Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

flow cytometry Related Abstracts

9 Molecular Detection of mRNA bcr-abl and Circulating Leukemic Stem Cells CD34+ in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Its Association with Clinical Parameters

Authors: B. Gonzalez-Yebra, H. Barajas, P. Palomares, M. Hernandez, O. Torres, M. Ayala, A. L. González, G. Vazquez-Ortiz, M. L. Guzman


Leukemia arises by molecular alterations of the normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transforming it into a leukemic stem cell (LSC) with high cell proliferation, self-renewal, and cell differentiation. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) originates from an LSC-leading to elevated proliferation of myeloid cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) originates from an LSC development leading to elevated proliferation of lymphoid cells. In both cases, LSC can be identified by multicolor flow cytometry using several antibodies. However, to date, LSC levels in peripheral blood (PB) are not established well enough in ALL and CML patients. On the other hand, the detection of the minimal residue disease (MRD) in leukemia is mainly based on the identification of the mRNA bcr-abl gene in CML patients and some other genes in ALL patients. There is no a properly biomarker to detect MDR in both types of leukemia. The objective of this study was to determine mRNA bcr-abl and the percentage of LSC in peripheral blood of patients with CML and ALL and identify a possible association between the amount of LSC in PB and clinical data. We included in this study 19 patients with Leukemia. A PB sample was collected per patient and leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll gradient. The immunophenotype for LSC CD34+ was done by flow cytometry analysis with CD33, CD2, CD14, CD16, CD64, HLA-DR, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD10, CD20, CD34, CD38, CD71, CD90, CD117, CD123 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, to identify the presence of the mRNA bcr-abl by RT-PCR, the RNA was isolated using TRIZOL reagent. Molecular (presence of mRNA bcr-abl and LSC CD34+) and clinical results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis was performed to determine statistically significant association. In total, 19 patients (8 patients with ALL and 11 patients with CML) were analyzed, 9 patients with de novo leukemia (ALL = 6 and CML = 3) and 10 under treatment (ALL = 5 and CML = 5). The overall frequency of mRNA bcr-abl was 31% (6/19), and it was negative in ALL patients and positive in 80% in CML patients. On the other hand, LSC was determined in 16/19 leukemia patients (%LSC= 0.02-17.3). The Novo patients had higher percentage of LSC (0.26 to 17.3%) than patients under treatment (0 to 5.93%). The amount of LSC was significantly associated with the amount of LSC were: absence of treatment, the absence of splenomegaly, and a lower number of leukocytes, negative association for the clinical variables age, sex, blasts, and mRNA bcr-abl. In conclusion, patients with de novo leukemia had a higher percentage of circulating LSC than patients under treatment, and it was associated with clinical parameters as lack of treatment, absence of splenomegaly and a lower number of leukocytes. The mRNA bcr-abl detection was only possible in the series of patients with CML, and molecular detection of LSC could be identified in the peripheral blood of all leukemia patients, we believe the identification of circulating LSC may be used as biomarker for the detection of the MRD in leukemia patients.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Leukemia, Stem Cells, flow cytometry

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8 Application of Flow Cytometry for Detection of Influence of Abiotic Stress on Plants

Authors: Dace Grauda, Inta Belogrudova, Isaak Rashal, Alexei Katashev, Linda Lancere


The goal of study was the elaboration of easy applicable flow cytometry method for detection of influence of abiotic stress factors on plants, which could be useful for detection of environmental stresses in urban areas. The lime tree Tillia vulgaris H. is a popular tree species used for urban landscaping in Europe and is one of the main species of street greenery in Riga, Latvia. Tree decline and low vitality has observed in the central part of Riga. For this reason lime trees were select as a model object for the investigation. During the period of end of June and beginning of July 12 samples from different urban environment locations as well as plant material from a greenhouse were collected. BD FACSJazz® cell sorter (BD Biosciences, USA) with flow cytometer function was used to test viability of plant cells. The method was based on changes of relative fluorescence intensity of cells in blue laser (488 nm) after influence of stress factors. SpheroTM rainbow calibration particles (3.0–3.4 μm, BD Biosciences, USA) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used for calibration of flow cytometer. BD PharmingenTM PBS (BD Biosciences, USA) was used for flow cytometry assays. The mean fluorescence intensity information from the purified cell suspension samples was recorded. Preliminary, multiple gate sizes and shapes were tested to find one with the lowest CV. It was found that low CV can be obtained if only the densest part of plant cells forward scatter/side scatter profile is analysed because in this case plant cells are most similar in size and shape. The young pollen cells in one nucleus stage were found as the best for detection of influence of abiotic stress. For experiments only fresh plant material was used– the buds of Tillia vulgaris with diameter 2 mm. For the cell suspension (in vitro culture) establishment modified protocol of microspore culture was applied. The cells were suspended in the MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium. For imitation of dust of urban area SiO2 nanoparticles with concentration 0.001 g/ml were dissolved in distilled water. Into 10 ml of cell suspension 1 ml of SiO2 nanoparticles suspension was added, then cells were incubated in speed shaking regime for 1 and 3 hours. As a stress factor the irradiation of cells for 20 min by UV was used (Hamamatsu light source L9566-02A, L10852 lamp, A10014-50-0110), maximum relative intensity (100%) at 365 nm and at ~310 nm (75%). Before UV irradiation the suspension of cells were placed onto a thin layer on a filter paper disk (diameter 45 mm) in a Petri dish with solid MS media. Cells without treatment were used as a control. Experiments were performed at room temperature (23-25 °C). Using flow cytometer BS FACS Software cells plot was created to determine the densest part, which was later gated using oval-shaped gate. Gate included from 95 to 99% of all cells. To determine relative fluorescence of cells logarithmic fluorescence scale in arbitrary fluorescence units were used. 3x103 gated cells were analysed from the each sample. The significant differences were found among relative fluorescence of cells from different trees after treatment with SiO2 nanoparticles and UV irradiation in comparison with the control.

Keywords: Fluorescence, flow cytometry, UV irradiation, SiO2 nanoparticles

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7 T Cell Immunity Profile in Pediatric Obesity and Asthma

Authors: Orkide Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Mustafa M. Donma, Erkut Karasu, Burcu Ozdilek, Burhan Turgut


The mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma may be related to a decreased immunological tolerance induced by a defective function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study is to establish the potential link between these diseases and CD4+, CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs as well as T helper cells (Ths) in children. This is a prospective case control study. Obese (n:40), asthmatic (n:40), asthmatic obese (n:40), and healthy children (n:40), who don't have any acute or chronic diseases, were included in this study. Obese children were evaluated according to WHO criteria. Asthmatic patients were chosen based on GINA criteria. Parents were asked to fill up the questionnaire. Informed consent forms were taken. Blood samples were marked with CD4+, CD25+ and FoxP3+ in order to determine Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p≤0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0,16%; p≤0,001), asthmatic (0,25%; p≤0,01) and asthmatic obese (0,29%; p≤0,05) groups than the control group (0,38%). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than the control (p≤0,01) and obese (p≤0,001)) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic and asthmatic obese children may help to elucidate some questions in pathophysiology of these diseases. For HOMA-IR levels, any significant difference was not noted between control and obese groups, but statistically higher values were found for obese asthmatics. The values obtained in all groups were found to be below the critical cut off points. This finding has made the statistically significant difference observed between Tregs of obese, asthmatic, obese asthmatic, and control groups much more valuable. These findings will be useful in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders and future studies are needed. The production and propagation of Tregs may be promising in alternative asthma and obesity treatments.

Keywords: Asthma, pediatric obesity, flow cytometry, T cells

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6 The Effect of Some Macrofungi Extracts on Cytoplasmic Membrane of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria by Flow Cytometry

Authors: Yener Tekeli, Hayri Baba


The natural active compounds found in medicinal plants are belong to various chemical structures including polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, essential oils, and vitamins and some of these compounds have anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity. However, these compounds have been little known about mechanisms to confer antibacterial drug resistance. In this study; some macrofungi extracts (Pholiota lucifera, Gnaoderma applanatum and Pleurotus ostreatus) were investigated for their abilities to enhance bacterial permeability by flow cytometry. This experiments exhibited enhancement of these extracts to disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane of living bacterial (Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli) cells. These experiments were designed to detect uptake of PI&SYT by enhancing with a ranged concentration of herb extracts.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, flow cytometry, macrofungi, multidrug resistant

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5 Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Three Japanese Drosera Species

Authors: Santhita Tungkajiwangkoon, Yoshikazu Hoshi


Three Japaneses Drosera species are the good model to study genome organization with highly specialized morphological group for insect trapping, and has revealed anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects, so there must be a reason for botanists are so appealing in these plants. Cytology and Flow cytometry were used to investigate the genetic stability and ploidy estimation in three related species. The cytological and Flow cytometry analysis were done in Drosera rotundifolia L., Drosera spatulata Labill and Drosera tokaiensis. The cytological studies by fluorescence staining (DAPI) showed that D. tokaiensis was an alloploid (2n=6x=60, hexaploid) which is a natural hybrid polyploids of D. rotundifolia and D. spatulata. D. rotundifolia was a diploid with the middle size of metaphase chromosomes (2n=2x=20) as a paternal origin and D. spatulata was a tetraploid with small size of metaphase chromosome (2n=4x=40) as a maternal origin. We confirmed by Flow cytometry analysis to determine the ploidy level and DNA content of the plants. The 2C-DNA values of D. rotundiflolia were 2.8 pg, D. spatulata was 1.6 pg and D. tokaiensis was 3.9 pg. However, 2C- DNA values of D. tokaiensis should be related from their parents but in the present study the 2C-DNA values of D. tokaiensis was no relation from the theoretical of hybrids representing additive parental. Possibility of D. tokaiensis is a natural hybrid, which is also hybridization in natural evolution can cause the genome reduction in plant.

Keywords: Hybrid, Cytology, flow cytometry, drosera

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4 Development of a Telemedical Network Supporting an Automated Flow Cytometric Analysis for the Clinical Follow-up of Leukaemia

Authors: Martin Kampel, Claude Takenga, Rolf-Dietrich Berndt, Erling Si, Markus Diem, Guohui Qiao, Melanie Gau, Michael Brandstoetter, Michael Dworzak


In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), treatment response is increasingly evaluated with minimal residual disease (MRD) analyses. Flow Cytometry (FCM) is a fast and sensitive method to detect MRD. However, the interpretation of these multi-parametric data requires intensive operator training and experience. This paper presents a pipeline-software, as a ready-to-use FCM-based MRD-assessment tool for the daily clinical practice for patients with ALL. The new tool increases accuracy in assessment of FCM-MRD in samples which are difficult to analyse by conventional operator-based gating since computer-aided analysis potentially has a superior resolution due to utilization of the whole multi-parametric FCM-data space at once instead of step-wise, two-dimensional plot-based visualization. The system developed as a telemedical network reduces the work-load and lab-costs, staff-time needed for training, continuous quality control, operator-based data interpretation. It allows dissemination of automated FCM-MRD analysis to medical centres which have no established expertise for the benefit of an even larger community of diseased children worldwide. We established a telemedical network system for analysis and clinical follow-up and treatment monitoring of Leukaemia. The system is scalable and adapted to link several centres and laboratories worldwide.

Keywords: Data Security, Telemedicine, Leukaemia, flow cytometry, telematics platform

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3 Tetraploid Induction in the Yellowtail Tetra Astyanax altiparanae

Authors: Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Matheus Pereira-Santos, Nycolas Levy-Pereira, José Augusto Senhorini, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi


Tetraploid individuals, which could produce diploid gametes, can be used for production of 100% triploid fish. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a tetraploidization protocol for A. altiparanae. We tested the effect of heat shock (40 °C; 2 min) at 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26 minutes post fertilization (mpf). Untreated eggs were used as control. After hatching, ploidy status of the larvae was checked by flow cytometry. No difference were observed for the hatching rate between all treatments (P = 0.5974). However, we observed an increase in the larval abnormality in the heat shock treatments, in special at 22 (82.17 ± 6.66%) 24 (78.31 ±7.28%) and 26 mpf (79.01 ± 7.85%) in comparison with the control group (12.87 ± 4.46%). No tetraploid was observed at 16 and 18 mpf. The higher number of tetraploid individuals (52/55) was observed at 26 mpf. Our results showed that high percentages of tetraploids are obtained by heat shock (40°C; 2min) at 26 mpf, which could enable the mass production of triploid individuals in A. altiparanae.

Keywords: Polyploidy, flow cytometry, chromosome manipulation, tetraploidization

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2 Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis with Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Impacted Teeth

Authors: Soumya S., Manju Nidagodu Jayakumar, Vellore Kannan Gopinath


Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and the currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure, and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Recent studies in the stem cell biology state that some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue was collected from the dental clinic and subjected to collagenase/dispase digestion. The isolated cells were expanded in culture, and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analysed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD90 and CD105 ( > 95%) and CD73 (19%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 90% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and we used the pooled tissue from different patients. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for regenerative application.

Keywords: flow cytometry, dental pulp stem cells, collagenase/dispase, irreversible pulpitis

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1 Cryoinjuries in Sperm Cells: Effect of Adaptation of Steps in Cryopreservation Protocol for Boar Semen upon Post-Thaw Sperm Quality

Authors: Aftab Ali


Cryopreservation of semen is one of the key factors for a successful breeding business along with other factors. To achieve high fertility in boar, one should know about spermatozoa response to different treatments proceeds during cryopreservation. The running project is highly focused on cryopreservation and its effects on sperm quality parameters in both boar and bull semen. Semen sample from A, B, C, and D, were subjected to different thawing conditions and were analyzed upon different treatments in the study. Parameters like sperm cell motility, viability, acrosome, DNA integrity, and phospholipase C zeta were detected by different established methods. Different techniques were used to assess different parameters. Motility was detected using computer assisted sperm analysis, phospholipase C zeta using luminometry while viability, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were analyzed using flow cytometry. Thawing conditions were noted to have an effect on sperm quality parameters with motility being the most critical parameter. The results further indicated that the most critical step during cryopreservation of boar semen is when sperm cells are subjected to freezing and thawing. The findings of the present study provide insight that; boar semen cryopreservation is still suboptimal in comparison to bull semen cryopreservation. Thus, there is a need to conduct more research to improve the fertilizing potential of cryopreserved boar semen.

Keywords: Cryopreservation, flow cytometry, computer assisted sperm, luminometry

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