Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Flavonoids Related Abstracts

34 Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus

Authors: Yahia Mouloud, Benbia Souhila, Lekbir Adel, Djemai Zoughlache Soumia, Meslem Meriem, Maouchi Madiha, Bahi Ahlem


Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, DPPH, Zizyphus lotus, tannins

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33 Hypotensive, Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Crataegus azarolus L. Leaves Extracts Growing in Algeria

Authors: Amel Bouaziz, Seddik Khennouf, Mussa Abu Zarga, Shtayway Abdalla, Saliha Djidel, Assia Bentahar, Saliha Dahamna, Smain Amira


The present study aimed to evaluate the hypotensive and the in vitro antioxidant activities of Crataegus azarolus L. (Rosaceae), a plant widely used as natural remedy for hypertension in folk medicine. The antioxidant potential of methanolic extract (ME)and its three fractions of Chloroform (CHE), ethyl acetate (EAE)and water (AqE) have been investigated using several assays, including the DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was performed by the β-carotene bleaching assay, ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarburic acid method. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent and AlCl3, respectively. EAE extract showed the highest polyphenolic and flavonoids contents (396,04±1.20 mg GAE/g of dry extract and 32,73 ± 0.03mg QE/g of dry extract) respectively. Similarly, this extract possessed the highest scavenging activity for DPPH radical (IC 50 = 0,006±0,0001mg /ml), ABTS radical (IC50=0.0035±0,0007 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radical(IC 50=0,283± 0.01 mg/ml). In addition, the EAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the inhibition of linoleic acid/ß-carotene coupled oxidation (89,21%), lipid peroxidation in the ferric thiocyanate(FTC) method (90.13%), and thio-barbituric acid (TBA) method (74.23%). Intravenous administration of Me and EAE decreased mean arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in anesthetized rats dose-dependently, at the dose range of 0.4 to 12 mg/kg. The mean arterial blood pressure dropped by 27.58 and 39.37% for ME and EAE, respectively. In conclusion, The present study supported the significant potential to use C. azarolus by-products as a source of natural antioxidants and provides scientific justification for its traditional uses as cardio-protective and anti-hypertensive remedy.

Keywords: Hypertension, polyphenols, Free Radicals, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, Crataegus azarolus, peroxidation

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32 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Genista cephalantha Spach. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Chebbah Kaoutar, Marchioni Eric, Menad Ahmed, Mekkiou Ratiba, Sarri Djamel, Ameddah Souad, Boumaza Ouahiba, Seghiri Ramdane, Benayache Samir, Benayache Fadila


This study was designed to estabilish a preliminary phytochemical screening, evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid content according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and aluminum chloride method respectively and to determine qualitatively, using HPLC-UV method, the most important products present in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts of the aerial parts of Genista cephalantha Spach. from East Algeria. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was spectrophotometrically tested by measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH free radical and by β-Carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Evaluated extracts showed a good activity in both antioxidant system assays.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, Fabaceae, HPLC-DAD-UV, genista cephalantha

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31 Hypoglycemic Effect of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Olea europaea L. in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Benhabyles, K. Arab, O. Bouchenak, A. Baz


The hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of flavonoids rich extract obtained from leaves of Olea europaea L. was analyzed in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extraction was performed by confrontation with organic solvents method, which yielded four extracts: Di ethyl Ether, Ethyl Acetate, Butanolic, and Aqueous extract. A single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of the different extract was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in a glucose tolerance test in normal rats and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg of AE for anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced (125 mg/kg) diabetic rats. Dosage of 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test after 120 min. However, a better activity is obtained with the AE. For the anti-hyperglycemic study, the results showed a substantial decrease in blood glucose during the 2 h of treatment for all groups treated with different doses of flavonoids. From the results it can be concluded that flavonoids of O. europaea can be a potential candidate in treating the hyperglycemic conditions.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Flavonoids, hypoglycemic effect, alloxan, antihyperglycemic effect, Olea europaea L

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30 Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Prunus persica L. Leaves

Authors: K. Fellah, H. Benmehdi, A. Amrouche, H. Malainine, F. Memmou, H. Dalile, W. Siata


This work aims to evaluate the antioxidant of flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Prunus persica L. A phytochemical screening allowed us to highlight the different phytochemicals present in the leaves of the studied plant. The selective extraction of flavonoids gave yields of 0.71, 1.5, and 4.8% for the fractions ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n- butanol, respectively. The reading of the antioxidant activity of different extracts of flavonoids by HPLTC method revealed positive reaction (yellow spots) on the TLC plates sprayed with DPPH. Using the DPPH method, the fractions of flavonoids (bunanol, ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether) showed a potent scavenging activity with IC50 = 0.22; 0.27 and 0.76 mg / ml, respectively. Furthermore, our findings revealed the extracts under study exhibited higher reducing potential which depends upon extract concentration. These results obtained from this investigation confirm that the Prunus persica remains a major resource of bioactive molecules.

Keywords: Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, DPPH, Prunus persica L, phytochemical study, TLC bioautographic, FRAP

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29 New Bioactive Compounds from Two Chrysanthemum Saharian Species (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria

Authors: Zahia Kabouche, Ouissem Gherboudj, Naima Boutaghane, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko


Chrysanthemum herbs (Asteraceae) are extensively used as food additives and in folk medicine. Anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiproliferative activities as well as antioxidant effects have been reported for Chrysanthemum species. We report the isolation and identification of flavonoids and new and known terpenoids from the endemic species, C. macrocarpum and C. deserticolum “guertoufa”, used in Algerian Sahara as tea drinks and in “couscous” and soups “Chorba”. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1-D and 2-D homo and hetero-nuclear NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), mass spectrometry, UV and comparison with literature data. C. deserticolum extracts were tested by four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS•+, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating activity methods. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of C. macrocarpum extracts and isolated compounds are also reported here.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Anti-Inflammatory, antioxidant, Chrysanthemum macrocarpum, C. deserticolum, terpenoids, anti-proliferative

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28 Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants

Authors: Mohammed S. Aly, Abou-Zeid N. El-Shahat, Nabila Y. Naguib, Huussie A. Said-Al Ahl, Atef M. Zakaria, Mohamed A. Abou Dahab


This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.

Keywords: fertilizer, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Essential Oil, dill

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27 Pro-Ecological Antioxidants for Polymeric Composites

Authors: Masek A., Zaborski M.


In our studies, we propose the use of natural, pro-ecological substances such as polyphenols to protect polymers against ageing. In our studies, we plan to focus on the following compounds: polyphenols, gallic acid esters, flavonoides, carotenoids, curcumin and its derivatives, vitamin A, tocochromanoles, betalain. Phyto-compounds will be selected on the basis of available literature and our preliminary studies. So, we will select compounds with various contents of hydroxyl groups and colored substances capable of participating in color oxidation processes. The natural antioxidants which were added to ethylene-octene elastomer (polyolefin elastomer-Engage) and ethylene-nonbornene (TOPAS). Composites were then subjected to numerous ageing: weathering (climat of Floryda), UV (0,7 W/m2), thermo-oxidation ageing (1000C/10days) and thermal-shock (-600C/+1000C) as a function of the aging time. The efficiency of used anti-ageing agents was checked on the base of the changes after the degradation in deformation energy (tensile strength and elongation at the break), cross-link density, color (parameters L,a,b) and values of carbonyl index (based on the spectrum of infra red spectroscopy), OIT (induction oxygen time as performed in using differential scanning calorimeter -DSC) of the vulcanizates. Therefore polyphenols are considered to be the best stabilisers for polymeric composites against to oxidation processes.

Keywords: Polymers, Ageing, Oxidation, Stabilization, Flavonoids

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26 Chemical Constituents of Silene Arenarioides Desf

Authors: Haba Hamada, Lavaud Cathrine, Benkhaled Mohammed


The Silene genus is the most representative of the caryophyllaceae family for their rich content in secondary metabolites; saponins, flavonoids and flavonoids glycosides, phytoecdysones, oligosaccharides have been isolated and identified. The Silene genus represented by about 700 species in the temrerate region of the word, the main concentration of spcies is Europe, Asia and North Africa. Three known compounds 1-3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. by using different chromatographic methods. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as stigmasterolglycoside, Soyacerebroside, maltol glycoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using the NMR (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) techniques and mass spectroscopy. The antimicrobial and antioxydant activities of the different extracts and compound have been reported.

Keywords: Flavonoids, caryophyllaceae, saponosids, flavonoids glycosides

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25 Proecological Antioxidants for Stabilisation of Polymeric Composites

Authors: M. Zaborski, A. Masek


Electrochemical oxidation of dodecyl gallate (lauryl gallate), the main monomer flavanol found in green tea, was investigated on platinum electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse (DPV) methods. The rate constant, electron transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients were determined for dodecyl gallate electrochemical oxidation. The oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps related to the hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring of dodecyl gallate. Confirmed antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate verified its use in polymers as an environment-friendly stabiliser to improve the resistance to aging of the elastomeric materials. Based on the energy change of the deformation, cross-linking density and time of the oxygen induction with the TG method, we confirmed the high antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate in polymers. Moreover, the research on biodegradation confirmed the environment-friendly influence of the antioxidant by increasing the susceptibility of the elastomeric materials to disintegration by mildew mushrooms.

Keywords: Polymers, Ageing, Stabilization, Flavonoids

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24 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba


In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, polyphenols, Flavonoids, antibacterial activity

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23 Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Evaluation of Acetylated Flavonoid Glycosides from Centaurium spicatum

Authors: Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mansour S. Alsaid


Four Acetylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch (Gentianaceae). Structure elucidation, especially the localization of the acetyl groups, and complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of these biologically active compounds were carried out using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, including CNMR, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90 and gradient-assisted experiments such as DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activities of the new acetylated flavonoid glycosides using DPPH• assay were determined. The compounds tested showed a good DPPH• activity compared with control, but their activity was lower than that of their corresponding aglycone, quercetin.

Keywords: Isolation, Biological Activity, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Centaurium spicatum

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22 Nitrate-Induced Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Kidney of Rats: Attenuation by Hyparrhenia hirta

Authors: Ghada Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal, Hanen Bouaziz, Moez Rafrafi, Tahia Boudawara


The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta against sodium nitrate (NaNO3)-induced nephrotoxicity. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in Hyparrhenia hirta. Seven flavonoids were identified as 3-O-methylquercetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside and luteolin-6-C-glucoside. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta. NaNO3 treatment induced a significant increase in plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric while urinary level decreased significantly. Nephrotoxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by significant increase in creatinine clearance. In parallel, a significant increase in malondialdehyde level along with a concomitant decrease in total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the kidney after NaNO3 treatment. The histopathological changes in kidney after NaNO3 administration were shrunken. There were renal tubule cell degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Most glomeruli revealed shrinkage, a wide capsular space and a peri-glomerular mononuclear cells infiltration. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of the abnormalities cited above. The results concluded that the treatment with Hyparrhenia hirta had a significant role in protecting the animals from nitrate-induced kidney dysfunction.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Kidney, Flavonoids, rat, Hyparrhenia hirta, nitrate toxicity

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21 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin


The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: Secondary Metabolites, Cytotoxicity, Flavonoids, antitumor activity, Polygonum L

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20 Antioxydant Activity of Flavonoïd’s Extracts of Rhamnus alaternus L. Leaves of Tessala Mountains (Occidental Algeria)

Authors: Benchiha Walid, Mahroug Samira


Rhamnus alaternus L. is a shrub that belongs to the family of Rhamnaceae. It is a medicinal plant that is largely used in traditional medicine in Algeria. Five flavonoic extracts obtained of Rhamnus alaternus L. leaves. The flavonoids were evaluated by a method that uses aluminum chloride AlCl3 of each extract; the content is estimated at 19.33 (Hexanic. Extract), 18.42 (Chlroformic.extract), 16.75 (Acetate. Extract), 3.9 (Brute. Extract), and 3.02 (Aqueous. Extract) mg Equivalent quercetine/gram of extract (mg QE/ g extract). The antioxidant activity was realized by the antiradical test that was evaluated by using DPHH (2.2 diphenyl-1-1picrylhdrazile), the inhibitory concentration at 50% (CI50) were estimated at 74.78 (Vitamin.C), 143.78 (Catechine), 101.78 (Gallic acid), 205.41 (Tannic acid), 210 (Caffeic acid) µg/ml; 74.16 (Br.extr), 9.98 (Aq.extr), 54.08 (Hèx.extr), 8.64 (Ac.extr), 30.49 (Ch.extr) mg/ml.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Rhamnus alaternus L, antioxydant activity, Tessala

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19 Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peganum harmala Seeds

Authors: Rachid Kacem, Sara Talbi, Yasmina Hemissi, Sofia Bouguattoucha


The aim of the present work is the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the Peganum harmala (P. harmala) seeds extracts. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by applying two methods, the method of ß-carotene bleaching and DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl-Hydrazyl). Using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, these results revealed that the concentration of polyphenols in EthOH E. (122.28 ± 2.24 µg GAE/mg extract) is the highest. The antiradical activity of the P. harmala seeds extracts on DPPH was found to be dose dependent with polyphenols concentration. The E. EthOH extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC = 252.10 ± 11.18 μg /ml). The test of β-carotene bleaching indicates that the E. EthOH of P. harmala showed the highest percentage of the antioxidant activity (49.88 %).

Keywords: polyphenols, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, Peganum harmala

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18 Endemic Asteraceae from Mauritius Islands as Potential Phytomedicines

Authors: S.Kauroo, J. Govinden Soulange, D. Marie


Psiadia species from the Asteraceae are traditionally used in the folk medicine of Mauritius to treat cutaneous and bronchial infections. The present study aimed at validating the phytomedicinal properties of the selected species from the Asteraceae family, namely Psiadia arguta, Psiadia viscosa, Psiadia lithospermifolia, and Distephanus populifolius. Dried hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol leaf extracts were studied for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and Deoxyribose assays. Antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC27853), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) was measured using the broth microdilution assay. Qualitative phytochemical screening using standard methods revealed the presence of coumarins, tannins, leucoanthocyanins, and steroids in all the tested extracts. The measured phenolics level of the selected plant extracts varied from 24.0 to 231.6 mg GAE/g with the maximum level in methanol extracts in all four species. The highest flavonoids and proanthocyanidins content was noted in Psiadia arguta methanolic extracts with 65.7±1.8 mg QE/g and 5.1±0.0 mg CAT/g dry weight (DW) extract, respectively. The maximum free radical scavenging activity was measured in Psiadia arguta methanol and ethyl acetate extracts with IC50 11.3±0.2 and 11.6± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively and followed by Distephanus populifolius methanol extracts with an IC50 of 11.3± 0.8 µg/mL. The maximum ferric reducing antioxidant potential was noted in Psiadia lithospermifolia methanol extracts with a FRAP value of 18.8 ± 0.4 µmol Fe2+/L/g DW. The antioxidant capacity based on DPPH and Deoxyribose values were negatively related to total phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins content while the ferric reducing antioxidant potential were strongly correlated to total phenolics, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins content. All four species exhibited antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria (both Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Interestingly, the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Psiadia viscosa and Psiadia lithospermifolia were more active than the control antibiotic Chloramphenicol. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Psiadia viscosa and Psiadia lithospermifolia against the tested bacteria ranged from (62.5 to 500 µg/ml). These findings validate the use of these tested Asteraceae in the traditional medicine of Mauritius and also highlight their pharmaceutical potential as prospective phytomedicines.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Flavonoids, DPPH, antioxidant, FRAP, Psiadia spp

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17 Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Four Indian Aromatic Plants

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Richa


Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Phenolics are the compounds that contain hydroxyl functional group on an aromatic ring. These are chemically heterogeneous compounds. Some are soluble only in organic solvents, some are water soluble and others are large insoluble polymers. Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant phenolics. The carbon skeleton of a flavonoid contains 15 carbons arranged in two aromatic rings connected by a three carbon ridge. Both phenolics and flavonoids are good natural antioxidants. Four Indian aromatic plants were selected for the study i.e, Achillea species, Jasminum primulinum, Leucas cephalotes and Leonotis nepetaefolia. All the plant species were collected from Chail region of Himachal Pradesh, India. The identifying features and anatomical studies were done of the part containing the essential oils. Phenolic cotent was estimated by Folin Ciocalteu’s method and flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. Antioxidant property was checked by using DPPH method. Maximum antioxidant potential was found in Achillea species, followed by Leonotis nepetaefolia, Jaminum primulinum and Leucas cephalotes. Phenolics and flavonoids are important compounds that serve as defences against herbivores and pathogens. Others function in attracting pollinators and absorbing harmful radiations.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Flavonoids, DPPH, phenolics

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16 Chrysin-Loaded PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles Designed for Enhanced Inhibitory Effect on the Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Faraz Zarghami, Elham Anari, Nosratollah Zarghami, Yones Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Sepideh Jalilzadeh-Tabrizi


The development of nanotherapy has presented a new method of drug delivery targeted directly to the neoplasmic tissues, to maximize the action with fewer dose requirements. In the past two decades, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has frequently been investigated by many researchers and is a popular polymeric candidate, due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, exhibition of a wide range of erosion times, tunable mechanical properties, and most notably, because it is a FDA-approved polymer. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid which has been reported to have some significant biological effects on the processes of chemical defense, nitrogen fixation, inflammation, and oxidation. However, the low solubility in water decreases its bioavailability and consequently disrupts the biomedical benefits. Being loaded with PLGA-PEG increases chrysin solubility and drug tolerance, and decreases the discordant effects of the drug. The well-structured chrysin efficiently accumulates in the breast cancer cell line (T47D). In the present study, the structure and chrysin loading were delineated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HNMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the in vitro cytotoxicity of pure and nanochrysin was studied by the MTT assay. Next, the RNA was exploited and the cytotoxic effects of chrysin were studied by real-time PCR. In conclusion, the nanochrysin therapy developed is a novel method that could increase cytotoxicity to cancer cells without damaging the normal cells, and would be promising in breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: Flavonoids, MTT assay, chrysin, nanotherapy

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15 A Novel Method for Isolation of Kaempferol and Quercetin from Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome

Authors: S. B. Bhandare, K. S. Laddha


Podphyllum hexandrum belonging to family berberidaceae has gained attention in phytochemical and pharmacological research as it shows excellent anticancer activity and has been used in treatment of skin diseases, sunburns and radioprotection. Chemically it contains lignans and flavonoids such as kaempferol, quercetin and their glycosides. Objective: To isolate and identify Kaempferol and Quercetin from Podophyllum rhizome. Method: The powdered rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum was subjected to soxhlet extraction with methanol. This methanolic extract is used to obtain podophyllin. Podohyllin was extracted with ethyl acetate and this extract was then concentrated and subjected to column chromatography to obtain purified kaempferol and quercetin. Result: Isolated kaempferol, quercetin were light yellow and dark yellow in colour respectively. TLC of the isolated compounds was performed using chloroform: methanol (9:1) which showed single band on silica plate at Rf 0.6 and 0.4 for kaempferol and quercetin. UV spectrometric studies showed UV maxima (methanol) at 259, 360 nm and 260, 370 nm which are identical with standard kaempferol and quercetin respectively. Both IR spectra exhibited prominent absorption bands for free phenolic OH at 3277 and 3296.2 cm-1 and for conjugated C=O at 1597 and 1659.7 cm-1 respectively. The mass spectrum of kaempferol and quercetin showed (M+1) peak at m/z 287 and 303.09 respectively. 1H NMR analysis of both isolated compounds exhibited typical four-peak pattern of two doublets at δ 6.86 and δ 8.01 which was assigned to H-3’,5’ and H-2’,6’ respectively. Absence of signals less than δ 6.81 in the 1H NMR spectrum supported the aromatic nature of compound. Kaempferol and Quercetin showed 98.1% and 97% purity by HPLC at UV 370 nm. Conclusion: Easy and simple method for isolation of Kaempferol and Quercetin was developed and their structures were confirmed by UV, IR, NMR and mass studies. Method has shown good reproducibility, yield and purity.

Keywords: Flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, podophyllum rhizome

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14 The Flavonoids for a Plant Grows in the Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of the Northern Sahara of Algeria - Atriplex halimus L.

Authors: O. Smara, H. Dendougui, B. Legseir


Atriplex halimus L. is particularly well adapted to arid and salt-affected areas. In this species, salinity resistance is often attributed to the presence of vesiculated hairs covering leaf surface and containing a large amount of salt. Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Mediterranean basin with excellent tolerance to drought and salinity. The species is present in semiarid to subhumid areas of the north Mediterranean and in arid zones from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. The main aim of this study was to identify a medicinal plant used in the Ouargla (Est-southern Algeria) for the treatment of several human pathologies. This plant is an important source for livestock in nitrogenous matter, it is an effective and relatively inexpensive tool in the fight against erosion and desertification and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Phytochemical investigation is applied to the majority of extracts of the powder of the aerial parts of Atriplex halimus L. Different chromatographic methods after liquid-liquid extraction are used; it is the thin layer chromatography (TLC) and paper using multiple systems and chemical revelations. This study followed by an evaluation by the phenol assay the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid as a reference for phenols and quercetin for flavonols. Some polar extracts showed an interesting result better than the less polar extracts.

Keywords: Phenols, Flavonoids, Atriples halimus L, chenopodiaceae

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13 Kinetics of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Lycium Arabicum and Its Protective Effect against Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Dysfunction in Mice

Authors: Seddik Khennouf, Naouel Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Imane Krache, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani


Purpose: To evaluate the in-vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase (purified from bovine milk) by extracts of Lycium arabicum, as well as it is in vivo hypouricemic and renal protective effects. Methods: Four extracts of Lycium arabicum, methanol (CrE), chloroform (ChE), ethyl acetate (EaE) and aqueous (AqE) extracts, were screened for their total phenolics and potential inhibitory effects on purified bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity by measuring the formation of uric acid or superoxide radical. The mode of inhibition was investigated and compared with the standard drugs, allopurinol, quercitin, and catechin. To evaluate their hypouricemic effect, the extracts were administered to potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Results: The results showed that EaE had the highest content of phenolic compounds and was the most potent inhibitor of uric acid formation (IC50 = 0.017 ± 0.001 mg/mL) and formation of superoxide (IC50 = 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/ml). Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that CrE and EaE inhibited XO competitively, whereas the inhibitory activities exerted by ChE and AqE were of a mixed type. Intraperetoneal injection of L. arabicum extracts (50 mg/kg) elicited hypouricemic actions in hyperuricemic mice. Hyperuricemic mice presented a serum uric acid concentration of 4.71 ± 0.29 mg/L but this was reduced to 1.78 ± 0.11 mg/L by EaE, which was the most potent hyporuricemic extract. Conclusion: L. arabicum fractions have a strong inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase and and also have a significantly lowering effect on serum and liver creatinine and urea levels in hyperuricemic mice.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds, creatinine, uric acid, Hyperuricemia, lycium arabicum, superoxide

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12 Antioxidant Activity of Aristolochia longa L. Extracts

Authors: Merouani Nawel, Belhattab Rachid


Aristolochia longa L. (Aristolochiacea) is a native plant of Algeria used in traditional medicine. This study was devoted to the determination of polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents of Aristolochia longa L. after their extraction by using various solvents with different polarities (methanol, acetone and distilled water). These extracts were prepared from stem, leaves, fruits and rhizome. The antioxidant activity was determined using three in vitro assays methods: scavenging effect on DPPH, the reducing power assay and ẞ-carotene bleaching inhibition (CBI). The results obtained indicate that the acetone extracts from the aerial parts presented the highest contents of polyphenols. The results of The antioxidant activity showed that all extracts of Aristolochia longa L., prepared using different solvent, have diverse antioxidant capacities. However, the aerial parts methanol extract exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity of DPPH and reducing power (Respectively 55,04ug/ml±1,29 and 0,2 mg/ml±0,019 ). Nevertheless, the aerial parts acetone extract showed the highest antioxidant capacity in the test of ẞ-carotene bleaching inhibition with 57%. These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their bioactive substances could be exploited for therapeutic purposes such as antioxidant and antimicrobial.

Keywords: polyphenols, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, condensed tannins, aristolochia longa l

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11 Characterization of Main Phenolic Compounds in Eleusine indica L. (Poaceae) by HPLC-DAD and 1H NMR

Authors: E. M. Condori-Peñaloza, S. S. Costa


Eleusine indica L, known as goose-grass, is considered a troublesome weed that can cause important economic losses in the agriculture worldwide. However, this grass is used as a medicinal plant in some regions of Brazil to treat influenza and pneumonia. In Africa and Asia, it is used to treat malaria and as diuretic, anti-helminthic, among other uses. Despite its therapeutic potential, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of E. indica. Hitherto, two major flavonoids, schaftoside and vitexin, were isolated from aerial part of the species and showed inhibitory activity on lung neutrophil influxes in mice, suggesting a beneficial effect on airway inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical profile of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Eleusine indica specimens using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with emphasis on phenolic compounds. Specimens of E. indica were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Aerial parts of fresh plants were extracted by decoction (10% p/v). After spontaneous precipitation of the aqueous extract at 10-12°C for 24 hours, the supernatant obtained was frozen and lyophilized. After that, 1 g of the extract was dissolved into 25 mL of water and fractionated on a reverse phase chromatography column (RP-2), eluted with a gradient of H2O/EtOH. Five fractions were obtained. The extract and fractions had their chemical profile analyzed by using HPLC-DAD (C-18 column: 20 μL, 256 -365 nm; gradient water 0.01% phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile. The extract was also analyzed by NMR (1H, 500 MHz, D2O) in order to access its global chemical composition. HPLC-DAD analyses of crude extract allowed the identification of ten phenolic compounds. Fraction 1, eluted with 100% water, was poor in phenolic compounds and no major peak was detected. In fraction 2, eluted with 100% water, it was possible to observe one major peak at retention time (RT) of 23.75 minutes compatible with flavonoid; fraction 3, also eluted with 100% water, showed four peaks at RT= 21.47, 23.52, 24.33 and 25.84 minutes, all of them compatible with flavonoid. In fraction 4, eluted with 50%/ethanol/50% water, it was possible to observe 3 peaks compatible with flavonoids at RT=24.65, 26.81, 27.49 minutes, and one peak (28.83 min) compatible with a phenolic acid derivative. Finally, in fraction 5, eluted with 100% ethanol, no phenolic substance was detected. The UV spectra of all flavonoids detected were compatible with the flavone subclass (λ= 320-345 nm). The 1H NMR spectra of aerial parts extract showed signals in three regions: δ 0.8-3.0 ppm (aliphatic compounds), δ 3.0-5.5 ppm corresponding to carbohydrates (signals most abundant and overlapped), and δ 6.0-8.5 ppm (aromatic compounds). Signals compatible with flavonoids (rings A and B) could also be detected in the crude extract spectra. These results suggest the presence of several flavonoids in E. indica, which reinforces their therapeutic potential. The pharmacological activities of Eleusine indica extracts and fractions will be further evaluated.

Keywords: NMR, HPLC, Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds

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10 Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from the Aerial Parts of Alyssum alyssoides

Authors: Olga St. Tsiftsoglou, Diamanto M. Lazari, Eugene L. Kokkalou


Most of Alyssum species of Brassicaceae family have been mainly studied for their contribution in ecology. In this study, A. alyssoides was examined for its chemical substitutes. The methanol extract of its aerial parts was fractionated with liquid-liquid extraction (distribution) with four different solvents of increasing polarity: diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts were further studied for their chemical composition. So far, secondary metabolites which belong to phenolics were isolated by using several chromatographic methods (C.C. and HPLC) and were identified by using spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, NMR and MS): two phenolic acids (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (vanillic acid)), and five flavonoids, which are derivatives of flavonol: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin), kaempferol 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercetin), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isoramnetin 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (narcissin).

Keywords: Flavonoids, phenolic acids, Alyssum, chemical substitutes

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9 Antiangiogenic and Pro-Apoptotic Properties of Shemamruthaa: An Herbal Preparation in Experimental Mammary Carcinoma-Bearing Rats and Breast Cancer Cell Line In vitro

Authors: Nandhakumar Elumalai, Purushothaman Ayyakannu, Sachidanandam T. Panchanatham


Background: Understanding the basic mechanisms and factors underlying the tumor growth and invasion has gained attention in recent times. The processes of angiogenesis and apoptosis are known to play a vital role in various stages of cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as one of the key regulators of tumor angiogenesis while MMPs are known for their exclusive ability to degrade ECM. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the pro apoptotic and anti angiogenic activity of the herbal formulation Shemamruthaa. The anticancer activity of Shemamruthaa was tested in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Results of MTT, trypan blue and flow cytometric analysis of apoptotis suggested that Shemamruthaa can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells, in a concentration- and time dependent manner and induce apoptosis. With these results, we further evaluated the antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic activities of Shemamruthaa in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma in Sprague Dawley rats. Flavono tumour was induced in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by gastric intubation of 25 mg DMBA in 1ml olive oil. After 90 days of induction period, the rats were orally administered with Shemamruthaa (400 mg/kg body wt) for 45 days. Treatment with the drug SM significantly modulated the expression of p53, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and VEGF by means of its anti angiogenic and protease inhibiting activity. Conclusion: Based on these results, it might be concluded that the formulation, Shemamruthaa, constituted of dried flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, fruits of Emblica officinalis, and honey has been found to exhibit pronounced antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. This enhanced anticancer effect of Shemamruthaa might be attributed to the synergistic action of polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, vitamin C, niacin, pyrogallol, hydroxymethylfurfural, trilinolein, and other compounds present in the formulation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Shemamruthaa holds potential to be developed as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against mammary carcinoma.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Shemamruthaa, MCF-7 cell line, mammary cancer

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8 Free Raducal Scavenging Activity of Fractionated Extract and Structural Elucidation of Isolated Compounds from Hydrocotyl Bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam Leaves

Authors: Emmanuel O Ajani, Sabiu S, Mariam Zakari, Fisayo A Bamisaye


Hydrocotyl bonariensis is a plant which anticataractogenic potentials have been reported. In the present study an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the fractionates of the leaves extract and also characterize some of its chemical constituents. DPPH, H₂O₂, OH and NO free radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the crude extract fractionates. Fresh leaves of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leaves were extracted in 70% methanol. The extract was partitioned with different solvent system of increasing polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate methanol and water). Compounds were isolated from the aqueous practitionate using accelerated gradient chromatography, vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC and conventional column chromatography. The presence of the chemical groups was established with HPLC and Fourier Transform Infra Red. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic study and chemical shifts. Data from the study indicates that all the fractionates contain compounds with free radical scavenging activity. This activity was more pronounced in the aqueous fractionate (DPPH IC₅₀, 0025 ± 0.011 mg/ml, metal chelating capacity 27.5%, OH- scavenging IC₅₀, 0.846 ± 0.037 mg/ml, H₂O₂ scavenging IC₅₀ 0.521 ± 0.015 mg/ml, reducing power IC₅₀ 0.248 ± 0.025 mg/ml and NO scavenging IC₅₀ 0.537 ± 0.038 mg/ml). Two compounds were isolated and when compared with data from the literature; the structures were suggestive of polyphenolic flavonoid, quercetin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol. The result indicates that H. bonariensis leaves contain bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Cataract, Flavonoids, antioxidant, free radical, hydrocotyl bonariensis

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7 Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Suaib Luqman, Nusrat Masood, Vijaya Dubey


Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.

Keywords: Binding Energy, Flavonoids, terpenoids, caspase 3, activation constant

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6 In situ Ortho-Quinone Methide Reactions for Construction of Flavonoids with Fused Ring Systems

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Vidia A. Nuraini, Eugene M. H. Yee, Mohan Bhadbhade, David StC. Black


Flavonoids are naturally occurring compounds that have been shown to exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, flavonoids suffer from low bioavailability, which limits their overall utility for therapeutic applications. One of the methods to overcome this limitation is through structural modification of natural flavonoids. In this study, flavanone, isoflavanone, and isoflavene, were structurally modified through the introduction of additional fused-ring systems via ortho-quinone methide intermediates (o-QMs). These intermediates can readily undergo a [4+2] cycloaddition through an inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction with electron-rich dienophiles. A regioselective Mannich reaction using bis-(N,N-dimethylamino)methane was employed to generate the o-QM precursors of flavanone, isoflavanone, and isoflavene. The o-QM intermediates were subsequently generated in situ through thermal elimination of the dimethylamine functionality and reacted with a variety of dienophiles to produce novel flavonoids with fused-ring systems. A total of 21 novel flavonoid analogs were successfully synthesized. The X-ray crystal structure of cycloaddition adducts, particularly those derived from 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran and p-methoxystyrene revealed a special case of enantiomeric disorder, where two enantiomers in equal amounts superpose with one another, with the exception for atoms that have opposite configuration. The anticancer properties of fused-ring systems derived from isoflavene were evaluated against the neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2)C, the triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and the glioblastoma U87 cancer cell lines. One of these cycloaddition adducts had displayed improved anti-proliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 and U87 cancer cell lines as compared to the parent compound. Further anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of the flavanone and isoflavanone analogs are currently being investigated.

Keywords: Flavonoids, Diels-Alder reaction, Mannich reaction, ortho-quinone methide

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5 Impact on the Yield of Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Content from Pomegranate Fruit by Different Extraction Methods

Authors: Udeshika Yapa Bandara, Chamindri Witharana, Preethi Soysa


Pomegranate fruits are used in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, Sri Lanka. Due to prevailing therapeutic effects of phytochemicals, this study was focus on anti-cancer properties of the constituents in the parts of Pomegranate fruit. Furthermore, the method of extraction, plays a crucial step of the phytochemical analysis. Therefore, this study was focus on different extraction methods. Five techniques were involved for the peel and the pericarp to evaluate the most effective extraction method; Boiling with electric burner (BL), Sonication (SN), Microwaving (MC), Heating in a 50°C water bath (WB) and Sonication followed by Microwaving (SN-MC). The presence of polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated to recognize the best extraction method for polyphenols. The total phenolic content was measured spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalents (w/w% GAE). Total flavonoid content was also determined spectrophotometrically with Aluminium chloride colourimetric assay and expressed as Quercetin Equivalents (w/w % QE). Pomegranate juice was taken as fermented juice (with Saccharomyces bayanus) and fresh juice. Powdered seeds were refluxed, filtered and freeze-dried. 2g of freeze-dried powder of each component was dissolved in 100ml of De-ionized water for extraction. For the comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol content, the polyphenols were removed by the Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVVP) column and fermented and fresh juice were tested for the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, before and after the removal of polyphenols. For the peel samples of Pomegranate fruit, total phenol and flavonoid contents were high in Sonication (SN). In pericarp, total phenol and flavonoid contents were highly exhibited in method of Sonication (SN). A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid contents, between five extraction methods for both peel and pericarp samples. Fermented juice had a greatest polyphenolic and flavonoid contents comparative to fresh juice. After removing polyphenols of fermented juice and fresh juice using Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVVP) column, low antioxidant activity was resulted for DPPH antioxidant activity assay. Seeds had a very low total phenol and flavonoid contents according to the results. Although, Pomegranate peel is the main waste component of the fruit, it has an excellent polyphenolic and flavonoid contents compared to other parts of the fruit, devoid of the method of extraction. Polyphenols play a major role for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: polyphenols, Flavonoids, antioxidant activity, pomegranate

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