Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

fish oil Related Abstracts

4 Counter-Current Extraction of Fish Oil and Toxic Elements from Fish Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Parvaneh Hajeb, Shahram Shakibazadeh, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker


High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to develop a method to extract oil from fish wastes with the least toxic elements contamination. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to detoxify fish oils from toxic elements. The SFE unit used consisted of an intelligent HPLC pump equipped with a cooling jacket to deliver CO2. The freeze-dried fish waste sample was extracted by heating in a column oven. Under supercritical conditions, the oil dissolved in CO2 was separated from the supercritical phase using pressure reduction. The SFE parameters (pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to extract the highest levels of toxic elements. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil can be reduced using supercritical CO2 at optimum pressure 40 MPa, temperature 61 ºC, CO2 flow rate 3.8 MPa, and extraction time 4.25 hr. There were significant reductions in the mercury (98.2%), cadmium (98.9%), arsenic (96%), and lead contents (99.2%) of the fish oil. The fish oil extracted using this method contained elements at levels that were much lower than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g. The reduction of toxic elements using the SFE method was more efficient than that of the conventional methods due to the high selectivity of supercritical CO2 for non-polar compounds.

Keywords: Food Safety, Toxic Elements, fish oil, supercritical carbon dioxide

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3 Various Sources of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Modulate Mitochondria Membrane Composition and Function

Authors: Wen-Ting Wang, Wei-An Tsai, Rong-Hong Hsieh


Long term taking high fat diet can lead to over production of energy, result in accumulation of body fat, dyslipidemia and increased lipid metabolism in the body. Over metabolism of lipid results in excessive reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, may also cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Krill oil, fish oil and linseed oil are good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated the effect of high fat diet and various oil rich of n-3 fatty acids on mitochondrial function and cell membrane composition. Six-weeks old male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups including: control group, high fat diet group, low dosage and high dosage krill oil group, low dosage and high dosage fish oil group, and low dosage and high dosage linseed oil group. After 12 weeks of experimental period, the low dosage krill oil, fish oil group and linseed oil group with different dosage prevented mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high fat diet. The supplementation of different oils increased plasma, erythrocyte and mitochondrial n-3/n-6 ratio and further increased the proportion of PUFA in erythrocyte and mitochondrial membrane. It also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. However, there was no significant change in serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), biomarker of liver function, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma malonadialdehyde (MDA) concentration when compared with high fat diet group. The supplementation of different sources of n-3 PUFA can maintain mitochondrial function and modulate cell membrane fatty acid composition in high fat diet conditions, and there is a positive relationship between mitochondrial function and mitochondrial membrane composition.

Keywords: Mitochondria, fish oil, linseed oil, n-3 PUFA

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2 The Effect of Fish and Krill Oil on Warfarin Control

Authors: Rebecca Pryce, Nijole Bernaitis, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie


Background: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant widely used in the prevention of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Regular monitoring of Internationalised Normalised Ratio (INR) is required to ensure therapeutic benefit with time in therapeutic range (TTR) used to measure warfarin control. A number of factors influence TTR including diet, concurrent illness, and drug interactions. Extensive literature exists regarding the effect of conventional medicines on warfarin control, but documented interactions relating to complementary medicines are limited. It has been postulated that fish oil and krill oil supplementation may affect warfarin due to their association with bleeding events. However, to date little is known as to whether fish and krill oil significantly alter the incidence of bleeding with warfarin or impact on warfarin control. Aim:To assess the influence of fish oil and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control in AF and DVT patients by determining the influence of these supplements on TTR and bleeding events. Methods:A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology practice in Queensland. AF and DVT patients receiving warfarin management by the pathology practice were identified and their TTR calculated using the Rosendaal method. Concurrent medications were analysed and patients taking no other interacting medicines were identified and divided according to users of fish oil and krill oil supplements and those taking no supplements. Study variables included TTR and the incidence of bleeding with exclusion criteria being less than 30 days of treatment with warfarin. Subject characteristics were reported as the mean and standard deviation for continuous data and number and percentages for nominal or categorical data. Data was analysed using GraphPad InStat Version 3 with a p value of <0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results:Of the 2081 patients assessed for inclusion into this study, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 416 (72.6%) patients were AF patients and 157 (27.4%) DVT patients and overall there were 316 (55.1%) male and 257 (44.9%) female patients. 145 patients were included in the fish oil/krill oil group (supplement) and 428 were included in the control group. The mean TTR of supplement users was 86.9% and for the control group 84.7% with no significant difference between these groups. Control patients experienced 1.6 times the number of minor bleeds per person compared to supplement patients and 1.2 times the number of major bleeds per person. However, this was not statistically significant nor was the comparison between thrombotic events. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between supplement and control patients in terms of mean TTR, the number of bleeds and thrombotic events. Fish oil and krill oil supplements when used concurrently with warfarin do not significantly affect warfarin control as measured by TTR and bleeding incidence.

Keywords: Atrial Fibrillation, fish oil, warfarin, deep vein thormbosis, krill oil

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1 Protective Role of Fish Oil against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Fipronil on Female Rats

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa, Amel A. Refaie, Amal Ramadan


This study was designed to evaluate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the fipronil on the liver of female rats at a dose equal to 400 mg /kg (1/10LD50) in drinking water and the protective role of fish oil at concentration 117.6 mg/Kg b.wt via oral routes daily for 28 days. Fipronil treatment caused a decrease in body weight gain and increase in relative liver weight. Fipronil induced a significant increase in the liver biomarkers enzymes such as alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total protein while fipronil caused a significant decrease in butyryl cholinesterase activity in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased in liver tissue, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly increased in fipronil treating rats in a dose-dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver of female rats. From our results, it can be reported that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver injury in female rats and fish oil used to protect animals against the adverse effect of pesticide exposure. These pathophysiological alterations in liver tissues could be due to the toxic effect of fipronil that associated with a generation of free radicals.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, antioxidant enzymes, fish oil, transaminases, fipronil (FPN), female rats

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