Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Flotation Related Abstracts

8 Exploring the Influences on Entrainment of Serpentines by Grinding and Reagents

Authors: M. Tang, S. M. Wen, D. W. Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents the influences on the entrainment of serpentines by grinding and reagents during copper–nickel sulfide flotation. The previous bench flotation tests were performed to extract the metallic values from the ore in Yunnan Mine, China and the relatively satisfied results with recoveries of 86.92% Cu, 54.92% Ni, and 74.73% Pt+Pd in the concentrate were harvested at their grades of 4.02%, 3.24% and 76.61 g/t, respectively. However, the content of MgO in the concentrate was still more than 19%. Micro-flotation tests were conducted with the objective of figuring out the influences on the entrainment of serpentines into the concentrate by particle size, flocculants or depressants and collectors, as well as visual observations in suspension by OLYMPUS camera. All the tests results pointed to the presences of both “entrapped-in” serpentines and its coating on the hydrophobic flocs resulted from strong collectors (combination of butyl xanthate, butyl ammonium dithophosphate, even after adding carboxymethyl cellulose as effective depressant. And fine grinding may escalate the entrainment of serpentines in the concentrate.

Keywords: Flotation, serpentine, copper and nickel sulfides, entrainment

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7 SEM and FTIR Study of Adsorption Characteristics Using Xanthate (KIBX) Synthesized Collectors on Sphalerite

Authors: Zohir Nedjar, Djamel Barkat

Abstract:

Thiols such as alkyl xanthates are commonly used as collectors in the froth flotation of sulfide minerals. Under the concen-tration, pH and Eh conditions relevant to flotation, the thermodynamically favoured reaction between a thiol and a sulfide mineral surface is charge transfechemisorption in which the collector becomes bonded to metal atoms in the outermost layer of the sulfide lattice. The adsorption of potassium isobutyl xanthate (KIBX 3.10-3M) on sphalerite has been also studied using electrochemical potential, FTIR technique and SEM. Non activated minerals and minerals activated with copper sulfate (10-4 M) and copper nitrate (10-4 M) have been investigated at pH = 7.5. Surface species have been identified by FTIR and correlated with SEM. After copper sulfate activation, copper xanthate exists on all of the minerals studied. Neutral pH is most favorable for potassium isobutyl xanthate adsorption on sphalerite.

Keywords: Adsorption, Flotation, xanthate KIBX, sphalerite

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6 Surface Characteristics of Bacillus megaterium and Its Adsorption Behavior onto Dolomite

Authors: Mohsen Farahat, Tsuyoshi Hirajima

Abstract:

Surface characteristics of Bacillus megaterium strain were investigated; zeta potential, FTIR and contact angle were measured. Surface energy components including Lifshitz-van der Waals, Hamaker constant, and acid/base components (Lewis acid/Lewis base) were calculated from the contact angle data. The results showed that the microbial cells were negatively charged over all pH regions with high values at alkaline region. A hydrophilic nature for the strain was confirmed by contact angle and free energy of adhesion between microbial cells. Adsorption affinity of the strain toward dolomite was studied at different pH values. The results showed that the cells had a high affinity to dolomite at acid pH comparing to neutral and alkaline pH. Extended DLVO theory was applied to calculate interaction energy between B. megaterium cells and dolomite particles. The adsorption results were in agreement with the results of Extended DLVO approach. Surface changes occurred on dolomite surface after the bio-treatment were monitored; contact angle decreased from 69° to 38° and the mineral’s floatability decreased from 95% to 25% after the treatment.

Keywords: Surface modification, Flotation, Bacillus megaterium, dolomite, adhesion energy

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5 Flotation Recovery of Gold-Loaded Fine Activated Carbon Using Emulsified Diesel and Kerosene as Collectors

Authors: Emmanuel Jr. Ballad, Herman Mendoza

Abstract:

The recovery of fine activated carbon with adsorbed gold in the cyanidation tailings of a small-scale gold plant was investigated due to the high amount of gold present. In the study, collectors that were used are kerosene and diesel. Emulsification of the oils was done to improve its collecting property, thus also the recovery. It was found out that the best hydrophile lypophile balance (HLB) of emulsified diesel and kerosene oil is 13 and 12 respectively. The amount of surfactants (SPAN 20 and TWEEN 20) for the best stability of the emulsified oils was found to be 10% in both kerosene and diesel. Optical microscopy showed that the oil dispersion in the water forms spherical droplets like features. The higher the stability, the smaller the droplets and their number were increasing. The smaller droplets indicate better dispersion of oil in the water. Consequently, it will have a greater chance of oil and activated carbon particle interaction during flotation. Due to the interaction of dispersed oil phase with carbon, the hydrophobicity of the carbon will be improved and will be attached to the bubble. Thus, flotation recovery will be increased. Results showed that the recovery of the fine activated carbon using emulsified diesel or kerosene is three times more effective than using pure diesel or kerosene.

Keywords: Flotation, emulsified oils, hydrophile lyophile balance, non-ionic surfactants

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4 The Role of Physically Adsorbing Species of Oxyhydryl Reagents in Flotation Aggregate Formation

Authors: S. A. Kondratyev, O. I. Ibragimova

Abstract:

The authors discuss the collecting abilities of desorbable species (DS) of saturated fatty acids. The DS species of the reagent are understood as species capable of moving from the surface of the mineral particle to the bubble at the moment of the rupture of the interlayer of liquid separating these objects of interaction. DS species of carboxylic acids (molecules and ionic-molecular complexes) have the ability to spread over the surface of the bubble. The rate of their spreading at pH 7 and 10 over the water surface is determined. The collectibility criterion of saturated fatty acids is proposed. The values of forces exerted by the spreading DS species of reagents on liquid in the interlayer and the liquid flow rate from the interlayer are determined.

Keywords: Flotation, criterion of action of physically adsorbed reagent, saturated fatty acids, surface pressure

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3 Investigation of Some Flotation Parameters and the Role of Dispersants in the Flotation of Chalcopyrite

Authors: H. A. Taner, V. Önen

Abstract:

A suitable choice of flotation parameters and reagents have a strong effect on the effectiveness of flotation process. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the flotation of chalcopyrite with the different conditions and dispersants. Flotation parameters such as grinding time, pH, type, and dosage of dispersant were investigated. In order to understand the interaction of some dispersants, sodium silicate, sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium polyphosphate were used. The optimum results were obtained at a pH of 11.5 and a grinding time of 10 minutes. A copper concentrate was produced assaying 29.85% CuFeS2 and 65.97% flotation recovery under optimum rougher flotation conditions with sodium silicate.

Keywords: Flotation, chalcopyrite, dispersant, reagent

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2 Apatite Flotation Using Fruits' Oil as Collector and Sorghum as Depressant

Authors: Elenice Maria Schons Silva, Andre Carlos Silva

Abstract:

The crescent demand for raw material has increased mining activities. Mineral industry faces the challenge of process more complexes ores, with very small particles and low grade, together with constant pressure to reduce production costs and environment impacts. Froth flotation deserves special attention among the concentration methods for mineral processing. Besides its great selectivity for different minerals, flotation is a high efficient method to process fine particles. The process is based on the minerals surficial physicochemical properties and the separation is only possible with the aid of chemicals such as collectors, frothers, modifiers, and depressants. In order to use sustainable and eco-friendly reagents, oils extracted from three different vegetable species (pequi’s pulp, macauba’s nut and pulp, and Jatropha curcas) were studied and tested as apatite collectors. Since the oils are not soluble in water, an alkaline hydrolysis (or saponification), was necessary before their contact with the minerals. The saponification was performed at room temperature. The tests with the new collectors were carried out at pH 9 and Flotigam 5806, a synthetic mix of fatty acids industrially adopted as apatite collector manufactured by Clariant, was used as benchmark. In order to find a feasible replacement for cornstarch the flour and starch of a graniferous variety of sorghum was tested as depressant. Apatite samples were used in the flotation tests. XRF (X-ray fluorescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) were used to characterize the apatite samples. Zeta potential measurements were performed in the pH range from 3.5 to 12.5. A commercial cornstarch was used as depressant benchmark. Four depressants dosages and pH values were tested. A statistical test was used to verify the pH, dosage, and starch type influence on the minerals recoveries. For dosages equal or higher than 7.5 mg/L, pequi oil recovered almost all apatite particles. In one hand, macauba’s pulp oil showed excellent results for all dosages, with more than 90% of apatite recovery, but in the other hand, with the nut oil, the higher recovery found was around 84%. Jatropha curcas oil was the second best oil tested and more than 90% of the apatite particles were recovered for the dosage of 7.5 mg/L. Regarding the depressant, the lower apatite recovery with sorghum starch were found for a dosage of 1,200 g/t and pH 11, resulting in a recovery of 1.99%. The apatite recovery for the same conditions as 1.40% for sorghum flour (approximately 30% lower). When comparing with cornstarch at the same conditions sorghum flour produced an apatite recovery 91% lower.

Keywords: Mineral Processing, Collectors, Flotation, depressants

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1 Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids

Authors: George B. Abaka-Wood, Massimiliano Zanin, Jonas Addai-Mensah, William Skinner

Abstract:

The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.

Keywords: Flotation, depressants, oleic acid, sodium oleate

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