Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

flood hazard Related Abstracts

4 Urban Flood Risk Mapping–a Review

Authors: Sherly M. A., Subhankar Karmakar, Terence Chan, Christian Rau

Abstract:

Floods are one of the most frequent natural disasters, causing widespread devastation, economic damage and threat to human lives. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and intensification of urbanization are two root causes of increased flood occurrences, and recent research trends are oriented towards understanding these aspects. Due to rapid urbanization, population of cities across the world has increased exponentially leading to improperly planned developments. Climate change due to natural and anthropogenic activities on our environment has resulted in spatiotemporal changes in rainfall patterns. The combined effect of both aggravates the vulnerability of urban populations to floods. In this context, an efficient and effective flood risk management with its core component as flood risk mapping is essential in prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Urban flood risk mapping involves zoning of an urban region based on its flood risk, which depicts the spatiotemporal pattern of frequency and severity of hazards, exposure to hazards, and degree of vulnerability of the population in terms of socio-economic, environmental and infrastructural aspects. Although vulnerability is a key component of risk, its assessment and mapping is often less advanced than hazard mapping and quantification. A synergic effort from technical experts and social scientists is vital for the effectiveness of flood risk management programs. Despite an increasing volume of quality research conducted on urban flood risk, a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach towards flood risk mapping still remains neglected due to which many of the input parameters and definitions of flood risk concepts are imprecise. Thus, the objectives of this review are to introduce and precisely define the relevant input parameters, concepts and terms in urban flood risk mapping, along with its methodology, current status and limitations. The review also aims at providing thought-provoking insights to potential future researchers and flood management professionals.

Keywords: flood risk, flood hazard, Urban Flooding, Flood Modeling, Flood Vulnerability, urban flood risk mapping

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3 Flood Hazards, Vulnerability and Adaptations in Upper Imo River Basin of South Eastern Nigera Introduction

Authors: Christian N. Chibo

Abstract:

Imo River Basin is located in South Eastern Nigeria comprising of 11 states of Imo, Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, Edo, Rivers, Cross river, AkwaIbom, Bayelsa, Delta, and Bayelsa states. The basin has a fluvial erosional system dominated by powerful rivers coming down from steep slopes in the area. This research investigated various hazards associated with flood, the vulnerable areas, elements at risk of flood and various adaptation strategies adopted by local inhabitants to cope with the hazards. The research aim is to identify, examine and assess flood hazards, vulnerability and adaptations in the Upper Imo River Basin. The study identified the role of elevation in cause of flood, elements at risk of flood as well as examine the effectiveness or otherwise of the adaptation strategies for coping with the hazards. Data for this research is grouped as primary and secondary. Their various methods of generation are field measurement, questionnaire, library websites etc. Other types of data were generated from topographical, geological, and Digital Elevation model (DEM) maps, while the hydro meteorological data was sourced from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Meteorological stations of Geography and Environmental Management Departments of Imo State University and Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education. 800 copies of questionnaire were distributed using systematic sampling to 8 locations used for the pilot survey. About 96% of the questionnaire were retrieved and used for the study. 13 flood events were identified in the study area. Their causes, years and dates of events were documented in the text, and the damages they caused were evaluated. The study established that for each flood event, there is over 200mm of rain observed on the day of the flood and the day before the flood. The study also observed that the areas that situate at higher elevation (See DEM) are less prone to flood hazards while areas at low elevations are more prone to flood hazards. Elements identified to be at risk of flood are agricultural land, residential dwellings, retail trading and related services, public buildings and community services. The study thereby recommends non settlement at flood plains and flood prone areas and rearrangement of land use activities in the upper Imo River Basin among others

Keywords: Geomorphology, flood hazard, flood plain, Imo River Basin

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2 Rapid Flood Damage Assessment of Population and Crops Using Remotely Sensed Data

Authors: Urooj Saeed, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Iqra Khalid, Sahar Mirza, Imtiaz Younas

Abstract:

Pakistan, a flood-prone country, has experienced worst floods in the recent past which have caused extensive damage to the urban and rural areas by loss of lives, damage to infrastructure and agricultural fields. Poor flood management system in the country has projected the risks of damages as the increasing frequency and magnitude of floods are felt as a consequence of climate change; affecting national economy directly or indirectly. To combat the needs of flood emergency, this paper focuses on remotely sensed data based approach for rapid mapping and monitoring of flood extent and its damages so that fast dissemination of information can be done, from local to national level. In this research study, spatial extent of the flooding caused by heavy rains of 2014 has been mapped by using space borne data to assess the crop damages and affected population in sixteen districts of Punjab. For this purpose, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to daily mark the flood extent by using Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). The highest flood value data was integrated with the LandScan 2014, 1km x 1km grid based population, to calculate the affected population in flood hazard zone. It was estimated that the floods covered an area of 16,870 square kilometers, with 3.0 million population affected. Moreover, to assess the flood damages, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) aided with spectral signatures was applied on Landsat image to attain the thematic layers of healthy (0.54 million acre) and damaged crops (0.43 million acre). The study yields that the population of Jhang district (28% of 2.5 million population) was affected the most. Whereas, in terms of crops, Jhang and Muzzafargarh are the ‘highest damaged’ ranked district of floods 2014 in Punjab. This study was completed within 24 hours of the peak flood time, and proves to be an effective methodology for rapid assessment of damages due to flood hazard

Keywords: flood hazard, object based image analysis, space borne data, rapid damage assessment

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1 Flood Hazard Assessment and Land Cover Dynamics of the Orai Khola Watershed, Bardiya, Nepal

Authors: Loonibha Manandhar, Rajendra Bhandari, Kumud Raj Kafle

Abstract:

Nepal’s Terai region is a part of the Ganges river basin which is one of the most disaster-prone areas of the world, with recurrent monsoon flooding causing millions in damage and the death and displacement of hundreds of people and households every year. The vulnerability of human settlements to natural disasters such as floods is increasing, and mapping changes in land use practices and hydro-geological parameters is essential in developing resilient communities and strong disaster management policies. The objective of this study was to develop a flood hazard zonation map of Orai Khola watershed and map the decadal land use/land cover dynamics of the watershed. The watershed area was delineated using SRTM DEM, and LANDSAT images were classified into five land use classes (forest, grassland, sediment and bare land, settlement area and cropland, and water body) using pixel-based semi-automated supervised maximum likelihood classification. Decadal changes in each class were then quantified using spatial modelling. Flood hazard mapping was performed by assigning weights to factors slope, rainfall distribution, distance from the river and land use/land cover on the basis of their estimated influence in causing flood hazard and performing weighed overlay analysis to identify areas that are highly vulnerable. The forest and grassland coverage increased by 11.53 km² (3.8%) and 1.43 km² (0.47%) from 1996 to 2016. The sediment and bare land areas decreased by 12.45 km² (4.12%) from 1996 to 2016 whereas settlement and cropland areas showed a consistent increase to 14.22 km² (4.7%). Waterbody coverage also increased to 0.3 km² (0.09%) from 1996-2016. 1.27% (3.65 km²) of total watershed area was categorized into very low hazard zone, 20.94% (60.31 km²) area into low hazard zone, 37.59% (108.3 km²) area into moderate hazard zone, 29.25% (84.27 km²) area into high hazard zone and 31 villages which comprised 10.95% (31.55 km²) were categorized into high hazard zone area.

Keywords: flood hazard, land use/land cover, Orai river, supervised maximum likelihood classification, weighed overlay analysis

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