Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

fixed bed reactor Related Abstracts

2 The Feasibility of Glycerol Steam Reforming in an Industrial Sized Fixed Bed Reactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulations

Authors: Mahendra Singh, Narasimhareddy Ravuru

Abstract:

For the past decade, the production of biodiesel has significantly increased along with its by-product, glycerol. Biodiesel-derived glycerol massive entry into the glycerol market has caused its value to plummet. Newer ways to utilize the glycerol by-product must be implemented or the biodiesel industry will face serious economic problems. The biodiesel industry should consider steam reforming glycerol to produce hydrogen gas. Steam reforming is the most efficient way of producing hydrogen and there is a lot of demand for it in the petroleum and chemical industries. This study investigates the feasibility of glycerol steam reforming in an industrial sized fixed bed reactor. In this paper, using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, the extent of the transport resistances that would occur in an industrial sized reactor can be visualized. An important parameter in reactor design is the size of the catalyst particle. The size of the catalyst cannot be too large where transport resistances are too high, but also not too small where an extraordinary amount of pressure drop occurs. The goal of this paper is to find the best catalyst size under various flow rates that will result in the highest conversion. Computational fluid dynamics simulated the transport resistances and a pseudo-homogenous reactor model was used to evaluate the pressure drop and conversion. CFD simulations showed that glycerol steam reforming has strong internal diffusion resistances resulting in extremely low effectiveness factors. In the pseudo-homogenous reactor model, the highest conversion obtained with a Reynolds number of 100 (29.5 kg/h) was 9.14% using a 1/6 inch catalyst diameter. Due to the low effectiveness factors and high carbon deposition rates, a fluidized bed is recommended as the appropriate reactor to carry out glycerol steam reforming.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Steam reforming, glycerol, Computational Fluid Dynamic, fixed bed reactor

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1 Yield and Composition of Bio-Oil from Co-Pyrolysis of Corn Cobs and Plastic Waste of HDPE in a Fixed Bed Reactor

Authors: Dijan Supramono, Eny Kusrini, Haisya Yuana

Abstract:

Pyrolysis, a thermal cracking process in inert environment, may be used to produce bio-oil from biomass and plastic waste thus accommodating the use of renewable energy. Abundant amount of biomass waste in Indonesia are not utilised and plastic wastes are not well processed for clean environment. The aim of present work was to evaluate effect of mass ratio of plastic material to biomass in the feed blend of corn cobs and high density polyethylene (HDPE) of co-pyrolysis on bio-oil yield and chemical composition of bio-oil products. The heating rate of the co-pyrolysis was kept low and residence time was in the order of seconds to accommodate high yield of oil originating from plastic pyrolysis. Corn cobs have high cellulose and hemicellulose content (84%) which is potential to produce bio-oil. The pyrolysis was conducted in a laboratory-scale using a fixed bed reactor with final temperature of 500°C, heating rate 5 °C/min, flow rate N2 750 mL/min, total weight of biomass and plastic material of 20 g, and hold time after peak temperature of 30 min. Set up of conditions of co-pyrolysis should lead to accommodating the production of oil originating from HDPE due to constraint of HDPE pyrolysis residence time. Mass ratio of plastics to biomass in the feed blend was varied 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0. It was found that by increasing HDPE content up to 100% in the feed blend, the yield of bio-oil at different mass ratios prescribed above were 28.05, 21.55, 14.55, 9.5, and 6.3wt%, respectively. Therefore, in the fixed bed reactor, producing bio-oil is constrained by low contribution of plastic feedstock to the pyrolysis liquid yield. Furthermore, for the same variation of the mass ratio, yields of the mixture of paraffins, olefins and cycloalkanes contained in bio-oil were of 0, 28.35, 40.75, 47.17, and 67.05wt%, respectively. Olefins and cycloalkanes are easily hydrogenised to produce paraffins, suitable to be used as bio-fuel. By increasing composition of HDPE in the feed blend, viscosity and pH of bio-oil change approaching to those of commercial diesel oil.

Keywords: HDPE, fixed bed reactor, co-pyrolysis, corn cobs

Procedia PDF Downloads 203