Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

flexible Related Abstracts

10 Flexible Capacitive Sensors Based on Paper Sheets

Authors: Mojtaba Farzaneh, Majid Baghaei Nejad

Abstract:

This article proposes a new Flexible Capacitive Tactile Sensors based on paper sheets. This method combines the parameters of sensor's material and dielectric, and forms a new model of flexible capacitive sensors. The present article tries to present a practical explanation of this method's application and advantages. With the use of this new method, it is possible to make a more flexibility and accurate sensor in comparison with the current models. To assess the performance of this model, the common capacitive sensor is simulated and the proposed model of this article and one of the existing models are assessed. The results of this article indicate that the proposed model of this article can enhance the speed and accuracy of tactile sensor and has less error in comparison with the current models. Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that in comparison with the current models, the proposed model of this article is capable of representing more flexibility and more accurate output parameters for touching the sensor, especially in abnormal situations and uneven surfaces, and increases accuracy and practicality.

Keywords: flexible, capacitive sensor, paper sheets, tactile, uneven

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9 Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Authors: Jamarosliza Jamaluddin, Arun Kumar Upadhyay, Fathilahbinti Ali

Abstract:

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Keywords: flexible, polyurethane, biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid)

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8 Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Ingy N. Bkrey, Ahmed A. Moniem

Abstract:

We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μg.cm-2 on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50 μg.cm-2 MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.

Keywords: Graphene, flexible, Graphene Oxide, electrode deposition, high power CO2 Laser, MnO2

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7 Polarization Dependent Flexible GaN Film Nanogenerators and Electroluminescence Properties

Authors: Jeong Min Baik

Abstract:

We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties and electrical output power of flexible N-face p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by strain-induced piezo-potential generated across the metal-semiconductor-metal structures. Under different staining conditions (convex and concave bending modes), the transport properties of the GaN films can be changed due to the spontaneous polarization of the films. The I-V characteristics with the bending modes show that the convex bending can increase the current across the films by the decrease in the barrier height at the metal-semiconductor contact, increasing the EL intensity of the P-N junction. At convex bending, it is also shown that the flexible p-type GaN films can generate an output voltage of up to 1.0 V, while at concave bending, 0.4 V. The change of the band bending with the crystal polarity of GaN films was investigated using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices and nanogenerators under a working environment.

Keywords: flexible, gan, laser lift-off, nanogenerator

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6 The LMPA/Epoxy Mixture Encapsulation of OLED on Polyimide Substrate

Authors: Chuyi Ye, Minsang Kim, Cheol-Hee Moon

Abstract:

The organic light emitting diode(OLED), is a potential organic optical functional materials which is considered as the next generation display technology with the advantages such as all-solid state, ultra-thin thickness, active luminous and flexibility. Due to the development of polymer-inorganic substrate, it becomes possible to achieve the flexible OLED display. However the organic light-emitting material is very sensitive to the oxygen and water vapor, and the encapsulation requires water vapor transmission rate(WVTR) and oxygen transmission rate(OTR) as lower as 10-6 g/(m2.d) and 10-5 cm3/(m2.d) respectively. In current situation, the rigorous WVTR and OTR have restricted the application of the OLED display. Traditional epoxy/getter or glass frit approaches, which have been widely applied on glass-substrate-based devices, are not suitable for transparent flexible organic devices, and mechanically flexible thin-film approaches are required. To ensure the OLED’s lifetime, the encapsulation material of the OLED package is very important. In this paper, a low melting point alloy(LMPA)-epoxy mixture in the encapsulation process is introduced. There will be a phase separation when the mixture is heated to the melting of LMPA and the formation of the double line structure between two substrates: the alloy barrier has extremely low WVTR and OTR and the epoxy fills the potential tiny cracks. In our experiment, the PI film is chosen as a flexible transparent substrate, and Mo and Cu are deposited on the PI film successively. Then the two metal layers are photolithographied to the sealing pattern line. The Mo is a transition layer between the PI film and Cu, at the same time, the Cu has a good wettability with the LMPA(Sn-58Bi). At last, pattern is printed with LMPA layer and applied voltage, the gathering Joule heat melt the LMPA and form the double line structure and the OLED package is sealed in the same time. In this research, the double-line encapsulating structure of LMPA and epoxy on the PI film is manufactured for the flexible OLED encapsulation, and in this process it is investigated whether the encapsulation satisfies the requirement of WVTR and OTR for the flexible OLED.

Keywords: flexible, OLED, encapsulation, low melting point alloy

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5 A Flexible High Energy Density Zn-Air Battery by Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Soorathep Kheawhom, Sira Suren

Abstract:

This work investigates the development of a high energy density zinc-air battery. Printed and flexible thin film zinc-air battery with an overall thickness of about 350 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder, ZnO, and Bi2O3 was used to prepare the anode electrode. The suitable concentration of Bi2O3 and types of binders (styrene-butadiene and sodium silicate) were investigated. Results showed that battery using 20% Bi2O3 and sodium silicate binder provided the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.59 V and 690 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 20 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.3 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, screen printing, printed battery, Zn-air

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4 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Soorathep Kheawhom, Sira Suren

Abstract:

This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, screen printing, Gel Electrolyte, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

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3 Towards Binder-Free and Self Supporting Flexible Supercapacitor from Carbon Nano-Onions and Their Composite with CuO Nanoparticles

Authors: Debananda Mohapatra, Subramanya Badrayyana, Smrutiranjan Parida

Abstract:

Recognizing the upcoming era of carbon nanostructures and their revolutionary applications, we investigated the formation and supercapacitor application of highly pure and hydrophilic carbon nano-onions (CNOs) by economical one-step flame-synthesis procedure. The facile and scalable method uses easily available organic carbon source such as clarified butter, restricting the use of any catalyst, sophisticated instrumentation, high vacuum and post processing purification procedure. The active material was conformally coated onto a locally available cotton wipe by “sonicating and drying” process to obtain novel, lightweight, inexpensive, flexible, binder-free electrodes with strong adhesion between nanoparticles and porous wipe. This interesting electrode with CNO as the active material delivers a specific capacitance of 102.16 F/g, the energy density of 14.18 Wh/kg and power density of 2448 W/kg which are the highest values reported so far in symmetrical two electrode cell configuration with 1M Na2SO4 as an electrolyte. Incorporation of CuO nanoparticles to these functionalized CNOs by one-step hydrothermal method add up to a significant specific capacitance of 420 F/g with deliverable energy and power density at 58.33 Wh/kg and 4228 W/kg, respectively. The free standing CNOs, as well as CNO-CuO composite electrode, showed an excellent cyclic performance and stability retaining 95 and 90% initial capacitance even after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 5 A/g. This work presents a new platform for high performance supercapacitors for next generation wearable electronic devices.

Keywords: flexible, binder-free, flame synthesis, carbon nano-onion

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2 Facile Wick and Oil Flame Synthesis of High-Quality Hydrophilic Carbon Nano Onions for Flexible Binder-Free Supercapacitor

Authors: Debananda Mohapatra, Subramanya Badrayyana, Smrutiranjan Parida

Abstract:

Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are the spherical graphitic nanostructures composed of concentric shells of graphitic carbon can be hypothesized as the intermediate state between fullerenes and graphite. These are very important members in fullerene family also known as the multi-shelled fullerenes can be envisioned as promising supercapacitor electrode with high energy & power density as they provide easy access to ions at electrode-electrolyte interface due to their curvature. There is still very sparse report concerning on CNOs as electrode despite having an excellent electrodechemical performance record due to their unavailability and lack of convenient methods for their high yield preparation and purification. Keeping all these current pressing issues in mind, we present a facile scalable and straightforward flame synthesis method of pure and highly dispersible CNOs without contaminated by any other forms of carbon; hence, a post processing purification procedure is not necessary. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time; we developed an extremely simple, light weight, novel inexpensive, flexible free standing pristine CNOs electrode without using any binder element. Locally available daily used cotton wipe has been used for fabrication of such an ideal electrode by ‘dipping and drying’ process providing outstanding stretchability and mechanical flexibility with strong adhesion between CNOs and porous wipe. The specific capacitance 102 F/g, energy density 3.5 Wh/kg and power density 1224 W/kg at 20 mV/s scan rate are the highest values that ever recorded and reported so far in symmetrical two electrode cell configuration with 1M Na2SO4 electrolyte; indicating a very good synthesis conditions employed with optimum pore size in agreement with electrolyte ion size. This free standing CNOs electrode also showed an excellent cyclic performance and stability retaining 95% original capacity after 5000 charge –discharge cycles. Furthermore, this unique method not only affords binder free - freestanding electrode but also provide a general way of fabricating such multifunctional promising CNOs based nanocomposites for their potential device applications in flexible solar cells and lithium-ion batteries.

Keywords: flexible, binder-free, flame synthesis, carbon nano onion

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1 The Secret Ingredient of Student Involvement: Applied Science Case Studies to Enhance Sustainability

Authors: Elizelle Juanee Cilliers

Abstract:

Recent planning thinking has laid the foundations for a general sense of best practice that aims to enhance the quality of life, suggesting an open and participatory process. It is accepted that integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches may lead to efficient action in environments and sustainable planning and development, although it is also accepted that such an integrated approach has various challenges of implementation. A flexible framework in which the strengths of both the top-down and bottom-up approaches were explored in this research, based on the EU Interreg VALUE Added project and five case studies where student education and student involvement played a crucial role within the participation process of the redesign of the urban environment. It was found that international student workshops were an effective tool to integrate bottom-up and top-down structures, as it acted as catalyst for communication, interaction, creative design, quick transformation from planning to implementation, building social cohesion, finding mutual ground between stakeholders and thus enhancing overall quality of life and quality of environments. It offered a good alternative to traditional participation modes and created a platform for an integrative planning approach. The role and importance of education and integration within the urban environment were emphasized.

Keywords: flexible, bottom-up, top-down, student involvement

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