Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Fish Related Abstracts

27 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi, Y. M. Goh

Abstract:

The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: Fish, Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant activity, fillet, fortification

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26 Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: J. C. Akan, F. I. Abdulrahman, Z. M. Chellube

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some organochlorine (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, lindane, Endosulfan sulphate, dieldrin and aldrin and organophosphorus (Dichlorvos, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and Fenitrothion) pesticide residues in the gills, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh of four fish species (Tilapia zilli, Clarias anguillaris Hetrotis niloticus and Oreochronmis niloticus) between the periods of September 2010 to October, 2011. Samples were collected from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Extraction of the fish samples and de-fattening of the fish sample extracts were performed using standard procedures. Analysis of the fish samples for pesticide residues were carried out using Shimadzu GC/MS (GC – 17A), equipped with fluorescence detector. Large differences in the levels of pesticide residues were observed between tissues within each fish. The concentrations of all the organophosphorus pesticides were higher in the organs of Oreochronmis niloticus, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. For organochlorine pesticides, the organs of Tilapia zilli showed the highest concentrations, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. The highest pesticide concentrations were observed in gills and liver tissues of all the species of fish study, while the lowest concentrations were observed in flesh. Based on the above results, it can therefore be concluded that the concentrations of pesticide in the four fish species study did exceed the permissible limits set by FAO and FEPA.

Keywords: Pesticides, Fish, Organophosphorus, organochlorine, accumulation, lake chad

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25 Role of Fish Hepatic Aldehyde Oxidase in Oxidative In Vitro Metabolism of Phenanthridine Heterocyclic Aromatic Compound

Authors: Khaled S. Al Salhen

Abstract:

Aldehyde oxidase is molybdo-flavoenzyme involved in the oxidation of hundreds of endogenous and exogenous and N-heterocyclic compounds and environmental pollutants. Uncharged N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds such phenanthridine are commonly distributed pollutants in soil, air, sediments, surface water and groundwater, and in animal and plant tissues. Phenanthridine as uncharged N-heterocyclic aromatic compound was incubated with partially purified aldehyde oxidase from rainbow trout fish liver. Reversed-phase HLPC method was used to separate the oxidation products from phenanthridine and the metabolite was identified. The 6(5H)-phenanthridinone was identified the major metabolite by partially purified aldehyde oxidase from fish liver. Kinetic constant for the oxidation reactions were determined spectrophotometrically and showed that this substrate has a good affinity (Km = 78 ± 7.6 µM) for hepatic aldehyde oxidase, coupled with a relatively high oxidation rate (0.77± 0.03 nmol/min/mg protein). In addition, the kinetic parameters of hepatic fish aldehyde oxidase towards the phenanthridine substrate indicate that in vitro biotransformation by hepatic fish aldehyde oxidase will be a significant pathway. This study confirms that partially purified aldehyde oxidase from fish liver is indeed the enzyme responsible for the in vitro production 6(5H)-phenanthridinone metabolite as it is a major metabolite by mammalian aldehyde oxidase.

Keywords: Fish, aldehyde oxidase, phenanthridine, specificity

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24 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif

Abstract:

4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: Fish, RNA, Dna, genotoxic, micronuclei

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23 Evaluation the Concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr in Rainbow Trout and Water of Haraz River

Authors: Meysam Tehranisharif, Hadi Nakhaee, Seyed Aaghaali Seyed Moosavi, Solmaz Ahadi

Abstract:

Being the second largest river in the southern Caspian Sea basin, the Haraz River flows northwards through the Alborz mountains in the central region of Mazandaran province.The Haraz basin has specific geological characteristics affecting the river water quality.This area has been a rich source of minerals from times immemorial. About 45 mines (coal, limestone, sand and gravel, etc.) have been operational for the last eight decades. In the other hand this region is one of the most famous fish culturing area around Tehran & many farms are located beside this river .The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Zn, Cd, Cr, pb , Cu, Ni in fish muscles & water in Haraz river. In order to determine the heavy metals concentration in all parts of the river , 4 station (Haraz , Razan , chelrood & Amol)were selected . Totally 32 samples were colleted from 8 farms (4 sample from each farm and 2 farms from each station). 4 water samples were collected. Biometeric were performed , then 10 grams of fish muscle were dissected and samples were prepared according to standard method. Heavy metal concentration were determined by atomic absorption method. The mean concentration of Zn in fish muscles & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 0.72 , 0.32,0.522,0.5 & 1.72,1.81,1.77,1.7 ppm respectively. Ni didn't detect in fish samples but the mean concentration in water samples in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 1.1 ,0.9,1.1,1.1 ppm respectively. The mean concentration of Cr in fish muscles & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 0.586,0.492,0.5,0.552 & 2.2 , 2.2,2.1,2.22 ppm respectively . Cd didn't detect in any sample. Pb concentration in fish samples & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood & Amool were 0.44,0.34, o.37,0.48 & 0.11,0.11,0.11,0.14 ppm repectively .The mean concentration of Cu in fish muscles & water in Haraz , Razan , Chelrood and Amool were 0.754,0.372,0.539,2.3 &0.11,0.21,0.17,0.37 ppm respectively. Cu concentration in The fish muscles and water was increased significantly in Amol station .The results of this study showed that heavy metal concentration in fish muscles and water are lower than standards.

Keywords: Water, Fish, Heavy Metals, Iran, Haraz

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22 Brachypodium: A Model Genus to Study Grass Genome Organisation at the Cytomolecular Level

Authors: R. Hasterok, A. Betekhtin, N. Borowska, A. Braszewska-Zalewska, E. Breda, K. Chwialkowska, R. Gorkiewicz, D. Idziak, J. Kwasniewska, M. Kwasniewski, D. Siwinska, A. Wiszynska, E. Wolny

Abstract:

In contrast to animals, the organisation of plant genomes at the cytomolecular level is still relatively poorly studied and understood. However, the Brachypodium genus in general and B. distachyon in particular represent exceptionally good model systems for such study. This is due not only to their highly desirable ‘model’ biological features, such as small nuclear genome, low chromosome number and complex phylogenetic relations, but also to the rapidly and continuously growing repertoire of experimental tools, such as large collections of accessions, WGS information, large insert (BAC) libraries of genomic DNA, etc. Advanced cytomolecular techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with evermore sophisticated probes, empowered by cutting-edge microscope and digital image acquisition and processing systems, offer unprecedented insight into chromatin organisation at various phases of the cell cycle. A good example is chromosome painting which uses pools of chromosome-specific BAC clones, and enables the tracking of individual chromosomes not only during cell division but also during interphase. This presentation outlines the present status of molecular cytogenetic analyses of plant genome structure, dynamics and evolution using B. distachyon and some of its relatives. The current projects focus on important scientific questions, such as: What mechanisms shape the karyotypes? Is the distribution of individual chromosomes within an interphase nucleus determined? Are there hot spots of structural rearrangement in Brachypodium chromosomes? Which epigenetic processes play a crucial role in B. distachyon embryo development and selective silencing of rRNA genes in Brachypodium allopolyploids? The authors acknowledge financial support from the Polish National Science Centre (grants no. 2012/04/A/NZ3/00572 and 2011/01/B/NZ3/00177)

Keywords: Fish, nucleus, Brachypodium, B. distachyon, chromosome, molecular cytogenetics, plant genome organisation

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21 The Resistance of Fish Outside of Water Medium

Authors: Febri Ramadhan

Abstract:

Water medium is a vital necessity for the survival of fish. Fish can survive inside/outside of water medium within a certain time. By knowing the level of survival fish at outside of water medium, a person can transport the fish to a place with more efficiently. Transport of live fish from one place to another can be done with wet and dry media system. In this experiment the treatment-given the observed differences in fish species. This experiment aimed to test the degree of resilience of fish out of water media. Based on the ANOVA table is obtained, it can be concluded that the type of fish affects the level of resilience of fish outside the water (Fhit> Ftab).

Keywords: Transport, Fish, retention rate, fish resiliance

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20 Fatty Acids in Female's Gonads of the Red Sea Fish Rhabdosargus Sarba During the Spawning Season

Authors: Suhaila Qari, Samia Moharram, Safaa Alowaidi

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the fatty acids profiles in female fish, R. sarba from the Red Sea during the spawning season. Methods: Monthly individual Rhabdosargus sarba were obtained from Bangalah market in Jeddah, Red Sea and transported to the laboratory in ice aquarium. The total length, standard length and weight were measured, fishes were dissected. Ovaries were removed, weighed and 10 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to 10g of the ovary in a conical flask and immersed in boiling water until the sample was dissolved and the fat was seen to collect on the surface. The conical was cooled and the fat was extracted by shaking with 30 ml of diethyl ether. The extract was bowled after allowing the layers to separate into a weighed flask. The extraction was repeated three times more and distilled off the solvent then the fat dried at 100oC, cooled and weighed. Then 50 mg of lipid was put in a tube, 5 ml of methanolic sulphuric acid was added and 2 ml of benzene, the tube well closed and placed in water bath at 90oC for an hour and half. After cooling, 8 ml water and 5 ml petroleum was added shacked strongly and the ethereal layer was separated in a dry tube, evaporated to dryness. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a Hewlett Packard (HP 6890) chromatography, asplit /splitless injector and flame ionization detector (FID). Results: In female Rhabdosargus sarba, a total of 29 fatty acids detected in ovaries throughout the spawning season. The main fatty acid group in total lipid was saturated fatty acid (SFA, 28.9%), followed by 23.5% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 12.9% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The dominant SFA were palmitic and stearic, the major MUFA were palmitoleic and oleic, and the major PUFA were C18:2 and C22:2. During spawning stages no significant differences in total SFA, MUFA and PUFA, the highest value of SFA was in late spawning (36.78%). However, the highest value of MUFA and PUFA was in spawning (16.70% and 24.96% respectively). During spawning season there were a significant differences in total SFA between March (late spawning stage) and December (nearly ripe stage), (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Fish, Fatty Acids, Red Sea, sparidae, Rhabdosargus sarba, spawning, gonads

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19 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Disease in Fish

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with the abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulate in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutics in the aquatic environments tends to degrade the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and bills were analyzed for biologically active substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration-related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: Diseases, Control, treatment, Fish

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18 Chronic Exposure of Mercury on Amino Acid Level in Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

Authors: Mary Josephine Rani

Abstract:

Virtually all metals are toxic to aquatic organisms because of the devastating effect of these metals on humans; heavy metals are one of the most toxic forms of aquatic pollution. Metal concentrations in aquatic organisms appear to be of several magnitudes higher than concentrations present in the ecosystem. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment. The principal sources of contamination in wastewater are chloralkali plants, battery factories, mercury switches, and medical wastes. Elevated levels of mercury in aquatic organisms specially fish represent both an ecological and human concern. Amino acid levels were estimated in five tissues (gills, liver, kidney, brain and muscle) of Clariasbatrachus after 28 days of chronic exposure to mercury. Free amino acids serve as precursor for energy production under stress and for the synthesis of required proteins to face the metal challenge.

Keywords: Toxicity, Fish, Amino Acids, Mercury

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17 The Effects of Sous Vide Technology Combined with Different Herbals on Sensorial and Physical Quality of Fish Species Caught in the Northern Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea

Authors: Onur Gönülal, Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F.Unal Şengör

Abstract:

In this study, sous vide technology were treated with different herbs into different fish species which were caught from northern Aegean and Marmara Sea. Before samples were packaged under vacuum, herbs had been cut and added at the same ratio into the package. Samples were sliced, the weight of each sample was about 150 g, and packaged under vacuum. During the storage period at 4ºC, taste, odor, texture properties of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by trained panelists. Meanwhile, the effect of different herbs on pH values of the samples was investigated. These results were correlated with sensorial results. Furthermore, the effects of different herbs on L, a, b values of fish samples treated with sous vide were evaluated by color measurement. All sensorial results indicated that the values of samples treated with herbs were higher than that of the control group. Color measurement results and pH values were found parallel with sensorial results.

Keywords: Fish, Herbs, Color Measurement, Sous vide, consumer preferences

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16 Northern Westerrn Ghats of India Possess an Indigenous Fish Fauna: A Survey from Kudali River

Authors: R. A. Jamdade, Rokade A. C., Deshpande V. Y.

Abstract:

The freshwater fish fauna of Kudali River, a northern right bank tributary of the Krishna River Western Ghats of India was studied. It is one of the smallest tributary of Krishna river and never been explored for fish fauna assessment. It extends over 23 Kms having 22 fish species belonging to 15 genera and 7 families, of these 3 species are endemic to Western Ghats, 2 are globaly endangered and 2 near to be threatened. Downstream the Kudal locality, the river is under the influence of anthropogenic activities and over fishing, where conservation action plans are needed to be undertaken for conservation of endangered and near to be threatened fish fauna.

Keywords: Conservation, Fish, Freshwater, fauna, western Ghats, anthropogenic activity

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15 Antimicrobial Potential of Calendula officinalis Extracts on Flavobacterium columnare of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Authors: Nelson Rotimi Osungbemiro, Sanni Rafiu Olugbenga, Abayomi Olufemi Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Ninety Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were exposed to the pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare a Gram Negative bacteria responsible for high mortality in fish pond raised young fish (fries and fingerlings) of Clarias sp. in Southwestern Nigeria. After feeding with 40% crude protein pelletized fish feed for 5 days, the fishes were divided into two groups, one group was treated with extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers, while the second group was not treated (control). The results indicated that, at day 5, colony formation had been manifesting and at day 7, skin lesion occurred and at the 8th day, first mortality of fish occurred, and this continued steadily on the 9th-12th day when all the fishes were dead. Whereas, in the group that was treated with Calendula sp., no single mortality was recorded. This research shows that plant extract from Calendula flowers is an effective antimicrobial agent against the virulent pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare disease.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Fish, Clarias gariepinus, Flavobacterium columnare

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14 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Fish Diseases

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulates in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutants in the aquatic environments tends to degrades the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and biles were analyzed for active biological substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: Diseases, Natural Products, Control, treatment, Fish

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13 Some Metal Levels in Muscle Tissue of Seven Fish Species from the Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes, Turkey

Authors: Murad Aydın Sanda, Haluk Özparlak, Gülşin Arslan

Abstract:

Phoxinellus anatolicus, Carassius gibelio, Sander lucioperca, Vimba vimba tenella, Capoeta capoeta, Tinca tinca from Suğla Lake (Turkey) and Phoxinellus anatolicus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Tinca tinca from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey) are economically important fish species and these fish have been consumed as food by local people. P. anatolicus is also endangered and endemic species from Turkey. In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of these fish by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Levels of metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens were compared with results of previous studies, the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines and the levels of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) limits set by FAO/WHO. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens from Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes exceeded the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines. However, concentrations of Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn were below PTWI limits. Therefore, in terms of these metal levels, consumption of fresh filet of examined seven fish species (weekly up to about 300 g/person) doesn’t seem to be objectionable for human health.

Keywords: Fish, Beyşehir Lake, metal levels, Suğla Lake

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12 Distribution of Putative Dopaminergic Neurons and Identification of D2 Receptors in the Brain of Fish

Authors: Shweta Dhindhwal

Abstract:

Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of all vertebrates and plays an important role in many processes such as motor function, learning and behavior, and sensory activity. One of the important functions of dopamine is release of pituitary hormones. It is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. Two types of dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like, have been reported in fish. The dopamine containing neurons are located in the olfactory bulbs, the ventral regions of the pre-optic area and tuberal hypothalamus. Distribution of the dopaminergic system has not been studied in the murrel, Channa punctatus. The present study deals with identification of D2 receptors in the brain of murrel. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using partial sequence of D2 receptor. Distribution of putative dopaminergic neurons in the brain has been investigated. Also, formalin induced hypertrophy of neurosecretory cells in murrel has been studied.

Keywords: Fish, Dopamine, pre-optic area, murrel

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11 Intertidal Fauna of Kuwait's Coral Islands and Failaka Island

Authors: Manal Alkandari, Valeriy Skryabin, James Bishop

Abstract:

Intertidal transects of four of Kuwait’s eight islands were sampled qualitatively and quantitative fauna. In total, 11 transects were sampled during spring tide lows (0 chart datum) as follows: Kubber, two transects; Qaurh, two transects; Umm Al-Maradem, three transects; and Failaka, four trasects. Qualitative and quantitative samples were collected at high, mid 1, mid 2, and low tides. In total, 270 invertebrate taxa and 15 vertebrate (fishes) taxa were identified. Failaka Island with 224 taxa was the most diverse. Second was Umm Al-Maradim with 84 taxa, followed by Kubbar with 47, and finally Qaruh with 38. Polychaetes were the most diverse group accounting for 31% of the taxa; decapods accounted for 17 %; gastropods,14 %; bivalves, 12 %; and amphipods 11%. Fishes and echinoderms contributed on 5 and 3.5 %, respectively. Three Families of polychaetes are reported for the first time in the Arabian Gulf: Protodrilidae, Nerillidae, and Saccocirridae. Island sediments consisted mostly of sand, but a few transects contained up to 40% gravel. Total organic carbon was less than 1% at all transects, but total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) ranged up to 100 ppm on Qaru. This is expected because of natural seeps in the area constantly supplying the intertidal zone with oil globules. TPH on Umm Al-Maradim was less than 10 ppm, except at high tide on one transect where concentrations reached 40 ppm. In general, TPHs were less than 10 ppm.

Keywords: Marine, Fish, Invertebrates, intertidal, Kuwaits waters

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10 Effect of Red Cabbage Antioxidant Extracts on Lipid Oxidation of Fresh Tilapia

Authors: Ayse Demirbas, Bruce A. Welt, Yavuz Yagiz

Abstract:

Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish causes loss of product quality. Oxidative rancidity causes loss of nutritional value and undesirable color changes. Therefore, powerful antioxidant extracts may provide a relatively low cost and natural means to reduce oxidation, resulting in longer, higher quality and higher value shelf life of foods. In this study, we measured effects of red cabbage antioxidant on lipid oxidation in fresh tilapia filets using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, peroxide value (PV) and color assesment analysis. Extraction of red cabbage was performed using an efficient microwave method. Fresh tilapia filets were dipped in or sprayed with solutions containing different concentrations of extract. Samples were stored for up to 9 days at 4°C and analyzed every other day for color and lipid oxidation. Results showed that treated samples had lower oxidation than controls. Lipid peroxide values on treated samples showed benefits through day-7. Only slight differences were observed between spraying and dipping methods. This work shows that red cabbage antioxidant extracts may represent an inexpensive and all natural method for reducing oxidative spoilage of fresh fish.

Keywords: Fish, Shelf Life, antioxidant, lipid oxidation, red cabbage

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9 Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Detection of Bacteria and Archaea in Fecal Samples

Authors: Maria Nejjari, Michel Cloutier, Guylaine Talbot, Martin Lanthier

Abstract:

The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a staining technique that allows the identification, detection and quantification of microorganisms without prior cultivation by means of epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Oligonucleotide probes have been used to detect bacteria and archaea that colonize the cattle and swine digestive systems. These bacterial strains have been obtained from fecal samples issued from cattle manure and swine slurry. The collection of these samples has been done at 3 different pit’s levels A, B and C with same height. Two collection depth levels have been taken in consideration, one collection level just under the pit’s surface and the second one at the bottom of the pit. Cells were fixed and FISH was performed using oligonucleotides of 15 to 25 nucleotides of length associated with a fluorescent molecule Cy3 or Cy5. The double hybridization using Cy3 probe targeting bacteria (Cy3-EUB338-I) along with a Cy5 probe targeting Archaea (Gy5-ARCH915) gave a better signal. The CLSM images show that there are more bacteria than archaea in swine slurry. However, the choice of fluorescent probes is critical for getting the double hybridization and a unique signature for each microorganism. FISH technique is an easy way to detect pathogens like E. coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella that easily contaminate water streams, agricultural soils and, consequently, food products and endanger human health.

Keywords: Fish, Bacteria, Archaea, Detection, Fluorescence

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8 Determination of Pesticides Residues in Tissue of Two Freshwater Fish Species by Modified QuEChERS Method

Authors: Iwona Cieślik, Władysław Migdał, Kinga Topolska, Ewa Cieślik

Abstract:

The consumption of fish is recommended as a means of preventing serious diseases, especially cardiovascular problems. Fish is known to be a valuable source of protein (rich in essential amino acids), unsaturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, macro- and microelements. However, it can also contain several contaminants (e.g. pesticides, heavy metals) that may pose considerable risks for humans. Among others, pesticide are of special concern. Their widespread use has resulted in the contamination of environmental compartments, including water. The occurrence of pesticides in the environment is a serious problem, due to their potential toxicity. Therefore, a systematic monitoring is needed. The aim of the study was to determine the organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues in fish muscle tissues of the pike (Esox lucius, L.) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykkis, Walbaum) by a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, using Gas Chromatography Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/Q-MS), working in selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The analysis of α-HCH, β-HCH, lindane, diazinon, disulfoton, δ-HCH, methyl parathion, heptachlor, malathion, aldrin, parathion, heptachlor epoxide, γ-chlordane, endosulfan, α-chlordane, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, 4,4'-DDD, ethion, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan sulfate, 4,4'-DDT, and metoxychlor was performed in the samples collected in the Carp Valley (Malopolska region, Poland). The age of the pike (n=6) was 3 years and its weight was 2-3 kg, while the age of the rainbow trout (n=6) was 0.5 year and its weight was 0.5-1.0 kg. Detectable pesticide (HCH isomers, endosulfan isomers, DDT and its metabolites as well as metoxychlor) residues were present in fish samples. However, all these compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). The other examined pesticide residues were below the limit of detection (LOD). Therefore, the levels of contamination were - in all cases - below the default Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs), established by Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The monitoring of pesticide residues content in fish is required to minimize potential adverse effects on the environment and human exposure to these contaminants.

Keywords: Contaminants, Fish, pesticides residues, QuEChERS method

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7 Operating Parameters and Costs Assessments of a Real Fishery Wastewater Effluent Treated by Electrocoagulation Process

Authors: Mirian Graciella Dalla Porta, Humberto Jorge José, Danielle de Bem Luiz, Regina de F. P. M.Moreira

Abstract:

Similar to most processing industries, fish processing produces large volumes of wastewater, which contains especially organic contaminants, salts and oils dispersed therein. Different processes have been used for the treatment of fishery wastewaters, but the most commonly used are chemical coagulation and flotation. These techniques are well known but sometimes the characteristics of the treated effluent do not comply with legal standards for discharge. Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical process that can be used to treat wastewaters in terms of both organic matter and nutrient removal. The process is based on the use of sacrificial electrodes such as aluminum, iron or zinc, that are oxidized to produce metal ions that can be used to coagulate and react with organic matter and nutrients in the wastewater. While EC processes are effective to treatment of several types of wastewaters, applications have been limited due to the high energy demands and high current densities. Generally, the for EC process can be performed without additional chemicals or pre-treatment, but the costs should be reduced for EC processes to become more applicable. In this work, we studied the treatment of a real wastewater from fishmeal industry by electrocoagulation process. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) turbidity, phosphorous and nitrogen concentration were determined as a function of the operating conditions, such as pH, current density and operating time. The optimum operating conditions were determined to be operating time of 10 minutes, current density 100 A.m-2, and initial pH 4.0. COD, TOC, phosphorous concentration, and turbidity removal efficiencies at the optimum operating conditions were higher than 90% for aluminum electrode. Operating costs at the optimum conditions were calculated as US$ 0.37/m3 (US$ 0.038/kg COD) for Al electrode. These results demonstrate that the EC process is a promising technology to remove nutrients from fishery wastewaters, as the process has both a high efficiency of nutrient removal, and low energy requirements.

Keywords: wastewater, Fish, Food industry, electrocoagulation

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6 Cytogenetic Investigation of Patients with Disorder of Sexual Development Using G-Banding Karyotype and Fluorescence In situ Hybridization

Authors: Bremmy Laksono, Riksa Parikrama, Dadang S. H. Effendi

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Disorder of sexual development (DSD) covers various conditions with a specific term such as Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and many more. The techniques to accurately diagnose those conditions has developed extensively. However, conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are still widely used in many genetic laboratories as the basic method to determine chromosomal condition of DSD patients. Cytogenetic study was conducted on 36 DSD patients in Cell Culture and Cytogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. Most of the patients referred to the laboratory diagnosed with primary amenorrhea, hypospadias, micropenis, genitalia ambiguity, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The study used G-banding technique to acquire complete karyotype and followed by FISH as either confirmation or comparison method. Among 36 patients, G-banding karyotype and FISH results showed that two were diagnosed with 45, X (Turner syndrome); three with 47, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome); five with 46, XX DSD; 22 with 46, XY DSD; and four with 46,XY complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. G-banding karyotype analysis were paired with FISH using X and Y chromosome probe produced similar results. The present analysis showed that FISH is a reliable method to attain a rapid and accurate chromosome analysis result of DSD patients. Nevertheless, conventional karyotype technique is still vital if other condition appeared in DSD patients in order to get more detailed karyotype result which FISH method cannot achieve.

Keywords: Fish, chromosome, DSD, Karyotype

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5 The Concentration of Natural Alpha Emitters Radionuclides in Fish and Their Contribution to the Internal Dose

Authors: Wagner Pereira, Alphonse Kelecom

Abstract:

Mining can impact the environment, and the major impact of some mining activities is the radiological impact. In human populations, such impact is well studied and regulated. For biota, this assessment always had as focus the protection of human food chain. The protection of biota itself is a new approach, still developing. In order to contribute to this new approach, fish collecting was carried out in areas of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), where a uranium mine is in decommissioning phase. The activity concentrations were analyzed, in Bq/kg wet weight, for Uranium (Unat), Th-232 and Ra-226 in the lambari fish Astyanax bimaculatus L. (omnivorous fish) and in the traíra fish Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794 (carnivorous fish). Seven composite samples (that is: a sufficient number of individuals to reach at least 2 kg of fresh weight) were collected every six months between 2013 and 2015. The mean activity concentrations (AC) for uranium ranged from 1.12 (lambari) to 0.60 (lungfish). For Th, variations ranged from 0.30 to 0.05 (lambari and traíra, respectively). Finally, the Ra-226 means ranged between 0.08 and 0.03. No temporal trends of accumulation could be identified. Systematically, the AC values of radionuclides were higher in omnivorous fish when compared to the carnivore ones.

Keywords: Environmental protection, Fish, norm, biota dose

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4 Occurrence of Ranavirus in Edible Frogs and Fish Sold for Human Consumption in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria

Authors: A. K. B. Sackey, Inikpi Ameh, Grace Kia, Joy Atawodi, Richard Whittington

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Ranaviruses are belonging to the viral Family Iridoviridae, are a group of globally emerging pathogens recognized as major viral pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. They cause systemic infection in fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Ranaviruses have been associated with numerous disease outbreaks in natural and cultured populations of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. To investigate the presence of the ranavirus in fish and edible frogs sourced from dams and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 425 frogs (Rana spp.) and fishes (n=215 and n=200, respectively) were randomly collected based on consent and availability. Liver, kidney, and spleen tissue samples from each animal were pooled and homogenized. The samples were screened for ranavirus using the Indirect Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An overall prevalence of 46.1% (196/425) was obtained from the study. Frogs had a prevalence of 51.2% (110/215) while fish had 43% (86/200). This is the first study on ranavirus in fish and edible frogs in Nigeria. This study has established that edible frogs (Rana spp) and fishes sold in Zaria, Nigeria were infected with ranavirus which may have great economic importance to the nation’s aquaculture. In view of occasional massive economic losses observed in fishery industry due to deaths of unknown origin, this preliminary investigation is useful in directing veterinarians, policy makers and researchers on need to survey for ranavirus and also enlighten the relevant stakeholders on its prevention and control in Nigeria.

Keywords: Fish, Nigeria, frogs, Ranavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
3 Tissue-Specific Distribution of Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 3A in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Authors: Viktoriia Burkina, Vladimir Zlabek, Galia Zamaratskaia

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Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are important family of enzymes in Phase I metabolism. Environmental pollutants often act as inducers of the gene expression and activities CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like isoforms in fish. The activities are generally measured in the fish liver or gills, and less is known about tissue distribution of expression. In present study, the CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like activities were measured in rainbow trout liver, gill, intestine, heart, brain and gonads. The activities of CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like proteins were estimated as the rates of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylation (BFCOD), respectively. The CYP1A1 and CYP3A-like activities were detectable in all investigated fish tissues, with the highest activity in hepatic tissue followed by heart > brain > gill > intestine > gonads. To confirm the presence of CYP1A1 in different tissues, EROD activity was measured in presence of the selective inhibitors ellipticine (CYP1A1), ketoconazole (CYP3A), 8-methoxypsoralen (human CYP2A) and diallyl sulphide (CYP2E1). It was found that ellipticine, ketoconazole and 8-methoxypsoralen inhibited hepatic EROD activity by 88-98%. Ellipticine inhibited gill, intestine, and gonad EROD activity by 50%. In conclusion, EROD and BFCOD activities were detected in rainbow trout liver, gill, intestine, heart, brain and gonads. Further studies are needed to fully identify all CYP450 isoforms responsible for these activities. Acknowledgement: The study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic - projects „CENAKVA “(No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024), “CENAKVA Center Development “(No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0380), “CENAKVA II “(No. LO1205 under the NPU I program), and "Development of USB - International mobility (No. CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/16_027/0008364).

Keywords: Fish, BFCOD, EROD, phase I metabolism, selective inhibitors

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2 Risk Factors Associated with Ectoprotozoa Infestation of Wild and Farmed Cyprinids

Authors: M. A. Peribanez, G. Illan, I. De Blas, A. Muniesa, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela

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Intensive aquaculture is commonly associated with increased incidence of parasites. However, in Spain, the recent intensification of cyprinid production has not led to knowledge of the parasites that develop in the aquaculture facilities, the factors that affect their development and spread and the transmission between wild and cultivated fish species. The present study focuses on the knowledge of environmental factors, as well as host dependent factors, and their possible influence as risk factors in the incidence and intensity of parasitic infections. This work was conducted in the Duero River Basin, NW Spain. A total of 114 tenches (Tinca tinca) were caught in a fish farm and 667 specimens belonging to six species of cyprinid, not tench, in five rivers. An exhaustive search and microscopic identification of protozoa on skin and gills were carried out. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water samples from the capture points were determined. Only two ectoprotozoa were identified, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Tripartiella sp. In I. multifiliis, a high intensity of infection (more than 40 parasites on the body surface and more than 80 on gills) was determined in farmed tench (14%) and in Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) (91%) and Duero nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) (71%) of middle stretches of rivers. The prevalence was similar between farmed tenches and cyprinids of middle courses. Tripartiella sp. was only found in barbels (prevalence in middle stretches, 0.7%) and in farmed tenches (63%), this species resulting in a high risk factor (odds ratio, OR= 1143) in the presence of the ciliate. There were no differences between the two species relative to the intensity of parasitization. Some of the physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters appear to be risk factors in the presence of I. multifiliis, with maximum OR of 8. Nevertheless, in Tripartiella sp., the risk is multiplied by 720 when the pH value exceeds 8.4, if we consider the total of the data, and it is increased more than 500 times if we only consider the values recorded in the fish farm (529 by nitrates > 3 mg/l; 530 by total coliforms > 100 CFU/100 ml). However, the high prevalence and risk of infection by I. multifiliis and Tripartiella sp. in fish farms should be related to environmental factors that dependent upon sampling point rather than in direct influence of the physical-chemical and biological parameters of the water. The high pH value recorded in the fish farm (9.62 ± 0.76) is the only parameter that we consider may have a substantial direct influence. Chronic exposure to alkaline pH levels can be a chronic stress generator, predisposing to parasitization by Tripartiella sp. In conclusion, often minor changes in ecosystem conditions, both natural and man-made, can modify the host-parasite relationship, resulting in an increase in the prevalence and intensity of parasitic infections in populations of cyprinids, sometimes causing disease outbreaks.

Keywords: Fish, Parasites, Risk Factors, protozoa, cyprinids

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1 Prebiotics and Essential Oils-Enriched Diet Can Increase the Efficiency of Vaccine against Furunculosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors: Niki Hayatgheib, SéGolèNe Calvez, Catherine Fournel, Lionel Pineau, Herve Pouliquen, Emmanuelle Moreau

Abstract:

Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known disease found principally in salmonid aquaculture. Vaccination has been partly successful in preventing this disease, but outbreaks still occur. The application of functional feed additive found to be a promising yield to improve fish health against diseases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of prebiotics and plant essential oils-enriched diet on immune response and disease resistance in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against furunculosis. A total of 600 fish were fed with the basal diet or supplement. On 4th week of feeding, fish were vaccinated with an autovaccine. Following 8 weeks, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and mortalities were recorded for 3 weeks. Lysozyme activity and antibody titer in serum were measured in different groups. The results of this study showed that lysozyme and circulatory antibody titer in plasma elevated significantly in vaccinated fish fed with additive. The best growth rate and relative percentage survival (62%) were in fish fed with a supplement, while 15% in control fish. Overall, prebiotics and essential oils association can be considered as a potential component for enhancing vaccine efficacy against furunculosis by increasing the growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Vaccination, Fish, Disease Resistance, Immune response, rainbow trout, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, prebiotics-essential oils feed additive

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