Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

firmness Related Abstracts

5 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films and High Concentration Carbon Dioxide for Maintaining the Freshness of Strawberry ‘Maehyang’ for Export in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang, Hyuk Sung Yoon


This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films and effectiveness of high carbon dioxide at strawberry 'Maehyang' for export. Strawberries were grown by hydroponic system in Gyeongsangnam-do province. These strawberries were packed by different laser ablation OTR films (Daeryung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc, and 100,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. And CO2 injection (30%) treatment was used 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm OTR film and perforated film was as a control. Temperature conditions were applied simulated shipping and distribution conditions from Korea to Singapore, there were stored at 3 ℃ (13 days), 10 ℃ (an hour), and 8 ℃ (7 days) for 20 days. Fresh weight loss rate was under 1% as maximum permissible weight loss in treated OTR films except perforated film as a control during storage. Carbon dioxide concentration within a package for the storage period showed a lower value than the maximum CO2 concentration tolerated range (15 %) in treated OTR films and even the concentration of high OTR film treatment; from 20,000cc to 100,000cc were less than 3%. 1,300 cc had a suitable carbon dioxide range as over 5 % under 15 % at 5 days after storage until finished experiments and CO2 injection treatment was quickly drop the 15 % at storage after 1 day, but it kept around 15 % during storage. Oxygen concentration was maintained between 10 to 15 % in 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments, but other treatments were kept in 19 to 21 %. Ethylene concentration was showed very higher concentration at the CO2 injection treatment than OTR treatments. In the OTR treatments, 1,300 cc showed the highest concentration in ethylene and 20,000 cc film had lowest. Firmness was maintained highest in 1,300cc, but there was not shown any significant differences among other OTR treatments. Visual quality had shown the best result in 20,000 cc that showed marketable quality until 20 days after storage. 20,000 cc and perforated film had better than other treatments in off-odor and the 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments have occurred strong off-odor even after 10 minutes. As a result of the difference between Hunter ‘L’ and ‘a’ values of chroma meter, the 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were delayed color developments and other treatments did not shown any significant differences. The results indicate that effectiveness for maintaining the freshness was best achieved at 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. Although 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments were in appropriate MA condition, it showed darkening of strawberry calyx and excessive reduction of coloring due to high carbon dioxide concentration during storage. While 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were considered as appropriate treatments for exports to Singapore, but the result was shown different. These results are based on cultivar characteristics of strawberry 'Maehyang'.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, shelf-life, visual quality, firmness

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4 Changes in Textural Properties of Zucchini Slices with Deep-Fat-Frying

Authors: M. S. Turan, E. Karacabey, Ş. G. Özçelik, C. Baltacıoğlu, E. Küçüköner


Changes in textural properties of zucchini slices under effects of frying conditions were investigated. Frying time and temperature were interested process variables like slice thickness. Slice thickness was studied at three levels (2, 3, and 4 mm). Frying process was performed at two temperature levels (160 and 180 °C) and each for five different process time periods (1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 min). As frying oil sunflower oil was used. Before frying zucchini slices were thermally processes in boiling water for 90 seconds to inactivate at least 80% of plant’s enzymes. After thermal process, zucchini slices were fried in an industrial fryer at specified temperature and time pairs. Fried slices were subjected to textural profile analysis (TPA) to determine textural properties. In this extent hardness, elasticity, cohesion, chewiness, firmness values of slices were figured out. Statistical analysis indicated significant variations in the studied textural properties with process conditions (p < 0.05). Hardness and firmness were determined for fresh and thermally processes zucchini slices to compare each others. Differences in hardness and firmness of fresh, thermally processed and fried slices were found to be significant (p < 0.05). This project (113R015) has been supported by TUBITAK.

Keywords: Hardness, sunflower oil, firmness, slice thickness, frying temperature, frying time

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3 Exploring the Effect of Cellulose Based Coating Incorporated with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on Shelf Life Extension of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata blanco) Cultivar

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Atif Randhawa


Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is nutritious and perishable fruit with high juice content, and also rich source of vitamin-C. In Pakistan, kinnow export is limited due to inadequate post-harvest handling and lack of satisfactory storage practices. Considering these issues, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating in combination with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on shelf life extension of kinnow. Fruits were treated with different levels of CaCl2 and MgSO4 followed by HPMC coating (3 and 5%) and stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity for 6 weeks. Fruits were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters on weekly basis. During this study lower fruit firmness (0.24Nm-2), loss in weight (0.64%) and ethylene production (0.039 µL•kg-1•hr-1) was observed in fruits treated with 1% CaCl2 + 1% MgSO4 + 5% HPMC (T6) during storage of 42 days. Minimum chilling injury indexes 0.22% and 0.61% were recorded in treatments T4 and T6, respectively. T6 showed higher values of titerable acidity (0.29%) and ascorbic acid contents (39.82mg/100g). Minimum TSS (9.62°Brix) was found in fruits of T6. Overall T6 showed significantly better results for various parameters, as compared to all other treated and control fruits.

Keywords: Storage, physicochemical, firmness, kinnow coating

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2 A Process for Prevention of Browning in Fresh Cut Tender Jackfruit

Authors: Sabyasachi Mishra, Ramachandra Pradhan, Sandeep Singh Rama


Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) in its tender form is consumed as a vegetable and popular for its flavour, colour and meat like texture. In South Asian countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Indonesia the market value for tender jackfruit is very high. However, due to lack of technology the marketing and transportation of the fruit is a challenge. The processing activities like washing, sorting, peeling and cutting enhances oxidative stress in fresh cut jackfruit. It is also having the ill effects on quality of fresh cut tender jackfruit by an increase in microbial contaminations, excessive tissue softening, and depletion of phytochemicals and browning. Hence, this study was conducted as a solution to the above problem. Fresh cut tender Jackfruit slices were processed by using the independent parameters such as concentration of CaCl2 (2-5%), concentration of citric acid (1-2.5%) and treatment time (4-10 min.) and the depended variables were Browning index (BI), colour change (ΔE), Firmness (F) and Overall all acceptability (OAA) after the treatment. From the response variables the best combination of independent variables was resulted as 3% concentration of CaCl2 and 2% concentration of citric acid for 6 minutes. At these optimised processing treatments, the browning can be prevented for fresh cut tender jackfruit. This technology can be used by the researcher, scientists, industries, etc. for further processing of tender jackfruit.

Keywords: Texture, firmness, tender jackfruit, browning index

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1 Effects of Mild Heat Treatment on the Physical and Microbial Quality of Salak Apricot Cultivar

Authors: Bengi Hakguder Taze, Sevcan Unluturk


Şalak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Şalak) is a specific variety grown in Igdir, Turkey. The fruit has distinctive properties distinguish it from other cultivars, such as its unique size, color, taste and higher water content. Drying is the widely used method for preservation of apricots. However, fresh consumption is preferred for Şalak apricot instead of drying due to its low dry matter content. Higher amounts of water in the structure and climacteric nature make the fruit sensitive against rapid quality loss during storage. Hence, alternative processing methods need to be introduced to extend the shelf life of the fresh produce. Mild heat (MH) treatment is of great interest as it can reduce the microbial load and inhibit enzymatic activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of mild heat treatment on the natural microflora found on Şalak apricot surfaces and some physical quality parameters of the fruit, such as color and firmness. For this purpose, apricot samples were treated at different temperatures between 40 and 60 ℃ for different periods ranging between 10 to 60 min using a temperature controlled water bath. Natural flora on the fruit surfaces was examined using standard plating technique both before and after the treatment. Moreover, any changes in color and firmness of the fruit samples were also monitored. It was found that control samples were initially containing 7.5 ± 0.32 log CFU/g of total aerobic plate count (TAPC), 5.8±0.31 log CFU/g of yeast and mold count (YMC), and 5.17 ± 0.22 log CFU/g of coliforms. The highest log reductions in TAPC and YMC were observed as 3.87-log and 5.8-log after the treatments at 60 ℃ and 50 ℃, respectively. Nevertheless, the fruit lost its characteristic aroma at temperatures above 50 ℃. Furthermore, great color changes (ΔE ˃ 6) were observed and firmness of the apricot samples was reduced at these conditions. On the other hand, MH treatment at 41 ℃ for 10 min resulted in 1.6-log and 0.91-log reductions in TAPC and YMC, respectively, with slightly noticeable changes in color (ΔE ˂ 3). In conclusion, application of temperatures higher than 50 ℃ caused undesirable changes in physical quality of Şalak apricots. Although higher microbial reductions were achieved at those temperatures, temperatures between 40 and 50°C should be further investigated considering the fruit quality parameters. Another strategy may be the use of high temperatures for short time periods not exceeding 1-5 min. Besides all, MH treatment with UV-C light irradiation can be also considered as a hurdle strategy for better inactivation results.

Keywords: Color, firmness, mild heat, natural flora, physical quality, şalak apricot

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