Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Flooding Related Abstracts

21 The Environmental Effects of the Flood Disaster in Anambra State

Authors: U. V. Okpala

Abstract:

Flood is an overflow of water that submerges or ‘drowns’ land. In developing countries it occurs as a result of blocking of natural and man-made drainages and poor maintenance of water dams/reservoirs which seldom give way after persistent heavy down pours. In coastal lowlands and swamp lands, flooding is aided mainly by blocked channels and indiscriminate sand fling of coastal swamp areas and natural drainage channel for urban development/constructions. In this paper, the causes of flood and possible scientific, technological, political, economic and social impacts of flood disaster on the environment a case study of Anambra State have been studied. Often times flooding is caused by climate change, especially in the developed economy where scientific mitigating options are highly employed. Researchers have identified Green Houses Gases (GHG) as the cause of global climate change. The recent flood disaster in Anambra State which caused physical damage to structures, social dislocation, contamination of clean drinking water, spread of water-borne diseases, shortage of crops and food supplies, death of non-tolerant tree species, disruption in transportation system, serious economic loss and psychological trauma is a function of climate change. There is need to encourage generation of renewable energy sources, use of less carbon intensive fuels and other energy efficient sources. Carbon capture/sequestration, proper management of our drainage systems and good maintenance of our dams are good option towards saving the environment.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy Systems, Carbon capture, Flooding

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20 DOS and DDOS Attacks

Authors: Amin Hamrahi, Niloofar Moghaddam

Abstract:

Denial of Service is for denial-of-service attack, a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks have become a major threat to current computer networks. Many recent DoS attacks were launched via a large number of distributed attacking hosts in the Internet. These attacks are called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. To have a better understanding on DoS attacks, this article provides an overview on existing DoS and DDoS attacks and major defense technologies in the Internet.

Keywords: Traffic, Flooding, denial of service, distributed denial of service

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19 Incidence of Disasters and Coping Mechanism among Farming Households in South West Nigeria

Authors: Fawehinmi Olabisi Alaba, O. R. Adeniyi

Abstract:

Farming households faces lots of disaster which contribute to endemic poverty. Anticipated increases in extreme weather events will exacerbate this. Primary data was administered to farming household using multi-stage random sampling technique. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the respondents (69.9%) are male, have mean household size, years of formal education and age of 5±1.14, 6±3.41, and 51.06±10.43 respectively. The major (48.9%) type of disaster experienced is flooding. Major coping mechanism adopted is sourcing for support from family and friends. Age, education, experience, access to extension agent, and mitigation control method contribute significantly to vulnerability to disaster. The major adaptation method (62.3%) is construction of drainage. The study revealed that the coping mechanisms employed may become less effective as increasingly fragile livelihood systems struggle to withstand disaster shocks. Thus there is need for training of the farmers on measures to adapt to mitigate the shock from disasters.

Keywords: Adaptation, Vulnerability, disasters, Flooding

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18 CERD: Cost Effective Route Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Anuradha Banerjee

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence, we require energy efficient route discovery technique to enhance their lifetime and network performance. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient route discovery technique CERD that greatly reduces the number of route requests flooded into the network and also gives priority to the route request packets sent from the routers that has communicated with the destination very recently, in single or multi-hop paths. This does not only enhance the lifetime of nodes but also decreases the delay in tracking the destination.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Flooding, ad hoc network, node lifetime, route discovery

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17 Runoff Estimates of Rapidly Urbanizing Indian Cities: An Integrated Modeling Approach

Authors: Rupesh S. Gundewar, Kanchan C. Khare

Abstract:

Runoff contribution from urban areas is generally from manmade structures and few natural contributors. The manmade structures are buildings; roads and other paved areas whereas natural contributors are groundwater and overland flows etc. Runoff alleviation is done by manmade as well as natural storages. Manmade storages are storage tanks or other storage structures such as soakways or soak pits which are more common in western and European countries. Natural storages are catchment slope, infiltration, catchment length, channel rerouting, drainage density, depression storage etc. A literature survey on the manmade and natural storages/inflow has presented percentage contribution of each individually. Sanders et.al. in their research have reported that a vegetation canopy reduces runoff by 7% to 12%. Nassif et el in their research have reported that catchment slope has an impact of 16% on bare standard soil and 24% on grassed soil on rainfall runoff. Infiltration being a pervious/impervious ratio dependent parameter is catchment specific. But a literature survey has presented a range of 15% to 30% loss of rainfall runoff in various catchment study areas. Catchment length and channel rerouting too play a considerable role in reduction of rainfall runoff. Ground infiltration inflow adds to the runoff where the groundwater table is very shallow and soil saturates even in a lower intensity storm. An approximate percent contribution through this inflow and surface inflow contributes to about 2% of total runoff volume. Considering the various contributing factors in runoff it has been observed during a literature survey that integrated modelling approach needs to be considered. The traditional storm water network models are able to predict to a fair/acceptable degree of accuracy provided no interaction with receiving water (river, sea, canal etc), ground infiltration, treatment works etc. are assumed. When such interactions are significant then it becomes difficult to reproduce the actual flood extent using the traditional discrete modelling approach. As a result the correct flooding situation is very rarely addressed accurately. Since the development of spatially distributed hydrologic model the predictions have become more accurate at the cost of requiring more accurate spatial information.The integrated approach provides a greater understanding of performance of the entire catchment. It enables to identify the source of flow in the system, understand how it is conveyed and also its impact on the receiving body. It also confirms important pain points, hydraulic controls and the source of flooding which could not be easily understood with discrete modelling approach. This also enables the decision makers to identify solutions which can be spread throughout the catchment rather than being concentrated at single point where the problem exists. Thus it can be concluded from the literature survey that the representation of urban details can be a key differentiator to the successful understanding of flooding issue. The intent of this study is to accurately predict the runoff from impermeable areas from urban area in India. A representative area has been selected for which data was available and predictions have been made which are corroborated with the actual measured data.

Keywords: Urbanization, Flooding, runoff, impermeable response

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16 A QoS Aware Cluster Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Network Using LZW Lossless Compression

Authors: J. S. Saini, P. P. K. Sandhu

Abstract:

The multi-hop nature of Wireless Mesh Networks and the hasty progression of throughput demands results in multi- channels and multi-radios structures in mesh networks, but the main problem of co-channels interference reduces the total throughput, specifically in multi-hop networks. Quality of Service mentions a vast collection of networking technologies and techniques that guarantee the ability of a network to make available desired services with predictable results. Quality of Service (QoS) can be directed at a network interface, towards a specific server or router's performance, or in specific applications. Due to interference among various transmissions, the QoS routing in multi-hop wireless networks is formidable task. In case of multi-channel wireless network, since two transmissions using the same channel may interfere with each other. This paper has considered the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol to locate the secure and optimised path. The proposed technique also utilizes the Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) based lossless data compression and intra cluster data aggregation to enhance the communication between the source and the destination. The use of clustering has the ability to aggregate the multiple packets and locates a single route using the clusters to improve the intra cluster data aggregation. The use of the LZW based lossless data compression has ability to reduce the data packet size and hence it will consume less energy, thus increasing the network QoS. The MATLAB tool has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of the projected technique. The comparative analysis has shown that the proposed technique outperforms over the existing techniques.

Keywords: QoS, Congestion Control, Collision Avoidance, Flooding, WMNS, LZW

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15 Geomorphology and Flood Analysis Using Light Detection and Ranging

Authors: George R. Puno, Eric N. Bruno

Abstract:

The natural landscape of the Philippine archipelago plus the current realities of climate change make the country vulnerable to flood hazards. Flooding becomes the recurring natural disaster in the country resulting to lose of lives and properties. Musimusi is among the rivers which exhibited inundation particularly at the inhabited floodplain portion of its watershed. During the event, rescue operations and distribution of relief goods become a problem due to lack of high resolution flood maps to aid local government unit identify the most affected areas. In the attempt of minimizing impact of flooding, hydrologic modelling with high resolution mapping is becoming more challenging and important. This study focused on the analysis of flood extent as a function of different geomorphologic characteristics of Musimusi watershed. The methods include the delineation of morphometric parameters in the Musimusi watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and geometric calculations tools. Digital Terrain Model (DTM) as one of the derivatives of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology was used to determine the extent of river inundation involving the application of Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) and Hydrology Modelling System (HEC-HMS) models. The digital elevation model (DEM) from synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was used to delineate watershed boundary and river network. Datasets like mean sea level, river cross section, river stage, discharge and rainfall were also used as input parameters. Curve number (CN), vegetation, and soil properties were calibrated based on the existing condition of the site. Results showed that the drainage density value of the watershed is low which indicates that the basin is highly permeable subsoil and thick vegetative cover. The watershed’s elongation ratio value of 0.9 implies that the floodplain portion of the watershed is susceptible to flooding. The bifurcation ratio value of 2.1 indicates higher risk of flooding in localized areas of the watershed. The circularity ratio value (1.20) indicates that the basin is circular in shape, high discharge of runoff and low permeability of the subsoil condition. The heavy rainfall of 167 mm brought by Typhoon Seniang last December 29, 2014 was characterized as high intensity and long duration, with a return period of 100 years produced 316 m3s-1 outflows. Portion of the floodplain zone (1.52%) suffered inundation with 2.76 m depth at the maximum. The information generated in this study is helpful to the local disaster risk reduction management council in monitoring the affected sites for more appropriate decisions so that cost of rescue operations and relief goods distribution is minimized.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Mapping, watershed, Flooding

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14 Low-Impact Development Strategies Assessment for Urban Design

Authors: H. L. Lin, Y. S. Lin

Abstract:

Climate change and land-use change caused by urban expansion increase the frequency of urban flooding. To mitigate the increase in runoff volume, low-impact development (LID) is a green approach for reducing the area of impervious surface and managing stormwater at the source with decentralized micro-scale control measures. However, the current benefit assessment and practical application of LID in Taiwan is still tending to be development plan in the community and building site scales. As for urban design, site-based moisture-holding capacity has been common index for evaluating LID’s effectiveness of urban design, which ignore the diversity, and complexity of the urban built environments, such as different densities, positive and negative spaces, volumes of building and so on. Such inflexible regulations not only probably make difficulty for most of the developed areas to implement, but also not suitable for every different types of built environments, make little benefits to some types of built environments. Looking toward to enable LID to strength the link with urban design to reduce the runoff in coping urban flooding, the research consider different characteristics of different types of built environments in developing LID strategy. Classify the built environments by doing the cluster analysis based on density measures, such as Ground Space Index (GSI), Floor Space Index (FSI), Floors (L), and Open Space Ratio (OSR), and analyze their impervious surface rates and runoff volumes. Simulate flood situations by using quasi-two-dimensional flood plain flow model, and evaluate the flood mitigation effectiveness of different types of built environments in different low-impact development strategies. The information from the results of the assessment can be more precisely implement in urban design. In addition, it helps to enact regulations of low-Impact development strategies in urban design more suitable for every different type of built environments.

Keywords: urban Design, Flooding, low-impact development, density measures

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13 Variability of Climatic Elements in Nigeria Over Recent 100 Years

Authors: T. Salami, O. S. Idowu, N. J. Bello

Abstract:

Climatic variability is an essential issue when dealing with the issue of climate change. Variability of some climate parameter helps to determine how variable the climatic condition of a region will behave. The most important of these climatic variables which help to determine the climatic condition in an area are both the Temperature and Precipitation. This research deals with Longterm climatic variability in Nigeria. Variables examined in this analysis include near-surface temperature, near surface minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure, precipitation, wet-day frequency and cloud cover using data ranging between 1901-2010. Analyses were carried out and the following methods were used: - Regression and EOF analysis. Results show that the annual average, minimum and maximum near-surface temperature all gradually increases from 1901 to 2010. And they are in the same case in a wet season and dry season. Minimum near-surface temperature, with its linear trends are significant for annual, wet season and dry season means. However, the diurnal temperature range decreases in the recent 100 years imply that the minimum near-surface temperature has increased more than the maximum. Both precipitation and wet day frequency decline from the analysis, demonstrating that Nigeria has become dryer than before by the way of rainfall. Temperature and precipitation variability has become very high during these periods especially in the Northern areas. Areas which had excessive rainfall were confronted with flooding and other related issues while area that had less precipitation were all confronted with drought. More practical issues will be presented.

Keywords: Climate, variability, Flooding, excessive rainfall

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12 Understanding of Malaysian Community Disaster Resilience: Australian Scorecard Adaptation

Authors: Salizar Mohamed Ludin, Mohd Khairul Hasyimi Firdaus, Paul Arbon

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper aims to develop Malaysian Government and community-level critical thinking, planning and action for improving community disaster resilience by reporting Phase 1, Part 1 of a larger community disaster resilience measurement study about adapting the Torrens Resilience Institute Australian Community Disaster Resilience Scorecard to the Malaysian context. Methodology: Pparticipatory action research encouraged key people involved in managing the six most affected areas in the 2014 flooding of Kelantan in Malaysia’s north-east to participate in discussions about adapting and self-testing the Australian Community Disaster Resilience Scorecard to measure and improve their communities’ disaster resilience. Findings: Communities need to strengthen their disaster resilience through better communication, cross-community cooperation, maximizing opportunities to compare their plans, actions and reactions with those reported in research publications, and aligning their community disaster management with reported best practice internationally while acknowledging the need to adapt such practice to local contexts. Research implications: There is a need for a Malaysia-wide, simple-to-use, standardized disaster resilience scorecard to improve the quality, quantity and capability of healthcare and emergency services’ preparedness, and to facilitate urgent reallocation of aid. Value: This study is the first of its kind in Malaysia. The resulting community disaster resilience guideline based on participants’ feedback about the Kelantan floods and scorecard self-testing has the potential for further adaptation to suit contexts across Malaysia, as well as demonstrating how the scorecard can be adapted for international use.

Keywords: Flooding, Malaysia, community disaster resilience, CDR Scorecard, participatory action research

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11 Natural Hazards and Their Costs in Albanian Part of Ohrid Graben

Authors: Mentor Sulollari

Abstract:

Albania, according to (UNU-EHS) United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security studies for 2015, is listed as the number one country in Europe for the possibility to be caught by natural catastrophes. This is conditioned by unstudied human activity, which has seriously damaged the environment. Albanian part of Ohrid graben that lies in Southeast of Albania, is endangered by landslides and floods, as a result of uncontrolled urban development and low level of investment in infrastructure, rugged terrain in its western part and capricious climate caused by global warming. To be dealt with natural disasters, which cause casualties and material damage, it is important to study them in order to anticipate and reduce damages in future. As part of this study is the construction of natural hazards map, which show us where they are distributed, and which are the vulnerable areas. This article will also be dealing with socio-economic and environmental costs of those events and what are the measures to be taken to reduce them.

Keywords: Landslides, Flooding, natural catastrophes mapping, Pogradec, lake Ohrid, Albanian part of Ohrid graben

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10 Self-Help Adaptation to Flooding in Low-Income Settlements in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Nachawit Tikul

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine low-income housing adaptations for flooding, which causes living problems and housing damage, and the results from improvement. Three low-income settlements in Chiang Mai which experienced different flood types, i.e. flash floods in Samukeepattana, drainage floods in Bansanku, and river floods in Kampangam, were chosen for the study. Almost all of the residents improved their houses to protect the property from flood damage by changing building materials to flood damage resistant materials for walls, floors, and other parts of the structure that were below the base of annual flood elevation. They could only build some parts of their own homes, so hiring skilled workers or contractors was still important. Building materials which have no need for any special tools and are easy to access and use for construction, as well as low cost, are selected for construction. The residents in the three slums faced living problems for only a short time and were able to cope with them. This may be due to the location of the three slums near the city where assistance is readily available. But the housing and the existence in the slums can endure only the regular floods and residence still have problems in unusual floods, which have been experienced 1-2 times during the past 10 years. The residents accept the need for evacuations and prepare for them. When faced with extreme floods, residence have evacuated to the nearest safe place such as schools and public building, and come back to repair the houses after the flood. These are the distinguishing characteristics of low-income living which can withstand serious situations due to the simple lifestyle. Therefore, preparation of living areas for use during severe floods and encouraging production of affordable flood resistant materials should be areas of concern when formulating disaster assistance policies for low income people.

Keywords: Housing, Adaptation, Flooding, low-income settlement

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9 [Keynote Talk]: Unlocking Transformational Resilience in the Aftermath of a Flood Disaster: A Case Study from Cumbria

Authors: Kate Crinion, Martin Haran, Stanley McGreal, David McIlhatton

Abstract:

Past research has demonstrated that disasters are continuing to escalate in frequency and magnitude worldwide, representing a key concern for the global community. Understanding and responding to the increasing risk posed by disaster events has become a key concern for disaster managers. An emerging trend within literature, acknowledges the need to move beyond a state of coping and reinstatement of the status quo, towards incremental adaptive change and transformational actions for long-term sustainable development. As such, a growing interest in research concerns the understanding of the change required to address ever increasing and unpredictable disaster events. Capturing transformational capacity and resilience, however is not without its difficulties and explains the dearth in attempts to capture this capacity. Adopting a case study approach, this research seeks to enhance an awareness of transformational resilience by identifying key components and indicators that determine the resilience of flood-affected communities within Cumbria. Grounding and testing a theoretical resilience framework within the case studies, permits the identification of how perceptions of risk influence community resilience actions. Further, it assesses how levels of social capital and connectedness impacts upon the extent of interplay between resources and capacities that drive transformational resilience. Thus, this research seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by enhancing the awareness of resilience in post-disaster affected communities, by investigating indicators of community capacity building and resilience actions that facilitate transformational resilience during the recovery and reconstruction phase of a flood disaster.

Keywords: Community, Capacity building, Flooding, transformational resilience

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8 A Smart Sensor Network Approach Using Affordable River Water Level Sensors

Authors: Fiona Regan, Dian Zhang, Brendan Heery, Maria O’Neill, Ciprian Briciu-Burghina, Noel E. O’Connor

Abstract:

Recent developments in sensors, wireless data communication and the cloud computing have brought the sensor web to a whole new generation. The introduction of the concept of ‘Internet of Thing (IoT)’ has brought the sensor research into a new level, which involves the developing of long lasting, low cost, environment friendly and smart sensors; new wireless data communication technologies; big data analytics algorithms and cloud based solutions that are tailored to large scale smart sensor network. The next generation of smart sensor network consists of several layers: physical layer, where all the smart sensors resident and data pre-processes occur, either on the sensor itself or field gateway; data transmission layer, where data and instructions exchanges happen; the data process layer, where meaningful information is extracted and organized from the pre-process data stream. There are many definitions of smart sensor, however, to summarize all these definitions, a smart sensor must be Intelligent and Adaptable. In future large scale sensor network, collected data are far too large for traditional applications to send, store or process. The sensor unit must be intelligent that pre-processes collected data locally on board (this process may occur on field gateway depends on the sensor network structure). In this case study, three smart sensing methods, corresponding to simple thresholding, statistical model and machine learning based MoPBAS method, are introduced and their strength and weakness are discussed as an introduction to the smart sensing concept. Data fusion, the integration of data and knowledge from multiple sources, are key components of the next generation smart sensor network. For example, in the water level monitoring system, weather forecast can be extracted from external sources and if a heavy rainfall is expected, the server can send instructions to the sensor notes to, for instance, increase the sampling rate or switch on the sleeping mode vice versa. In this paper, we describe the deployment of 11 affordable water level sensors in the Dublin catchment. The objective of this paper is to use the deployed river level sensor network at the Dodder catchment in Dublin, Ireland as a case study to give a vision of the next generation of a smart sensor network for flood monitoring to assist agencies in making decisions about deploying resources in the case of a severe flood event. Some of the deployed sensors are located alongside traditional water level sensors for validation purposes. Using the 11 deployed river level sensors in a network as a case study, a vision of the next generation of smart sensor network is proposed. Each key component of the smart sensor network is discussed, which hopefully inspires the researchers who are working in the sensor research domain.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Smart Sensing, Flooding, water level sensor

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7 Effects of AG1 and AG2 QTLs on Rice Seedling Growth and Physiological Processes during Germination in Flooded Soils

Authors: Satyen Mondal, Frederickson Entila, Shalabh Dixit, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz, Abdelbagi M. Ismail

Abstract:

Anaerobic condition caused by flooding during germination in direct seeded rice systems, known as anaerobic germination (AG), severely reduces crop establishment in both rainfed and irrigated areas. Seeds germinating in flooded soils could encounter hypoxia or even anoxia in severe cases, and this hinders germination and seedling growth. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of incorporating two major QTLs, AG1 and AG2, associated with tolerance of flooding during germination and to assess their interactive effects on enhancing crop establishment. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baňos, Philippines, using elite lines incorporating AG1, AG2 and AG1+AG2 in the background of the popular varieties PSBRc82 (PSBRc82-AG1, PSBRc82-AG2, PSBRc82-AG1+AG2) and Ciherang-Sub1 (Ciherang-Sub1-AG1, Ciherang-Sub1-AG2, Ciherang-Sub1-AG1+AG2), along with the donors Kho Hlan On (for AG1) and Ma-Zhan Red (AG2) and the recipients PSBRc82 and Ciherang-Sub1. The experiment was conducted using concrete tanks in an RCBD with three replications. Dry seeds were sown in seedling trays then flooded with 10 cm water depth. Seedling survival, root and shoot growth and relative growth rate were measured. The germinating seedlings were used for assaying nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and ascorbate concentrations, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic concentration, reactive oxygen species and total amylase enzyme activity. Flooding reduced overall survival, though survival of AG1+AG2 introgression lines was greater than other genotypes. Soluble sugars increased, while starch concentration decreased gradually under flooding especially in the tolerant checks and AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Less lipid peroxidation and higher amylase activity, reduced-ascorbate (RAsA) and total phenolic contents (TPC) were observed in the tolerant checks and in AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Lipid peroxidation correlated negatively with ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations and with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introgression of AG1+AG2 QTLs upregulated total amylase activity causing rapid starch degradation and increase in ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations resulting in higher germination and seedling growth in flooded soils.

Keywords: Lipid Peroxidation, Flooding, amylase, anaerobic germination, ascorbate, direct-seeded rice

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6 Application of Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Flooded Risk Region Selection in Thailand

Authors: Waraporn Wimuktalop

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This research will select regions which are vulnerable to flooding in different level. Mathematical principles will be systematically and rationally utilized as a tool to solve problems of selection the regions. Therefore the method called Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) has been chosen by having two analysis standards, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). There are three criterions that have been considered in this research. The first criterion is climate which is the rainfall. The second criterion is geography which is the height above mean sea level. The last criterion is the land utilization which both forest and agriculture use. The study found that the South has the highest risk of flooding, then the East, the Centre, the North-East, the West and the North, respectively.

Keywords: Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Flooding, TOPSIS, analytic hierarchy process

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5 Understanding the Reasons for Flooding in Chennai and Strategies for Making It Flood Resilient

Authors: Nivedhitha Venkatakrishnan

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Flooding in urban areas in India has become a usual ritual phenomenon and a nightmare to most cities, which is a consequence of man-made disruption resulting in disaster. The City planning in India falls short of withstanding hydro generated disasters. This has become a barrier and challenge in the process of development put forth by urbanization, high population density, expanding informal settlements, environment degradation from uncollected and untreated waste that flows into natural drains and water bodies, this has disrupted the natural mechanism of hazard protection such as drainage channels, wetlands and floodplains. The magnitude and the impact of the mishap was high because of the failure of development policies, strategies, plans that the city had adopted. In the current scenario, cities are becoming the home for future, with economic diversification bringing in more investment into cities especially in domains of Urban infrastructure, planning and design. The uncertainty of the Urban futures in these low elevated coastal zones faces an unprecedented risk and threat. The study on focuses on three major pillars of resilience such as Recover, Resist and Restore. This process of getting ready to handle the situation bridges the gap between disaster response management and risk reduction requires a shift in paradigm. The study involved a qualitative research and a system design approach (framework). The initial stages involved mapping out of the urban water morphology with respect to the spatial growth gave an insight of the water bodies that have gone missing over the years during the process of urbanization. The major finding of the study was missing links between traditional water harvesting network was a major reason resulting in a manmade disaster. The research conceptualized the ideology of a sponge city framework which would guide the growth through institutional frameworks at different levels. The next stage was on understanding the implementation process at various stage to ensure the shift in paradigm. Demonstration of the concepts at a neighborhood level where, how, what are the functions and benefits of each component. Quantifying the design decision with rainwater harvest, surface runoff and how much water is collected and how it could be collected, stored and reused. The study came with further recommendation for Water Mitigation Spaces that will revive the traditional harvesting network.

Keywords: Flooding, man made disaster, resilient city, traditional harvesting network, waterbodies

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4 Land Tenure and Erosion as Determinants of Guerrilla Violence in Assam, India: An Ethnographic and Remote Sensing Approach

Authors: Kevin T. Inks

Abstract:

India’s Brahmaputra River Valley has, since independence, experienced consistent low-intensity guerrilla warfare between ethnic and religious groups. These groups are often organized around perceived ethnic territoriality, and target civilians, communities, and especially migrants belonging to other ethnic and religious groups. Intense flooding and erosion have led to widespread displacement, and disaster relief funds are largely tied to legal land tenure. Displaced residents of informal settlements receive little or no resettlement aid, and their subsequent migration strategies and risk from guerrilla violence are poorly understood. Semi-structured interviews and comprehensive surveys focused on perceptions of risk, efficacy of disaster relief, and migration and adaptation strategies were conducted with households identified as being ‘at-risk’ of catastrophic flooding and erosion in Majuli District, Assam. Interviews with policymakers and government workers were conducted to assess disaster relief efforts in informal settlements, and remote sensing methods were used to identify informal settlement and hydrogeomorphic change. The results show that various ethnic and religious groups have differential strategies and preferences for resettlement. However, these varying strategies are likely to lead to differential levels of risk from guerrilla violence. Members of certain ethnic groups residing in informal settlements, in the absence of resettlement assistance, are more likely to seek out unofficial settlement on land far from the protection of the state and experience greater risk of becoming victims of political violence. As climate change and deforestation are likely to increase the severity of the displacement crisis in the Brahmaputra River Valley, more comprehensive disaster relief and surveying efforts are vital for limiting migration and informal settlement in potential sites of guerrilla warfare.

Keywords: Climate, Violence, Displacement, India, Flooding

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3 Sponge Urbanism as a Resilient City Design to Overcome Urban Flood Risk, for the Case of Aluva, Kerala, India

Authors: Gayathri Pramod, Sheeja K. P.

Abstract:

Urban flooding has been seen rising in cities for the past few years. This rise in urban flooding is the result of increasing urbanization and increasing climate change. A resilient city design focuses on 'living with water'. This means that the city is capable of accommodating the floodwaters without having to risk any loss of lives or properties. The resilient city design incorporates green infrastructure, river edge treatment, open space design, etc. to form a city that functions as a whole for resilience. Sponge urbanism is a recent method for building resilient cities and is founded by China in 2014. Sponge urbanism is the apt method for resilience building for a tropical town like Aluva of Kerala. Aluva is a tropical town that experiences rainfall of about 783 mm per month during the rainy season. Aluva is an urbanized town which faces the risk of urban flooding and riverine every year due to the presence of Periyar River in the town. Impervious surfaces and hard construction and developments contribute towards flood risk by posing as interference for a natural flow and natural filtration of water into the ground. This type of development is seen in Aluva also. Aluva is designed in this research as a town that have resilient strategies of sponge city and which focusses on natural methods of construction. The flood susceptibility of Aluva is taken into account to design the spaces for sponge urbanism and in turn, reduce the flood susceptibility for the town. Aluva is analyzed, and high-risk zones for development are identified through studies. These zones are designed to withstand the risk of flooding. Various catchment areas are identified according to the natural flow of water, and then these catchment areas are designed to act as a public open space and as detention ponds in case of heavy rainfall. Various development guidelines, according to land use, is also prescribed, which help in increasing the green cover of the town. Aluva is then designed to be a completely flood-adapted city or sponge city according to the guidelines and interventions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Urbanization, Flooding, sponge city, resilient city, sponge urbanism

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2 Impact of Data and Model Choices to Urban Flood Risk Assessments

Authors: Abhishek Saha, Serene Tay, Gerard Pijcke

Abstract:

The availability of high-resolution topography and rainfall information in urban areas has made it necessary to revise modeling approaches used for simulating flood risk assessments. Lidar derived elevation models that have 1m or lower resolutions are becoming widely accessible. The classical approaches of 1D-2D flow models where channel flow is simulated and coupled with a coarse resolution 2D overland flow models may not fully utilize the information provided by high-resolution data. In this context, a study was undertaken to compare three different modeling approaches to simulate flooding in an urban area. The first model used is the base model used is Sobek, which uses 1D model formulation together with hydrologic boundary conditions and couples with an overland flow model in 2D. The second model uses a full 2D model for the entire area with shallow water equations at the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM). These models are compared against another shallow water equation solver in 2D, which uses a subgrid method for grid refinement. These models are simulated for different horizontal resolutions of DEM varying between 1m to 5m. The results show a significant difference in inundation extents and water levels for different DEMs. They are also sensitive to the different numerical models with the same physical parameters, such as friction. The study shows the importance of having reliable field observations of inundation extents and levels before a choice of model and data can be made for spatial flood risk assessments.

Keywords: Flooding, DEM, shallow water equations, subgrid

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1 Hybrid Blue-Green Infrastructure: Feasibility Study for the State of Maharashtra, India

Authors: Rushikesh Satpute, Kanchan Khare

Abstract:

In India, the 2019 monsoon season arrived late and heavy following a severe heatwave. This year's monsoons have brought the highest amount of rain in 25 years and with unprecedented spatial variability. In some districts of Maharashtra, higher-than-average rainfall caused massive flooding, which resulted in the submergence of 2 lakh hectares. Whereas remaining states saw the continued drought conditions from monsoon 2018. This unusual monsoon behaviour is considered an example of the impact of climate change and is expected to intensify and worsen over time. The combination of drought followed by heavy rainfall increases the risk of massive flooding, influence on natural and man-made systems, including infrastructure and agricultural production in flooded and dry regions. Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) is an interconnected network of natural and anthropogenic components, including water bodies and green and open spaces, like bio-retention cells, rain barrels, infiltration trenches, and vegetation swales. In Australia, BGI has already been deployed at small scales in urban areas, and projects are underway on larger scales in regional areas. The present study focuses on the feasibility of hybrid BGI techniques used in Australia. Hybrid BGI is a techno-social solution to suit to culture and ancient practices in Maharashtra.

Keywords: Flooding, feasibility study, blue green infrastructure, hybrid BGI, Maharashtra

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