smooth spillways. Stepped spillways pass more flow discharges through themselves in comparison to smooth spillways. Therefore, awareness of flow behavior of these spillways helps using them better and more efficiently. Moreover, using vortex breaker has great effect on passing flow through shaft spillway. In order to use more efficiently, the risk of flow pressure decreases to less than fluid vapor pressure, called cavitations, should be prevented as far as possible. At this research, it has been tried to study different behavior of spillway with different vortex shapes on spillway crest on flow. From the viewpoint of the effects of flow regime changes on spillway, changes of step dimensions, and the change of type of discharge will be studied effectively. Therefore, two spillway models with three different vortex breakers and three arrangements have been used to assess the hydraulic characteristics of flow. With regard to the inlet discharge to spillway, the parameters of pressure and flow velocity on spillway surface have been measured at several points and after each run. Using these kinds of information leads us to create better design criteria of spillway profile. To achieve these purposes, optimization has important role and genetic algorithm are utilized to study the emptying discharge. As a result, it turned out that the best type of spillway with maximum discharge coefficient is smooth spillway with ogee shapes as vortex breaker and 3 number as arrangement. Besides it has been concluded that the genetic algorithm can be used to optimize the results.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Flow, shaft spillway, vortex breaker

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17 Production Optimization through Ejector Installation at ESA Platform Offshore North West Java Field

Authors: Arii Bowo Yudhaprasetya, Ario Guritno, Agus Setiawan, Recky Tehupuring, Cosmas Supriatna

Abstract:

The offshore facilities condition of Pertamina Hulu Energi Offshore North West Java (PHE ONWJ) varies greatly from place to place, depending on the characteristics of the presently installed facilities. In some locations, such as ESA platform, gas trap is mainly caused by the occurrence of flash gas phenomenon which is known as mechanical-physical separation process of multiphase flow. Consequently, the presence of gas trap at main oil line would accumulate on certain areas result in a reduced oil stream throughout the pipeline. Any presence of discrete gaseous along continuous oil flow represents a unique flow condition under certain specific volume fraction and velocity field. From gas lift source, a benefit line is used as a motive flow for ejector which is designed to generate a syphon effect to minimize the gas trap phenomenon. Therefore, the ejector’s exhaust stream will flow to the designated point without interfering other systems.

Keywords: Flow, FLUENT, diffuser, ejector

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16 Comparison of Particle Size for ɑ(Alpha) Fe2O3 and ɤ(Gamma)Fe2O3 on Heat Transfer Performance in an Copper Oscillating Heat Pipe

Authors: Hamid Reza Goshayeshi

Abstract:

The effect of ɑ(alpha) Fe2O3 and ɤ(gamma)Fe2O3 particles on the heat transfer performance of an oscillating heat pipe was investigated experimentally. Kerosene was used as the base fluid for the OHP. Six size particles with average diameters of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 30 nm ɑFe2O3 and ɤFe2O3 were investigated, respectively. Experimental results show that the ɤFe2O3 particles added in the OHP significantly affect the heat transfer performance. When the OHP was charged with kerosene and 20 nm ɤ Fe2O3 particles, the OHP can achieve the best heat transfer performance among six particles investigated in this research.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Flow, copper oscillating heat pipe, comparison of ɑ(alpha)Fe2O3 and ɤ(gamma)Fe2O3, increase heat transfer

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15 Development and Modeling of a Geographic Information System Solar Flux in Adrar, Algeria

Authors: A. Benatiallah, D. Benatiallah, K. Bouchouicha, A. Harouz

Abstract:

The development and operation of renewable energy known an important development in the world with significant growth potential. Estimate the solar radiation on terrestrial geographic locality is of extreme importance, firstly to choose the appropriate site where to place solar systems (solar power plants for electricity generation, for example) and also for the design and performance analysis of any system using solar energy. In addition, solar radiation measurements are limited to a few areas only in Algeria. Thus, we use theoretical approaches to assess the solar radiation on a given location. The Adrar region is one of the most favorable sites for solar energy use with a medium flow that exceeds 7 kWh / m2 / d and saddle of over 3500 hours per year. Our goal in this work focuses on the creation of a data bank for the given data in the energy field of the Adrar region for the period of the year and the month then the integration of these data into a geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate the solar flux on a location on the map.

Keywords: GIS, Flow, Adrar, deposit potential

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14 Innovative Pump Design Using the Concept of Viscous Fluid Sinusoidal Excitation

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy

Abstract:

The concept of applying a prescribed oscillation to viscous fluids to aid or increase flow is used to produce a maintenance free pump. Application of this technique to fluids presents unique problems such as physical separation; control of heat and mass transfer in certain industrial applications; and improvement of some fluid process methods. The problem as stated is to obtain the velocity distribution, wall shear stress and energy expended when a pipe containing a stagnant viscous fluid is externally excited by a sinusoidal pulse, one end of the pipe being pinned. On the other hand, the effect of different parameters on the results are presented. Such parameters include fluid viscosity, frequency of oscillations and pipe geometry. It was found that the flow velocity through the pump is maximum at the pipe wall, and it decreases rapidly towards the pipe centerline. The frequency of oscillation should be above a certain value in order to obtain meaningful flow velocity. The amount of energy absorbed in the system is mainly due to pipe wall strain energy, while the fluid pressure and kinetic energies are comparatively small.

Keywords: Flow, shear stress, pump, sinusoidal excitation

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13 Flow as a Positive Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Sonal Khosla

Abstract:

A research is proposed in the present paper to explore the role of flow in coping with traumatic experiences and attaining post-traumatic growth. A grounded theory research is proposed to be carried by analyzing memoirs of people who have been through trauma. A pilot study was carried out on two memoirs of women who were held captive for over ten years and were sexually assaulted repeatedly. The role of flow in their coping experiences was explored by analyzing the books. Some of the flow activities that were used by them were- drawing and daydreaming. Their narratives show the evidence for flow as having cathartic and healing effects on them. Applicability of the findings can take two forms: 1. Flow can be applied as a preventive technique to help the people who are going through trauma, 2. Flow can be adopted into a positive intervention to help people suffering from PTSD.

Keywords: Flow, PTSD, positive intervention, PTG

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12 Flow Performance of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco Torgal

Abstract:

The workability of hybrid alkaline cements is a field of knowledge that still needs further research efforts. This paper reports experimental results of 32 hybrid cement mixes regarding the joint effect of sodium hydroxide concentration, the use of a commercial superplasticizer and a biopolymer on the flow and compressive strength performance. The results show that the use of commercial admixtures led to a slightly increase in the flow of mortars with lower sodium hydroxide concentration.

Keywords: fly ash, Flow, biopolymer, waste glass, waste reuse, hybrid cement, polycarboxylate

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11 Effect of Moisture Content Compaction in the Geometry Definition of Earth Dams

Authors: Julian B. García, Virginie Q. R. Pinto, André P. Assis

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical flow and slope stability simulations in three typical sections of earth dams built in tropical regions, two homogeneous with different slope inclinations, and the other one heterogeneous with impermeable core. The geotechnical material parameters used in this work were obtained from a lab testing of physical characterization, compaction, consolidation, variable load permeability and saturated triaxial type CD for compacted soil samples with standard proctor energy at optimum moisture content (23%), optimum moisture content + 2% and optimum moisture content +5%. The objective is to analyze the general behavior of earth dams built in rainy regions where optimum moisture is exceeded. The factor of safety is satisfactory for the three sections compacted in all moisture content during the stages of operation and end of construction. On The other hand, the rapid drawdown condition is the critical phase for homogeneus dams configuration, the factor of safety obtained were unsatisfactory. In general, the heterogeneous dam behavior is more efficient due to the fact that the slopes are made up of gravel, which favors the dissipation of pore pressures during the rapid drawdown. For the critical phase, the slopes should have lower inclinations of the upstream and downstream slopes to guarantee stability, although it increases the costs.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Flow, moisture content, earth dams

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10 A Greener Approach towards the Synthesis of an Antimalarial Drug Lumefantrine

Authors: Paul Watts, Luphumlo Ncanywa

Abstract:

Malaria is a disease that kills approximately one million people annually. Children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa lost their lives due to malaria. Malaria continues to be one of the major causes of death, especially in poor countries in Africa. Decrease the burden of malaria and save lives is very essential. There is a major concern about malaria parasites being able to develop resistance towards antimalarial drugs. People are still dying due to lack of medicine affordability in less well-off countries in the world. If more people could receive treatment by reducing the cost of drugs, the number of deaths in Africa could be massively reduced. There is a shortage of pharmaceutical manufacturing capability within many of the countries in Africa. However one has to question how Africa would actually manufacture drugs, active pharmaceutical ingredients or medicines developed within these research programs. It is quite likely that such manufacturing would be outsourced overseas, hence increasing the cost of production and potentially limiting the full benefit of the original research. As a result the last few years has seen major interest in developing more effective and cheaper technology for manufacturing generic pharmaceutical products. Micro-reactor technology (MRT) is an emerging technique that enables those working in research and development to rapidly screen reactions utilizing continuous flow, leading to the identification of reaction conditions that are suitable for usage at a production level. This emerging technique will be used to develop antimalarial drugs. It is this system flexibility that has the potential to reduce both the time was taken and risk associated with transferring reaction methodology from research to production. Using an approach referred to as scale-out or numbering up, a reaction is first optimized within the laboratory using a single micro-reactor, and in order to increase production volume, the number of reactors employed is simply increased. The overall aim of this research project is to develop and optimize synthetic process of antimalarial drugs in the continuous processing. This will provide a step change in pharmaceutical manufacturing technology that will increase the availability and affordability of antimalarial drugs on a worldwide scale, with a particular emphasis on Africa in the first instance. The research will determine the best chemistry and technology to define the lowest cost manufacturing route to pharmaceutical products. We are currently developing a method to synthesize Lumefantrine in continuous flow using batch process as bench mark. Lumefantrine is a dichlorobenzylidine derivative effective for the treatment of various types of malaria. Lumefantrine is an antimalarial drug used with artemether for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The results obtained when synthesizing Lumefantrine in a batch process are transferred into a continuous flow process in order to develop an even better and reproducible process. Therefore, development of an appropriate synthetic route for Lumefantrine is significant in pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, if better (and cheaper) manufacturing routes to antimalarial drugs could be developed and implemented where needed, it is far more likely to enable antimalarial drugs to be available to those in need.

Keywords: Synthesis, Flow, antimalarial, lumefantrine

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9 Investigating Constructions and Operation of Internal Combustion Engine Water Pumps

Authors: Grzegorz Baranski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michał Gęca

Abstract:

The water pump in the compression-ignition internal combustion engine transports a hot coolant along a system of ducts from the engine block to the radiator where coolant temperature is lowered. This part needs to maintain a constant volumetric flow rate. Its power should be regulated to avoid a significant drop in pressure if a coolant flow decreases. The internal combustion engine cooling system uses centrifugal pumps for suction. The paper investigates 4 constructions of engine pumps. The pumps are from diesel engine of a maximum power of 75 kW. Each of them has a different rotor shape, diameter and width. The test stand was created and the geometry inside the all 4 engine blocks was mapped. For a given pump speed on the inverter of the electric engine motor, the valve position was changed and volumetric flow rate, pressure, and power were recorded. Pump speed was regulated from 1200 RPM to 7000 RPM every 300 RPM. The volumetric flow rates and pressure drops for the pump speeds and efficiencies were specified. Accordingly, the operations of each pump were mapped. Our research was to select a pump for the aircraft compression-ignition engine. There was calculated a pressure drop at a given flow on the block and radiator of the designed aircraft engine. The water pump should be lightweight and have a low power demand. This fact shall affect the shape of a rotor and bearings. The pump volumetric flow rate was assumed as 3 kg/s (previous AVL BOOST research model) where the temperature difference was 5°C between the inlet (90°C) and outlet (95°C). Increasing pump speed above the boundary flow power defined by pressure and volumetric flow rate does not increase it but pump efficiency decreases. The maximum total pump efficiency (PCC) is 45-50%. When the pump is driven by low speeds with a 90% closed valve, its overall efficiency drops to 15-20%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: Flow, Aircraft Engine, Diesel Engine, water pump

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8 Investigation of the Effect of Teaching a Thinking and Research Lesson by Cooperative and Traditional Methods on the Creativity of Sixth Grade Students

Authors: Faroogh Khakzad, Marzieh Dehghani, Elahe Hejazi

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effect of teaching a Thinking and Research lesson by cooperative and traditional methods on the creativity of sixth-grade students in Piranshahr province. The statistical society includes all the sixth-grade students of Piranshahr province. The sample of this studytable was selected by available sampling from among male elementary schools of Piranshahr. They were randomly assigned into two groups of cooperative teaching method and traditional teaching method. The design of the study is quasi-experimental with a control group. In this study, to assess students’ creativity, Abedi’s creativity questionnaire was used. Based on Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, the reliability of the factor flow was 0.74, innovation was 0.61, flexibility was 0.63, and expansion was 0.68. To analyze the data, t-test, univariate and multivariate covariance analysis were used for evaluation of the difference of means and the pretest and posttest scores. The findings of the research showed that cooperative teaching method does not significantly increase creativity (p > 0.05). Moreover, cooperative teaching method was found to have significant effect on flow factor (p < 0.05), but in innovation and expansion factors no significant effect was observed (p < 0.05).

Keywords: Innovation, Creativity, expansion, Flow, Flexibility, traditional teaching method, cooperative teaching method, thinking and research lesson

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7 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua

Abstract:

In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: cavitation, Flow, pressure coefficient, NACA0009 profile

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6 Modeling of the Flow through an Earth Dam and Geotechnical Slope Analyzes

Authors: Ahmed Ferhati, Arezki Adjrad, Ratiba Mitiche-Kettab, Hakim Djafer Khodja

Abstract:

The porous media are omnipresent around us that they are natural as sand, clay, rocks, or manufactured like concretes, cement, and ceramics. The variety of porous environment indicates a wide material range which can be very different from each other. Their common point is to be made up of a solid matrix and a porous space. In our case of study, we made the modeling of the flows in porous environments through the massives as in the case of an earth dam. The computer code used (PLAXIS) offer the possibility of modeling of various structures, in particular, the works in lands because that it deals with the pore water pressure due to the underground flow and the calculation of the plastic deformations. To confirm results obtained by PLAXIS, GeoStudio SEEP/W code was used. This work treats modeling of flows and mechanical and hydraulic behavior of earth dam. A general framework which can fit the calculation of this kind of structures and the coupling of the soil consolidation and free surface flows was defined. In this study; we have confronted a real case modeling of an earth dam. It was shown, in particular, that it is possible to entirely lead the calculation of real dam and to get encouraging results from the hydraulic and mechanical point of view.

Keywords: Modeling, Flow, plaxis, slope, dam, analyzes, seep/w

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5 Numerical Investigation of Flow Past in a Staggered Tube Bundle

Authors: Kerkouri Abdelkadir

Abstract:

Numerical calculations of turbulent flows are one of the most prominent modern interests in various engineering applications. Due to the difficulty of predicting, following up and studying this flow for computational fluid dynamic (CFD), in this paper, we simulated numerical study of a flow past in a staggered tube bundle, using CFD Code ANSYS FLUENT with several models of turbulence following: k-ε, k-ω and SST approaches. The flow is modeled based on the experimental studies. The predictions of mean velocities are in very good agreement with detailed LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements performed in 8 stations along the depth of the array. The sizes of the recirculation zones behind the cylinders are also predicted. The simulations are conducted for Reynolds numbers of 12858. The Reynolds number is set to depend experimental results.

Keywords: Turbulence, CFD, Flow, LDA, Ansys fluent, tube bundle, RANS (k-ε, k-ω, SST)

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4 Flow Links Curiosity and Creativity: The Mediating Role of Flow

Authors: Nicola S. Schutte, John M. Malouff

Abstract:

Introduction: Curiosity is a positive emotion and motivational state that consists of the desire to know. Curiosity consists of several related dimensions, including a desire for exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance. Creativity involves generating novel and valuable ideas or products. How curiosity may prompt greater creativity remains to be investigated. The phenomena of flow may link curiosity and creativity. Flow is characterized by intense concentration and absorption and gives rise to optimal performance. Objective of Study: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the phenomenon of flow may link curiosity with creativity. Methods and Design: Fifty-seven individuals from Australia (45 women and 12 men, mean age of 35.33, SD=9.4) participated. Participants were asked to design a program encouraging residents in a local community to conserve water and to record the elements of their program in writing. Participants were then asked to rate their experience as they developed and wrote about their program. Participants rated their experience on the Dimensional Curiosity Measure sub-scales assessing the exploration, deprivation sensitivity, and stress tolerance facets of curiosity, and the Flow Short Scale. Reliability of the measures as assessed by Cronbach's alpha was as follows: Exploration Curiosity =.92, Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity =.66, Stress Tolerance Curiosity =.93, and Flow=.96. Two raters independently coded each participant’s water conservation program description on creativity. The mixed-model intraclass correlation coefficient for the two sets of ratings was .73. The mean of the two ratings produced the final creativity score for each participant. Results: During the experience of designing the program, all three types of curiosity were significantly associated with the flow. Pearson r correlations were as follows: Exploration Curiosity and flow, r =.68 (higher Exploration Curiosity was associated with more flow); Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity and flow, r =.39 (higher Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity was associated with more flow); and Stress Tolerance Curiosity and flow, r = .44 (more stress tolerance in relation to novelty and exploration was associated with more flow). Greater experience of flow was significantly associated with greater creativity in designing the water conservation program, r =.39. The associations between dimensions of curiosity and creativity did not reach significance. Even though the direct relationships between dimensions of curiosity and creativity were not significant, indirect relationships through the mediating effect of the experience of flow between dimensions of curiosity and creativity were significant. Mediation analysis using PROCESS showed that flow linked Exploration Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.23, 95%CI [.02,.25] for the indirect effect; Deprivation Sensitivity Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.14, 95%CI [.04,.29] for the indirect effect; and Stress Tolerance Curiosity with creativity, standardized beta=.13, 95%CI [.02,.27] for the indirect effect. Conclusions: When engaging in an activity, higher levels of curiosity are associated with greater flow. More flow is associated with higher levels of creativity. Programs intended to increase flow or creativity might build on these findings and also explore causal relationships.

Keywords: Creativity, Curiosity, Motivation, Flow

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3 Sportband: An Idea for Workout Monitoring in Amateur and Recreational Sports

Authors: Sabina Zoledowska, Dawid Nidzworski, Kamila Mazur-Oleszczuk, Rafal Banasiuk, Dawid Krasnowski, Maciej Pek, Marcin Podgorski, Krzysztof Rykaczewski

Abstract:

Workout safety is one of the most significant challenges of recreational sports. Loss of water and electrolytes is a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise. The rate of sweat loss and its chemical composition can fluctuate within and among individuals. That is why we propose our sportband 'Flow' as a device for monitoring these parameters. 'Flow' consists of two parts: an intelligent module and a mobile application. The application allows verifying the training progress and data archiving. The sportband intelligent module includes temperature, heart rate and pulse measurement (non-invasive, continuous methods of workout monitoring). Apart from the standard components, the device will consist of a sweat composition analyzer situated in sportband intelligent module. Sweat is a water solution of numerous compounds such as ions (sodium up to 1609 µg/ml, potassium up to 274 µg/ml), lactic acid (skin pH is between 4.5 - 6) and a small amount of glucose. Awareness of sweat composition allows personalizing electrolyte intake after training. A comprehensive workout monitoring (sweat composition, heart rate, blood oxygen level) will provide improvement in the training routine and time management, which is our goal for the development of the sweat composition analyzer.

Keywords: Flow, sportband, sweat, workout monitoring

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2 Modeling Engagement with Multimodal Multisensor Data: The Continuous Performance Test as an Objective Tool to Track Flow

Authors: David J. Brown, Mohammad H. Taheri, Nasser Sherkat

Abstract:

Engagement is one of the most important factors in determining successful outcomes and deep learning in students. Existing approaches to detect student engagement involve periodic human observations that are subject to inter-rater reliability. Our solution uses real-time multimodal multisensor data labeled by objective performance outcomes to infer the engagement of students. The study involves four students with a combined diagnosis of cerebral palsy and a learning disability who took part in a 3-month trial over 59 sessions. Multimodal multisensor data were collected while they participated in a continuous performance test. Eye gaze, electroencephalogram, body pose, and interaction data were used to create a model of student engagement through objective labeling from the continuous performance test outcomes. In order to achieve this, a type of continuous performance test is introduced, the Seek-X type. Nine features were extracted including high-level handpicked compound features. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, a series of different machine learning approaches were evaluated. Overall, the random forest classification approach achieved the best classification results. Using random forest, 93.3% classification for engagement and 42.9% accuracy for disengagement were achieved. We compared these results to outcomes from different models: AdaBoost, decision tree, k-Nearest Neighbor, naïve Bayes, neural network, and support vector machine. We showed that using a multisensor approach achieved higher accuracy than using features from any reduced set of sensors. We found that using high-level handpicked features can improve the classification accuracy in every sensor mode. Our approach is robust to both sensor fallout and occlusions. The single most important sensor feature to the classification of engagement and distraction was shown to be eye gaze. It has been shown that we can accurately predict the level of engagement of students with learning disabilities in a real-time approach that is not subject to inter-rater reliability, human observation or reliant on a single mode of sensor input. This will help teachers design interventions for a heterogeneous group of students, where teachers cannot possibly attend to each of their individual needs. Our approach can be used to identify those with the greatest learning challenges so that all students are supported to reach their full potential.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Interaction, Student Engagement, Engagement, HCI, Multimodal, Learning Disabilities, Flow, multisensor, affective computing in education, affect detection, continuous performance test, physiological sensors

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1 Balancing the Need for Closure: A Requirement for Effective Mood Development in Flow

Authors: Cristian Andrei Nica

Abstract:

The state of flow relies on cognitive elements that sustain openness for information processing in order to promote goal attainment. However, the need for closure may create mental constraints, which can impact affectivity levels. This study aims to observe the extent in which need for closure moderates the interaction between flow and affectivity, taking into account the mediating role of the mood repair motivation in the interaction process between need for closure and affectivity. Using a non-experimental, correlational design, n=73 participants n=18 men and n=55 women, ages between 19-64 years (m= 28.02) (SD=9.22), completed the Positive Affectivity-Negative Affectivity Schedule, the need for closure scale-revised, the mood repair items and an adapted version of the flow state scale 2, in order to assess the trait aspects of flow. Results show that need for closure significantly moderates the flow-affectivity process, while the tolerance of ambiguity sub-scale is positively associated with negative affectivity and negatively to positive affectivity. At the same time, mood repair motivation significantly mediates the interaction between need for closure and positive affectivity, whereas the mediation process for negative affectivity is insignificant. Need for closure needs to be considered when promoting the development of positive emotions. It has been found that the motivation to repair one’s mood mediates the interaction between need for closure and positive affectivity. According to this study, flow can trigger positive emotions when the person is willing to engage in mood regulation strategies and approach meaningful experiences with an open mind.

Keywords: Flow, negative affectivity, need for closure, mood regulation, mood repair motivation, positive affectivity

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