Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

flexure Related Abstracts

4 Influence of Deficient Materials on the Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Sami W. Tabsh

Abstract:

The strength of reinforced concrete depends on the member dimensions and material properties. The properties of concrete and steel materials are not constant but random variables. The variability of concrete strength is due to batching errors, variations in mixing, cement quality uncertainties, differences in the degree of compaction and disparity in curing. Similarly, the variability of steel strength is attributed to the manufacturing process, rolling conditions, characteristics of base material, uncertainties in chemical composition, and the microstructure-property relationships. To account for such uncertainties, codes of practice for reinforced concrete design impose resistance factors to ensure structural reliability over the useful life of the structure. In this investigation, the effects of reductions in concrete and reinforcing steel strengths from the nominal values, beyond those accounted for in the structural design codes, on the structural reliability are assessed. The considered limit states are flexure, shear and axial compression based on the ACI 318-11 structural concrete building code. Structural safety is measured in terms of a reliability index. Probabilistic resistance and load models are compiled from the available literature. The study showed that there is a wide variation in the reliability index for reinforced concrete members designed for flexure, shear or axial compression, especially when the live-to-dead load ratio is low. Furthermore, variations in concrete strength have minor effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and sever effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. On the other hand, changes in steel yield strength have great effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and mild effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. Based on the outcome, it can be concluded that the reliability of beams is sensitive to changes in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement, whereas the reliability of columns is sensitive to variations in the concrete strength. Since the embedded target reliability in structural design codes results in lower structural safety in beams than in columns, large reductions in material strengths compromise the structural safety of beams much more than they affect columns.

Keywords: Reliability, Code, structural safety, Random variables, Reinforced Concrete, shear, reliability index, flexure, limit states

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3 Flexural Performance of the Sandwich Structures Having Aluminum Foam Core with Different Thicknesses

Authors: Emre Kara, Şura Karakuzu, Metehan Demir, Kadir Koç, Halil Aykul, Ahmet Fatih Geylan

Abstract:

The structures obtained with the use of sandwich technologies combine low weight with high energy absorbing capacity and load carrying capacity. Hence, there is a growing and markedly interest in the use of sandwiches with aluminium foam core because of very good properties such as flexural rigidity and energy absorption capability. The static (bending and penetration) and dynamic (dynamic bending and low velocity impact) tests were already performed on the aluminum foam cored sandwiches with different types of outer skins by some of the authors. In the current investigation, the static three-point bending tests were carried out on the sandwiches with aluminum foam core and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins at different values of support span distances (L= 55, 70, 80, 125 mm) aiming the analyses of their flexural performance. The influence of the core thickness and the GFRP skin type was reported in terms of peak load, energy absorption capacity and energy efficiency. For this purpose, the skins with two different types of fabrics ([0°/90°] cross ply E-Glass Woven and [0°/90°] cross ply S-Glass Woven which have same thickness value of 1.5 mm) and the aluminum foam core with two different thicknesses (h=10 and 15 mm) were bonded with a commercial polyurethane based flexible adhesive in order to combine the composite sandwich panels. The GFRP skins fabricated via Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) technique used in the study can be easily bonded to the aluminum foam core and it is possible to configure the base materials (skin, adhesive and core), fiber angle orientation and number of layers for a specific application. The main results of the bending tests are: force-displacement curves, peak force values, absorbed energy, energy efficiency, collapse mechanisms and the effect of the support span length and core thickness. The results of the experimental study showed that the sandwich with the skins made of S-Glass Woven fabrics and with the thicker foam core presented higher mechanical values such as load carrying and energy absorption capacities. The increment of the support span distance generated the decrease of the mechanical values for each type of panels, as expected, because of the inverse proportion between the force and span length. The most common failure types of the sandwiches are debonding of the upper or lower skin and the core shear. The obtained results have particular importance for applications that require lightweight structures with a high capacity of energy dissipation, such as the transport industry (automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and marine industry), where the problems of collision and crash have increased in the last years.

Keywords: flexure, aluminum foam, composite panel, transport application

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2 Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM)-Repaired Corroded Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams under Monotonic and Fatigue Loads

Authors: Mohammed Elghazy, Ahmed El Refai, Usama Ebead, Antonio Nanni

Abstract:

Rehabilitating corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been accomplished using various techniques such as steel plating, external post-tensioning, and external bonding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. This paper reports on the use of an innovative technique to strengthen corrosion-damaged RC structures using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites. FRCM consists of dry-fiber fabric embedded in cement-based matrix. Twelve large-scale RC beams were constructed and tested in flexural monotonic and fatigue loads. Prior to testing, ten specimens were subjected to accelerated corrosion process for 140 days leading to an average mass loss in the tensile steel bars of 18.8 %. Corrosion was restricted to the main reinforcement located in the middle third of the beam span. Eight corroded specimens were repaired and strengthened while two virgin and two corroded-unrepaired/unstrengthened beams were used as benchmarks for comparison purpose. The test parameters included the FRCM materials (Carbon-FRCM, PBO-FRCM), the number of FRCM plies, the strengthening scheme, and the type of loading (monotonic and fatigue). The effects of the pervious parameters on the flexural response, the mode of failure, and the fatigue life were reported. Test results showed that corrosion reduced the yield and ultimate strength of the beams. The corroded-unrepaired specimen failed to meet the provisions of the ACI-318 code for crack width criteria. The use of FRCM significantly increased the ultimate strength of the corroded specimen by 21% and 65% more than that of the corroded-unrepaired specimen. Corrosion significantly decreased the fatigue life of the corroded-unrepaired beam by 77% of that of the virgin beam. The fatigue life of the FRCM repaired-corroded beams increased to 1.5 to 3.8 times that of the corroded-unrepaired beam but was lower than that of the virgin specimen. The specimens repaired with U-wrapped PBO-FRCM strips showed higher fatigue life than those repaired with the end-anchored bottom strips having similar number of PBO-FRCM-layers. PBO-FRCM was more effective than Carbon-FRCM in restoring the fatigue life of the corroded specimens.

Keywords: Concrete, Corrosion, Fatigue, repair, flexure, fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM)

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1 Flexural Behavior of Light-Gauge Steel Box Sections Filled with Normal and Recycled Aggregates Concrete

Authors: Rola El-Nimri, Mu’Tasime Abdel-Jaber, Yasser Hunaiti

Abstract:

The flexural behavior of light-gauge steel box sections filled with recycled concrete was assessed through an experimental program involving 15 composite beams. Recycled concrete was obtained by replacing natural aggregates (NA) with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) with replacement levels of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% by the total weight of NA. In addition, RCA and RAP were incorporated in the same mixes with replacement levels of (1) 20% RCA and 80% RAP; (2) 40% RCA and 60% RAP; (3) 60% RCA and 40% RAP; and (4) 80% RCA and 20% RAP. A comparison between the experimental capacities and the theoretically predicted values according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) was made as well. Results proved that the ultimate capacity of composite beams decreased with the increase of recycled aggregate (RA) percentage and EC4 was conservative in predicting the ultimate capacity of composite beams.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, flexure, recycled asphalt pavement, Light Gauge, Steel Tube

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