Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Fixation Related Abstracts

5 An Inquiry on Imaging of Soft Tissues in Micro-Computed Tomography

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Vladimir Musil, Jana Mrzilkova, Petr Zach, Zdenek Wurst

Abstract:

Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to elaborate methodology for soft tissue samples imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of rats and mice. We either did a preparation of the organs and fixation in contrast solution or we did cannulation of blood vessels and their injection for imaging of the vascular system. First, we scanned native specimens, then we created corrosive specimens by resins. In the next step, we injected vascular system either by Aurovist contrast agent or by Exitron. In the next step, we focused on soft tissues contrast increase. We scanned samples fixated in Lugol solution, samples fixated in pure ethanol and in formaldehyde solution. All used methods were afterwards compared. Results: Native specimens did not provide sufficient contrast of the tissues in any of organs. Corrosive samples of the blood stream provided great contrast and details; on the other hand, it was necessary to destroy the organ. Further examined possibility was injection of the AuroVist contrast that leads to the great bloodstream contrast. Injection of Exitron contrast agent comparing to Aurovist did not provide such a great contrast. The soft tissues (kidney, heart, lungs, brain, and liver) were best visualized after fixation in ethanol. This type of fixation showed best results in all studied tissues. Lugol solution had great results in muscle tissue. Fixation by formaldehyde solution showed similar quality of contrast in the tissues like ethanol. Conclusion: Before imaging, we need to, first, determinate which structures of the soft tissues we want to visualize. In the case of the bloodstream, the best was AuroVist and corrosive specimens. Muscle tissue is best visualized by Lugol solution. In the case of the organs containing cavities, like kidneys or brain, the best way was ethanol fixation.

Keywords: Soft Tissues, Fixation, micro-CT, experimental imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
4 Biomechanical Analysis on Skin and Jejunum of Chemically Prepared Cat Cadavers Used in Surgery Training

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Caio C. C. Santos, Alisson D. S. Fechis, Antonio C. Shimano, FabríCio S. Oliveira

Abstract:

Biomechanical analysis is an important factor in tissue studies. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new anatomical technique and quantify the changes in skin and the jejunum resistance of cats’ corpses throughout the process. Eight adult cat cadavers were used. For every kilogram of weight, 120ml of fixative solution (95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin) was applied via the external common carotid artery. Next, the carcasses were placed in a container with 96 GL ethyl alcohol for 60 days. After fixing, all carcasses were preserved in a 30% sodium chloride solution for 60 days. Before fixation, control samples were collected from fresh cadavers and after fixation, three skin and jejunum fragments from each cadaver were tested monthly for strength and displacement until complete rupture in a universal testing machine. All results were analyzed by F-test (P <0.05). In the jejunum, the force required to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 31.27±19.14N and 29.25±11.69N, respectively. For the samples preserved in the sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the strength was 26.17±16.18N and 30.57±13.77N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days was 2.79±0.73mm and 2.80±1.13mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 2.53±1.03mm and 2.83±1.27mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.68 with respect to strength, and P=0.75 with respect to displacement). In the skin, the force needed to rupture the fresh samples and the samples fixed for 60 days in alcohol was 223.86±131.5N and 211.86±137.53N respectively. For the samples preserved in sodium chloride solution for 30 and 60 days, the force was 227.73±129.06 and 224.78±143.83N, respectively. In relation to the displacement required for the rupture of the samples, the values of fresh specimens and those fixed in alcohol for 60 days were 3.67±1.03mm and 4.11±0.87mm, respectively. For the samples preserved for 30 and 60 days with sodium chloride solution, the displacement was 4.21±0.93mm and 3.93±0.71mm, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the samples (P=0.65 with respect to strength, and P=0.98 with respect to displacement). The resistance of the skin and intestines of the cat carcasses suffered little change when subjected to alcohol fixation and preservation in sodium chloride solution, each for 60 days, which is promising for use in surgery training. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: Anatomy, Conservation, Small Animal, Fixation

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
3 Microbiological Analysis on Anatomical Specimens of Cats for Use in Veterinary Surgery

Authors: Raphael C. Zero, Thiago A. S. S. Rocha, Marita V. Cardozo, Mariana T. Kihara, Fernando A. Ávila, Fabrício S. Oliveira

Abstract:

There are several fixative and preservative solutions for use on cadavers, many of them using formaldehyde as the fixative or anatomical part preservative. In some countries, such as Brazil, this toxic agent has been increasingly restricted. The objective of this study was to microbiologically identify and quantify the key agents in tanks containing 96GL ethanol or sodium chloride solutions, used respectively as fixatives and preservatives of cat cadavers. Eight adult cat corpses, three females and five males, with an average weight of 4.3 kg, were used. After injection via the external common carotid artery (120 ml/kg, 95% 96GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), the cadavers were fixed in a plastic tank with 96GL ethanol for 60 days. After fixing, they were stored in a 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for 120 days in a similar tank. Samples were collected at the start of the experiment - before the animals were placed in the ethanol tanks, and monthly thereafter. The bacterial count was performed by Pour Plate Method in BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion) and the plates were incubated aerobically and anaerobically for 24h at 37ºC. MacConkey agar, SPS agar (Sulfite Polymyxin Sulfadizine) and MYP Agar Base were used to isolate the microorganisms. There was no microbial growth in the samples prior to alcohol fixation. After 30 days of fixation in the alcohol solution, total aerobic and anaerobic (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) were found and Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp. were the identified agents. After 60 days in the alcohol fixation solution, total aerobes (<1.0 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<2.2 x 10 CFU/mL) were found, and the identified agents were the same. After 30 days of storage in the aqueous solution of 30% sodium chloride, total aerobic (<5.2 x 10 CFU/ml) and total anaerobes (<3.7 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the agents identified were Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. After 60 days of sodium chloride storage, total aerobic (<3.0 x 10 CFU / ml) and total anaerobes (<7.0 x 10 CFU/mL) were found and the identified agents remained the same: Staphylococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and fungi. The microbiological count was low and visual inspection did not reveal signs of contamination in the tanks. There was no strong odor or purification, which proved the technique to be microbiologically effective in fixing and preserving the cat cadavers for the four-month period in which they are provided to undergraduate students of University of Veterinary Medicine for surgery practice. All experimental procedures were approved by the Municipal Legal Department (protocol 02.2014.000027-1). The project was funded by FAPESP (protocol 2015-08259-9).

Keywords: Surgery, Microbiology, Anatomy, Small Animal, Fixation

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland

Abstract:

Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: Biometrics, Fixation, saccades, eye tracking, heat map, area of interest, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, time to first fixation

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1 An Investigation of the Effects of Word Length on Amblyopic Eye Movement during Reading

Authors: Yahya Maeni

Abstract:

It is well established that amblyopic patients have a reduced reading performance and oculomotor deficits. Word length has a significant impact on reading performance and eye movement behaviour during reading. As there no previous attempts to assess whether amblyopic eyes would be affected by word length while reading. This study aims to assess the effect of word length on amblyopic eye movement behaviour during reading including fixation duration, number of fixation and gaze duration. 21 adults with amblyopia and 21 age-matched controls participated in the study (age ± SD) (23.80 ± 4.66) for amblyopes and (24.20 ± 3.58) for Controls. Eye movement was recorded during reading binocularly using Eyelink 1000. Study was designed as 2 x 2 (amblyopia vs. control) x 2 lengths (4 letters, and 8 letters). Compared to controls, the amblyopic participants report significant longer duration of fixation, higher number of fixation and longer gaze duration for short words with far higher significant difference for long words. It could be concluded that eye movement in amblyopia during reading might be accounted for by the length of a word within a text and this could possible explanation of reduced reading performance among amblyopes. By understanding the effect of word length on amblyopia will shed light on reading deficits in amblyopia and help to determine the reading needs of amplyopes in educational and clinical settings.

Keywords: amblyopia, Reading, Fixation, eye movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 1