Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2

Fish feed Related Abstracts

2 Review of the Nutritional Value of Spirulina as a Potential Replacement of Fishmeal in Aquafeed

Authors: Onada Olawale Ahmed

Abstract:

As the intensification of aquaculture production increases on global scale, the growing concern of fish farmers around the world is related to cost of fish production, where cost of feeding takes substantial percentage. Fishmeal (FM) is one of the most expensive ingredients, and its high dependence in aqua-feed production translates to high cost of feeding of stocked fish. However, to reach a sustainable aquaculture, new alternative protein sources including cheaper plant or animal origin proteins are needed to be introduced for stable aqua-feed production. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has good nutrient profile that could be useful in aquaculture. This review therefore emphasizes on the nutritional value of Spirulina as a potential replacement of FM in aqua-feed. Spirulina is a planktonic photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium that forms massive populations in tropical and subtropical bodies of water with high levels of carbonate and bicarbonate. Spirulina grows naturally in nutrient rich alkaline lake with water salinity ( > 30 g/l) and high pH (8.5–11.0). Its artificial production requires luminosity (photo-period 12/12, 4 luxes), temperature (30 °C), inoculum, water stirring device, dissolved solids (10–60 g/litre), pH (8.5– 10.5), good water quality, and macro and micronutrient presence (C, N, P, K, S, Mg, Na, Cl, Ca and Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Se). Spirulina has also been reported to grow on agro-industrial waste such as sugar mill waste effluent, poultry industry waste, fertilizer factory waste, and urban waste and organic matter. Chemical composition of Spirulina indicates that it has high nutritional value due to its content of 55-70% protein, 14-19% soluble carbohydrate, high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 1.5–2.0 percent of 5–6 percent total lipid, all the essential minerals are available in spirulina which contributes about 7 percent (average range 2.76–3.00 percent of total weight) under laboratory conditions, β-carotene, B-group vitamin, vitamin E, iron, potassium and chlorophyll are also available in spirulina. Spirulina protein has a balanced composition of amino acids with concentration of methionine, tryptophan and other amino acids almost similar to those of casein, although, this depends upon the culture media used. Positive effects of spirulina on growth, feed utilization and stress and disease resistance of cultured fish have been reported in earlier studies. Spirulina was reported to replace up to 40% of fishmeal protein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) diet and even higher replacement of fishmeal was possible in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), partial replacement of fish meal with spirulina in diets for parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) has also been conducted. Spirulina have considerable potential for development, especially as a small-scale crop for nutritional enhancement and health improvement of fish. It is important therefore that more research needs to be conducted on its production, inclusion level in aqua-feed and its possible potential use of aquaculture.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Fish feed, fish nutrition, Spirulina

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1 Effect of Rapeseed Press Cake on Extrusion System Parameters and Physical Pellet Quality of Fish Feed

Authors: Anna Martin, Raffael Osen

Abstract:

The demand for fish from aquaculture is constantly growing. Concurrently, due to a shortage of fishmeal caused by extensive overfishing, fishmeal substitution by plant proteins is getting increasingly important for the production of sustainable aquafeed. Several research studies evaluated the impact of plant protein meals, concentrates or isolates on fish health and fish feed quality. However, these protein raw materials often require elaborate and expensive manufacturing and their availability is limited. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) – a side product of de-oiling processes – exhibits a high potential as a plant-based fishmeal alternative in fish feed for carnivorous species due to its availability, low costs and protein content. In order to produce aquafeed with RPC, it is important to systematically assess i) inclusion levels of RPC with similar pellet qualities compared to fishmeal containing formulations and ii) how extrusion parameters can be adjusted to achieve targeted pellet qualities. However, the effect of RPC on extrusion system parameters and pellet quality has only scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of feed formulation, extruder barrel temperature (90, 100, 110 °C) and screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) on extrusion system parameters and the physical properties of fish feed pellets. A co-rotating pilot-scale twin screw extruder was used to produce five iso-nitrogenous feed formulations: a fish meal based reference formulation including 16 g/100g fishmeal and four formulations in which fishmeal was substituted by RPC to 25, 50, 75 or 100 %. Extrusion system parameters, being product temperature, pressure at the die, specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, were monitored while samples were taken. After drying, pellets were analyzed regarding to optical appearance, sectional and longitudinal expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density, water stability, durability and specific hardness. In our study, the addition of minor amounts of RPC already had high impact on pellet quality parameters, especially on expansion but only marginally affected extrusion system parameters. Increasing amounts of RPC reduced sectional expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density and specific hardness and increased longitudinal expansion compared to a reference formulation without RPC. Water stability and durability were almost not affected by RPC addition. Moreover, pellets with rapeseed components showed a more coarse structure than pellets containing only fishmeal. When the adjustment of barrel temperature and screw speed was investigated, it could be seen that the increase of extruder barrel temperature led to a slight decrease of SME and die pressure and an increased sectional expansion of the reference pellets but did almost not affect rapeseed containing fish feed pellets. Also changes in screw speed had little effects on the physical properties of pellets however with raised screw speed the SME and the product temperature increased. In summary, a one-to-one substitution of fishmeal with RPC without the adjustment of extrusion process parameters does not result in fish feed of a designated quality. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of raw materials and their behavior under thermal and mechanical stresses as applied during extrusion is required.

Keywords: Fish feed, rapeseed, extrusion, press cake

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